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== link:index.html[Index] -> link:cookbook.html[Cookbook]
Cookbook: How to set up DBSlayer MySQL balancing
------------------------------------------------
[[introduction]]
Introduction:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This recipe is meant to help in the task of setting up and
understanding DBSlayer. This is a handler used to balance the load
among several MySQL databases acting as a convenient front end that
simultaneously offers great scalability advantages. Refer to the
link:modules_handlers_dbslayer.html[MySQL Bridge handler]
documentation for the basic information about this subject.
After reading this document you should be able to properly configure
and understand this handler. It acts as a proxy for a back end MySQL
server (or cluster of server). This proxy can then be queried via JSON
over HTTP, and the responses can be given in either one of the
following supported consuming languages: JSON, Ruby, PHP and Python,
which makes processing the database results almost trivial.
As more than one SQL request can be issued at once -a transaction, for
instance-, the responses are returned as a list of results.
[[independence]]
Independence:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It is generally a good idea to separate the database balancer from
your production web server, both for efficiency and security reasons.
The DBSlayer handler can be configured to run under a directory in
your current web server, but concentrating the work load on the same
box is not recommended. Setting up an independent Cherokee server on
another box or port using only the dbslayer handler in its Default
rule is a good idea. This will allow having your database balancer
fully isolated, which is by far much more secure and easy to monitor
and manage.
Keep in mind that each DBSlayer handler can manage a single database
(or a set of replicated slaves to balance among). Thus you will have
to set up multiple rules in Cherokee, or even multiple instances in
different ports, in case you need to use several databases.
The handler can be used to perform both read and write operations,
although the balancing part only makes sense for SELECT
operations. When performing INSERT operations, keep in mind that DB
synchronization must be managed elsewhere. When you perform an
INSERT, the Cherokee DB balancer will return a tuple indicating
whether it succeeded or not, the number of rows affected, a rollback
flag, etc. It will not, however, replicate the operation among each
one of you MySQL servers. These arrangements must be made
independently using mechanisms suitable for the task.
Remember that balancing database operations is a powerful scaling
advantage, but requires some precautions. You must assume the system
is stateless. It is not much of a limitation, and it enables the
handler to do connection pooling and database access
dispatching. MySQL is mostly stateless for the bulk of your queries
(SELECT / UPDATE / INSERT / DELETE, etc.), but some commands are meant
to affect future commands in the session or may only affect the server
currently receiving the command in the balancing scheme. Most notably,
these are setting global or session variables, configuring database
access privileges and modifying the table structure on a master
without replication.
Also, due to the balancing scheme in place, you should be very careful
when locking tables or performing transactions. In these cases you
*MUST* perform all the related operations contained within a single
query, either using semicolon separators or within a stored
procedure. Never dispatch them as separate queries, since your
databases will rapidly become unstable.
[[security]]
Security:
~~~~~~~~~
As for security concerns, you must keep in mind that the handler is
designed for internal secure networks. If you have concerns about
exposing your database to the public you will have to properly secure
your internal network by using firewalling, binding the running
Cherokee instance to a particular interface, tunnelizing your
connections and so forth.
We strongly recommend never exposing the MySQL bridge to the outside
world. It is also encouraged to forbid the account used by the handler
to access the MySQL database from executing dangerous operations like
dropping tables or deleting rows. Ideally, the account would only be
allowed to run selects and/or some stored procedures. This is totally
unrelated to Cherokee and the Database Bridge handler. Using the
mechanisms provided by MySQL to enforce the integrity of the database
makes sense.
[[modularity]]
Modularity:
~~~~~~~~~~~
The MySQL bridge does not work alone. It is an integral part of the
Cherokee web server infrastructure and, like any Cherokee module, it
can make use of the rest of the features provided by the web server.
Thus, you can use the normal loggers to log database access, you can
encode the contents served to save bandwidth, you can configure the
bridge to use any balancing mechanism provided by Cherokee, etc.
This handler effectively proxies the connections to the databases, and
thus Keep-Alive should always remain enabled in the Cherokee instance
running the MySQL bridge. Persistence will be correctly handled, and
the performance will be optimal.
[[replication]]
Replication:
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Odds are you want to use a M-M set-up, although that's entirely
related to your database architecture and is something you'll have to
study carefully.
Remember what was said before: The MySQL bridge handler will not
manage the replication among each one of you MySQL servers. These
arrangements must be made independently using mechanisms suitable for
the task.
[[configuration]]
Configuration:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We will configure a simple setup and show a very basic usage example
so that you can go on from there. This example will use a dedicated
box running the Cherokee server with the MySQL bridge handler, and
will be balancing the load among a couple of independent MySQL servers
that are replicating the database in a master-master scheme. You could
use only one machine to do all the tasks, run the database and
Cherokee managing web pages and the MySQL bridge, but keep in mind
what was said above about isolating the boxes and the security
measures that you should take into account when migrating to a
production environment. Isolation is generally a good idea.
First, we edit the `default` virtual server. Since we will only be
using it for database balancing, we can safely point it to an empty
`Document Root`, in this case `/dev/null`.
image::media/images/cookbook_dbslayer1.png[MySQL Bridge, step 1]
The next step will be setting up the sources of the MySQL information.
This means we will have to configure as many MySQL hosts as we like,
and the handler will balance the load among them. In this case we
will be providing a couple of hosts, each one located in our secure
intranet.
Refer to the link:config_info_sources.html[information sources]
section for details on how to do this. In this case, the MySQL servers
are running on port 3306 of the hosts 10.0.0.100 and 10.0.0.101, so
that is what we will use.
image::media/images/cookbook_dbslayer2.png[MySQL Bridge, step 2]
[cols="50%,50%"]
.Source #1
|=============================================================
|Type | Remote source
|Nick | mysql_0
|Connection | 10.0.0.100:3306
|=============================================================
[cols="50%,50%"]
.Source #2
|=============================================================
|Type | Remote source
|Nick | mysql_1
|Connection | 10.0.0.101:3306
|=============================================================
Next is removing every possible rule and configuring the default one
to use the MySQL bridge handler. This is not required, but obeys the
recommendations stated above.
image::media/images/cookbook_dbslayer3.png[MySQL Bridge, step 3]
To do so, simply click on the rule in the `Behavior` tab and proceed
to the `Handler` section, where you can adjust all the settings.
After adding the information sources to be balanced, and setting up
the information required to access an existing database, only the
matter of selecting a language will remain. In this example we will be
using Python because that is what the testing script will be written
in. If your favorite language of choice is not available you can
simply select JSON, which is widely supported in most programming
languages. Using Python in this case will simply allow us to directly
evaluate the results offered by the database, creating a native object
that can be managed more comfortably.
[cols="50%,50%"]
.Sample configuration values
|=============================================================
|Handler | `MySQL Bridge`
|Language | `Python`
|DB User | my_user
|DB Password | my_password
|Database | my_database
|Balancer | `Round Robin`
|Information Sources | mysql_0, mysql_1
|=============================================================
image::media/images/cookbook_dbslayer4.png[MySQL Bridge, step 4]
And these were all the steps required. You are ready to go!
[[example_python]]
Example Python script:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The following script is provided to show how you can use the database
balancing. It is as simple as it gets. You will only have to change
the server name and prepare a database accessible with the parameters
detailed above (database name, user parameters and so on).
--------------------------------------
#!/usr/bin/env python
import urllib
sql="SELECT * FROM my_table;"
query = urllib.quote(sql)
print 'Original:', sql
print 'Encoded:', query
url = 'http://localhost/%s'%(query)
response = urllib.urlopen(url)
print 'RESPONSE:', response
print 'URL :', response.geturl()
headers = response.info()
print 'DATE :', headers['date']
print 'HEADERS :'
print '---------'
print headers
data = response.read()
print 'LENGTH :', len(data)
print 'DATA :'
print '---------'
obj = eval(data)
print obj
--------------------------------------
[[example_php]]
Example PHP script:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is a simple fetch using cURL:
--------------------------------------
<?php
$query = "SELECT * FROM my_table;";
$host = "http://localhost";
$url = $host ."/". rawurlencode($query);
$curl = curl_init();
curl_setopt ($curl, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
$result = curl_exec ($curl);
curl_close ($curl);
eval("\$obj = $result;");
var_dump($obj);
?>
--------------------------------------
Please note the variable must be set in the evaluation string, and
that a semicolon is needed in order for the string to be correctly
converted. This behavior -not adding the semicolon in the generated
string automatically- is a design decision taken to make the
underlying infrastructure more flexible.
MySQL Wrapper for PHP
---------------------
To facilitate the use of the MySQL Database Bridge, the PHP-MySQL API
has been replicated in a wrapper that can be found under
`dbslayer/mysql_wrap.php` in Cherokee's source tree. It should provide
an easy to use method of benefiting from the advantages offered by
Cherokee without having to modify your applications.
You can use it in any of two ways:
. By directly overriding every `mysql_*` function call.
. By prepending `cherokee_` to every `mysql_*` function.
This is controlled when you run the initialization function. By
default it tries to override the built-in MySQL functions. If you
cannot provide a suitable environment or it simply fails, try passing
a `FALSE` value as the optional second parameter.
The requirements for the wrapper are basically the
link:http://php.net/manual/en/book.curl.php[cURL library].
To override the built-in function, you need to have
link:http://php.net/manual/en/book.apd.php[APD] installed.
If you don not, it is as simple as providing the `phpize` program
(bundled with package `php5-dev` on Debian based Linux distribution)
and issuing:
----------------
pecl install apd
----------------
To use the wrapper you simply have to include the file in your code
and initialize it with the appropriate host:port of a running Cherokee
MySQL Bridge instance.
------------------------------
<?php
$host="http://localhost:8888";
cherokee_init($host);
/* Add a second parameter if you don't want to override the built-in functions.
cherokee_init($host, FALSE);
*/
?>
------------------------------
From there on the built-in functions should be extended to support
Cherokee Bridged MySQL resources as well as the regular MySQL ones.
If you don't care about mixing regular MySQL resources and Bridged
ones, as will be the case in most occasions, you could even skip the
manual initialization and simply modify the `cherokee_mysql_connect()`
and `cherokee_mysql_pconnect()` functions to do the task for you on
invocation.
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