For unidirectional data flow.
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Reinterpreted Flux application architecture, for unidirectional data flow in React.

0.2.x update version to 1.0


Two version

ballade.js by default, Ballade provides Store is mutable.

ballade.immutable.js it also provides another option, Store is immutable, need dependence immutable-js.



Install ballade using npm.

$ npm install ballade

and can be required like this:

var Dispatcher = require('ballade').Dispatcher;

Notice: if you want use ballade & immutable, you should install immutable-js.

$ npm install immutable

and can be required like this:

var Dispatcher = require('ballade/src/ballade.immutable').Dispatcher;


To use ballade from a browser, download js file in dist.

// mutable version
<script src="ballade.js"></script>
var Dispatcher = Ballade.Dispatcher;

// immutable version
<script src="immutable.js"></script>
<script src="ballade.immutable.js"></script>
var Dispatcher = Ballade.Dispatcher;

Architecture Introduction


Store is an storage center of data, provides set and get data interface, just like accessor.

In Views or Controller-views (React Component), can only get data from Store. In Store Callbacks, both of set and get data from Store.

If data changed, Store should publish event for data changes.

There are two types of Store accessor, mutable and immutable, for mutable data and immutable data, respectively by createMutableStore and createImmutableStore method created.

Data stored in Store must configure Schema, make sure the data is valid.

Store has Cache module, be used for data cache. The Cache module integrates localStorage and sessionStorage for persistence cache.


All of operations, like user interactions or fetch data from server, as long as the data will cause changes in Store, the operation as a Action. The operation that causes the data change can be either set or update data.

If you want change data in Store, can only trigger a Action.

Every Action have includes a unique ActionType and payload, ActionType just like Action unique name, payload data is transfer to Store of data.


Dispatcher be used for connect Actions and Store, responsible for transfer payload data from Action to specified Store.

Actions Middleware

When transfer payload to Store, middleware can process payload data, each middleware transfer payload data to next middleware when current middleware end processing.

If you want fetch data from server, you can register a middleware.

Store Callbacks

When action is trigger, Store need a callback corresponding with action, use to set data, ActionType corresponding with Store callback name.



Main class use to create a Dispatcher instance.

var Dispatcher = require('ballade').Dispatcher;
var dispatcher = new Dispatcher();


Be used for create a Schema instance.

var Schema = require('ballade').Schema;

var schema1 = new Schema({
    str: String,
    num: Number,
    bol: Boolean,
    date: Date,
    strArr: [String],
    numArr: [Number],
    dateArr: [Date],
    objArr: [{
        name: String,
        title: String
    anyArr: [],
    anyObj: {},
    obj: {
        votes: Number,
        favs:  Number,
        foo: {
            bar: String

The Schema used for describe data structure in Store, and validation data, if the data is invalid, then can't stored. View details about Schema documentation.


  • middleware Function

Register a middleware, all payload of Actions will through the middleware. Middleware can register multiple.

dispatcher.use(function (payload, next) {
    // modify payload.count
    if (count in payload) {

    // must invoke next callback,
    // payload through the callback transfer to next middleware

If you need fetch data from server, you should register a middleware.

dispatcher.use(function (payload, next) {
    // payload whether include uri
    if (payload.uri) {
        fetch(payload.uri, payload.options || {}).then(function(response){
            return response.json();
            payload.response = response;
            // next callback in a Asynchronous function
    // If not uri, just invoke next callback
    else {


  • actionCreators Object

Create an group Actions.

var actions = dispatcher.ceateActions({
    updateTitle: function (title) {
        return {
            type: 'example/update-title',
            title: title

// trigger a action, and transfer title

Notice: ActionType must be unique, if have duplicate will throw Error. if application is complex, make sure the ActionType is unique, recommend use pseudo namespace. In example/update-title the example is namaspace.

dispatcher.createMutableStore(schema [,options], callbacks)

  • schema Schema instance
  • options Object optional
  • callbacks Object

Create an mutable Store.


Definition an Schema for Store.

var schema = new Schema({
    title: String,
    meta: {
        votes: String,
        favs: String


Now, let's create exampleStore:

var exampleStore = dispatcher.createMutableStore(schema, {
    // This is Store callback
    'example/update-title': function (store, action) {
        store.set('title', action.title);

The exampleStore be used for Views or Controller-views (React Component), can only get data and subscribe the data changs, can't stored data in Store.

// return title from store
// no set method in exampleStore
console.log(exampleStore.set) // => undefined

In example/update-title callback, store can set and get data if you want.


When create an Store instance, also specified by options for Store.

  • options.error Function

If Schema validation data error, will trigger this callback function.

options.error = function (error, store) {
    console.log(error.key);      // error key
    console.log(error.type);     // error type
    console.log(error.messages); // error message
    console.log(store);          // Store instance
  • options.cache Object
  • options.cache Object options.cache[key] The key is same as Schema key.
  • options.cache[key].id String Cache unique id, be used for set or get data from Store.
  • options.cache[key].maxLength Number Default value is 20, cache data max length, if length is overflow, then remove the first cache data and stored new cache data.
  • options.cache[key].persistence.type String Persistence cache type, support localStorage and sessionStorage
  • options.cache[key].persistence.prefix String Persistence cache prefix, add custom prefix make sure the key is unique.

Be used for configure cache for data item in Store, view details about Cache documentation.

dispatcher.createImmutableStore(schema, callbacks)

  • schema Schema instance
  • options Object optional
  • callbacks Object
var exampleStore = dispatcher.createImmutableStore(schema, {
    // This is Store callback
    'example/update-title': function (store, action) {
        store.set('title', action.title);

Create an immutable Store, the params usage method same as createMutableStore.

Notice: createImmutableStore only available in ballade.immutable.js and need dependence immutable-js.

store.set(key, value [,pureSet])

  • key String
  • value Anything
  • pureSet Boolean optional

Set data in store, if the key not definition in schema, the set operation should failed. This method will return key.

var key = store.set('title', 'foo');
console.log(key) // => 'title'

For mutable Store, support mutable data stored. For immutable Store, support mutable and immutable data stored, there will converted to immutable data, so get data from Store the type is immutable.

If store set data is success, at the same time the store publish data changed event, if pureSet is true, do not publish data change event, default is false.

Notice: set method can only use in Store callback.

store.get(key [,id])

  • key String
  • id String optional

Get data from store, If data is reference type (Object or Array), should return copies of data.

If the key has configure the cache, when get data from Store should specify cache id, if not specify this param, should return all cached data.

var title = store.get('title');
console.log(title) // => 'foo'

// If title is object, title = { foo: 'bar' }
// It return copies of object
var title = store.get('title');
console.log( // => 'bar' = 'baz';
console.log( // => 'baz'
console.log(store.get('title').foo) // => 'bar'

Notice: If Store is Immutable type (created by dispatcher.createImmutableStore), then return data is Immutable type.

store.delete(key [,id])

  • key String
  • id String optional

Delete data from Store, if the key has configure persistence cache, also delete it.

If the key has configure the cache, delete data from Store should specify cache id.


  • key String

Clean cache data from Store, can not uesed to delete persistence cache from sessionStorage and localStorage.

store.subscribe(type, handler)

  • type String optional
  • handler Function

Subscribe event, type is event type, it is optional, it corresponding with key in Schema. handler is handle function for data changes.

// If title is changed, callback will invoke.
exampleStore.subscribe('title', function (changedValue) {
    console.log(changedValue);  // should return changed title

The first argument of handler is changed data, corresponding the changedValue of publish method.

store.unsubscribe(type, handler)

  • type String optional
  • handler Function optional

Cancel subscribe event, type is event type, it is optional. handler is handle function for changes, if type not empty, handler is optional.


store.publish(type, changedValue)

  • type String
  • changedValue Anything

Broadcast an event, type is event type, it corresponding with key in Schema.

changedValue is used for transmit changed value to event subscriber.

exampleStore.publish('title', 'This is changed title');

Ballade.bindStore(Component, store, callbacks)

Bind Store for React Component, the binded Component has receive Store data changes. This method will return a new React Component.

  • Component React Component
  • store Store instance
  • callbacks Function
var bindStore = require('ballade').bindStore;

App = bindStore(App, todosStore, {
    todos: function (value) {
            $todos: value

In above example, App Component binded todosStore, if todos data in todosStore changes, then will trigger callback function. In the callback function, value is changed data.

And in this function, this pointing Component.

bindStore is easy usage in React Component, in componentDidMount and componentWillUnmount stage of Compoent, don't need bind or unbind data changes event in Store.


  • Component React Component

immutableDeepEqual method will optimize shouldComponentUpdate of React Compoent. If the component props or state is Immutable data, only the data is real changed, then trigger render of component. This method will return a new React Component.

var immutableDeepEqual = require('ballade').immutableDeepEqual;
App = immutableDeepEqual(App);

Notice: The immutableDeepEqual method only definition in ballade.immutable.js.

No waitFor

In Flux, it provides waitFor method use to between dependence Store, this is not good design, it should make application more complex. In flux/examples/flux-chat/js/stores/MessageStore.js, if you remove this code, the example still work.


Of course, the waitFor not useless in Flux, it make developer more confused.

Dependence between Store in Ballade, just like use a variable, you need make sure variable is available, it is simple.

var storeA = dispatcher.createMutableStore(schema, {
    'example/update-title': function (store, action) {
        store.set('title', action.title);

// If storeB dependence storeA
var storeB = dispatcher.createMutableStore(schema, {
    'example/update-title': function (store, action) {
        var title = storeA.get('title') + '!';
        store.set('title', title);



$ npm install
$ npm test


$ npm install
$ npm run build



MIT @ Yiguo Chen