Want to try Chef? Get started with learnchef
- Documentation: https://docs.chef.io
- Source: https://github.com/chef/chef/tree/master
- Tickets/Issues: https://github.com/chef/chef/issues
- Slack: Chef Community Slack
- Mailing list: https://discourse.chef.io
Chef is a configuration management tool designed to bring automation to your entire infrastructure.
This README focuses on developers who want to modify Chef source code. If you just want to use Chef, check out these resources:
- learnchef: Getting started guide
- docs.chef.io: Comprehensive User Docs
- Installer Downloads: Install Chef as a complete package
- chef/chef: Docker image for use with kitchen-dokken
Installing From Git
NOTE: Unless you have a specific reason to install from source (to try a new feature, contribute a patch, or run chef on an OS for which no package is available), you should head to the downloads page to get a prebuilt package.
Install these via your platform's preferred method (
- C compiler, header files, etc. On Ubuntu/Debian, use the
- ruby 2.3.0 or later
- bundler gem
Then get the source and install it:
# Clone this repo git clone https://github.com/chef/chef.git # cd into the source tree cd chef # Install dependencies with bundler bundle install # Build a gem bundle exec rake gem # Install the gem you just built gem install pkg/chef-VERSION.gem
Before working on the code, if you plan to contribute your changes, you need to read the Chef Contributions document.
The general development process is:
- Fork this repo and clone it to your workstation.
- Create a feature branch for your change.
- Write code and tests.
- Push your feature branch to github and open a pull request against master.
Once your repository is set up, you can start working on the code. We do utilize RSpec for test driven development, so you'll need to get a development environment running. Follow the above procedure ("Installing from Git") to get your local copy of the source running.
Issues can be reported by using GitHub Issues.
Full details on how to report issues can be found in the CONTRIBUTING doc.
Note that this repository is primarily for reporting chef-client issues. For reporting issues against other Chef projects, please look up the appropriate repository to report issues against in the Chef docs in the community contributions section. If you can't determine the appropriate place to report an issue, then please open it against the repository you think best fits and it will be directed to the appropriate project.
We use RSpec for unit/spec tests. It is not necessary to start the development environment to run the specs--they are completely standalone.
# Run All the Tests bundle exec rake spec # Run a Single Test File bundle exec rspec spec/PATH/TO/FILE_spec.rb # Run a Subset of Tests bundle exec rspec spec/PATH/TO/DIR
When you submit a pull request, we will automatically run the functional and unit tests in spec/functional/ and spec/unit/ respectively. These will be run on Ubuntu through Travis CI, and on Windows through AppVeyor. The status of these runs will be displayed with your pull request.
Building the Full Package
To build chef as a standalone package (with ruby and all dependent libraries included in a .deb, .rpm, .pkg or .msi), we use the omnibus system. Go to the omnibus README to find out how to build!
If you want to change our constraints (change which packages and versions we accept in the chef), there are several places to do so:
- To add or remove a gem from chef, or update a gem version, edit Gemfile.
- To change the version of binary packages, edit version_policy.rb.
- To add new packages to chef, edit omnibus/config/projects/chef.rb.
Once you've made any changes you want, you have to update the lockfiles that actually drive the build:
- To update chef's gem dependencies to the very latest versions available, run
- To update chef's gem dependencies conservatively (changing as little as possible), run
- To update specific gems only, run
rake bundle:update[gem1 gem2 ...]
bundle installwill not work, on purpose: the rake task handles both the windows and non-windows lockfiles and updates them in sync.
To perform a full update of all dependencies in chef (including binary packages, tests and build system dependencies), run
rake dependencies. This will update the
omnibus_overrides.rb. It will also show you any outdated dependencies due to conflicting constraints. Some outdated dependencies are to be expected; it will inform you if any new ones appear that we don't know about, and tell you how to proceed.
How Chef Builds and Versions
Chef is an amalgam of many components. These components update all the time, necessitating new builds. This is an overview of the process of versioning, building and releasing Chef.
Chef is distributed as packages for debian, rhel, ubuntu, windows, solaris, aix, and os x. It includes a large number of components from various sources, and these are versioned and maintained separately from chef project, which bundles them all together conveniently for the user.
These packages go through several milestones:
master: When code is checked in to master, the patch version of chef is bumped (e.g. 0.9.10 -> 0.9.11) and a build is kicked off automatically to create and test the packages in Chef's Jenkins cluster.
unstable: When a package is built, it enters the unstable channel. When all packages for all OS's have successfully built, the test phase is kicked off in Jenkins across all supported OS's. These builds are password-protected and generally only available to the test systems.
current: If the packages pass all the tests on all supported OS's, it is promoted as a unit to
current, and is available via Chef's artifactory by running
curl https://www.chef.io/chef/install.sh | sudo bash -s -- -c current -P chef
stable: Periodically, Chef will pick a release to "bless" for folks who would like a slower update schedule than "every time a build passes the tests." When this happens, it is manually promoted to stable and an announcement is sent to the list. It can be reached at https://downloads.chef.io or installed using the
curlcommand without specifying
-c current. Packages in
stableare no longer available in
Additionally, periodically Chef will update the desired versions of chef components and check that in to
master, triggering a new build with the updated components in it.
Automated Version Bumping
Whenever a change is checked in to
master, the patch version of
chef is bumped. To do this, the
lita-versioner bot listens to github for merged PRs, and when it finds one, takes these actions:
- Bumps the patch version in
lib/chef/version.rb(e.g. 0.9.14 -> 0.9.15).
rake bundle:installto update the
Gemfile.lockto include the new version.
rake changelog:updateto update the
- Pushes to
masterand submits a new build to Chef's Jenkins cluster.
Bumping the minor version of Chef
After each "official" stable release we need to bump the minor version. To do this:
bundle exec rake version:bump_minor
Submit a PR with the changes made by the above.
Addressing a Regression
Sometimes, regressions split through the cracks. Since new functionality is always being added and the minor version is bumped immediately after release, we can't simply roll forward. In this scenario, we'll need to perform a special regression release process. In the example that follows, the stable release with a regression is
1.10.60 while master is currently sitting at
1.11.30. Note: To perform this process, you must be a Chef employee.
- If the regression has not already been addressed, open a Pull Request against master with the fix.
- Wait until that Pull Request has been merged and
1.11.31has passed all the necessary tests and is available in the current channel.
- Inspect the Git history and find the
SHAassociated with the Merge Commit for the Pull Request above.
- Apply the fix for the regression via a cherry-pick:
- Check out the stable release tag:
git checkout v1.10.60
- Cherry Pick the SHA with the fix:
git cherry-pick SHA
- Address any conflicts (if necessary)
- Tag the sha with the appropriate version:
git tag -a v1.10.61 -m "Release v1.10.61"
- Push the new tag to origin:
git push origin --tags
- Check out the stable release tag:
- Log in to Jenkins and trigger a
chef-trigger-releasejob specifying the new tag as the
Chef has two sorts of component: ruby components like
test-kitchen, and binary components like
openssl and even
In general, you can find all chef desired versions in the Gemfile and version_policy.rb files. The Gemfile.lock is the locked version of the Gemfile, and omnibus_overrides is the locked version of omnibus. build and test Gemfiles and Berksfile version the toolset we use to build and test.
The versions of binary components (as well as rubygems and bundler, which can't be versioned in a Gemfile) are stored in version_policy.rb (the
OMNIBUS_OVERRIDES constant) and locked in omnibus_overrides.
rake dependencies will update the
bundler version, and the rest are be updated manually by Chef every so often.
Most of the actual front-facing software in chef is composed of ruby projects. berkshelf, test-kitchen and even chef itself are made of ruby gems. Chef uses the typical ruby way of controlling rubygems versions, the
Gemfile. Specifically, the
Gemfile at the top of chef repository governs the version of every single gem we install into chef package. It's a one-stop shop.
Our rubygems component versions are locked down with
Gemfile.lock, and can be updated with
There are three gems versioned outside the
bundler are in the
RUBYGEMS_AT_LATEST_VERSION constant in version_policy.rb and locked in omnibus_overrides. They are kept up to date by
Windows: Gemfile.lock is generated platform-agnostic, and then generated again for Windows. The one file has the solution for both Linux and Windows.
The tool we use to generate Windows-specific lockfiles on non-Windows machines is tasks/bin/bundle-platform, which takes the first argument and sets
Gem.platforms, and then calls
bundle with the remaining arguments.
Build Tooling Versions
Of special mention is the software we use to build omnibus itself. There are two distinct bits of code that control the versions of compilers, make, git, and other tools we use to build.
First, the Jenkins machines that run the build are configured entirely by the opscode-ci cookbook cookbook. They install most of the tools we use via
build-essentials, and standardize the build environment so we can tear down and bring up builders at will. These machines are kept alive long-running, are periodically updated by Chef to the latest opscode-ci, omnibus and build-essentials cookbooks.
Second, the version of omnibus we use to build chef is governed by
omnibus/Gemfile. When software definitions or the omnibus framework is updated, this is the file that drives whether we pick it up.
The omnibus tooling versions are locked down with
omnibus/Gemfile.lock, and can be updated by running
chef is tested by the chef-acceptance framework, which contains suites that are run on the Jenkins test machines. The definitions of the tests are in the
acceptance directory. The version of chef-acceptance and test-kitchen, are governed by
The test tooling versions are locked down with
acceptance/Gemfile.lock, which can be updated by running
The Build Process
The actual Chef build process is done with Omnibus, and has several general steps:
- Reinstall any gems that came from git or path using
- appbundle chef, chef, test-kitchen and berkshelf
- Put miscellaneous powershell scripts and cleanup
Kicking Off The Build
The build is kicked off in Jenkins by running this on the machine (which is already the correct OS and already has the correct dependencies, loaded by the
load-omnibus-toolchain.bat cd chef/omnibus bundle install bundle exec omnibus build chef
This causes the chef project definition to load, which runs the chef-complete software definition, the primary software definition driving the whole build process. The reason we embed it all in a software definition instead of the project is to take advantage of omnibus caching: omnibus will invalidate the entire project (and recompile ruby, openssl, and everything else) if you change anything at all in the project file. Not so with a software definition.
Installing the Gems
The primary build definition that installs the many Chef rubygems is
software/chef.rb. This has dependencies on any binary libraries, ruby, rubygems and bundler. It has a lot of steps, so it uses a library to help reuse code and make it manageable to look at.
What it does:
- Depends on software defs for pre-cached gems (see "Gems and Caching" below).
- Installs all gems from the bundle:
- Reinstalls any gems that were installed via path:
/opt/chef/Gemfile.lockwith the gems that were installed in the build.
Gems and Caching
Some gems take a super long time to install (particularly native-compiled ones such as nokogiri and dep-selector-libgecode) and do not change version very often. In order to avoid doing this work every time, we take advantage of omnibus caching by separating out these gems into their own software definitions. chef-gem-dep-selector-libgecode for example.
Each of these gems uses the
config/files/chef-gem/build-chef-gem library to define itself. The name of the software definition itself indicates the .
We only create software definitions for long-running gems. Everything else is just installed in the chef software definition in a big
bundle install catchall.
Most gems we just install in the single
chef software definition.
The first thing
After the gems are installed, we appbundle them in chef-appbundle. This creates binstubs that use the bundle to pin the software .
During the process of appbundling, we update the gem's
Gemfile to include the locks in the top level
/opt/chef/Gemfile.lock, so we can guarantee they will never pick up things outside the build. We then run
bundle lock to update the gem's
bundle check to ensure all the gems are actually installed. The appbundler then uses these pins.
Finally, chef does several more steps including installing powershell scripts and shortcuts, and removing extra documentation to keep the build slim.
Chef - A configuration management system
|Author:||Adam Jacob (firstname.lastname@example.org)|
|Copyright:||Copyright 2008-2016, Chef Software, Inc.|
|License:||Apache License, Version 2.0|
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.