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== link:index.html[Index] -> link:cookbook.html[Cookbook]
Last checked:
* Cherokee: 1.2.0
* Drupal 6.20
* 2011/02/23
Cookbook: Setting up Drupal
Setting up link:[Drupal] with Cherokee is really
easy. This recipe describes the Drupal 6.x installation, which is the
latest release at the time of writing.
Of course you can always access Drupal and have it automatically
downloaded and deployed through the `Market` section, but should you
decide to install it manually here are the steps to follow.
You will need PHP support correctly configured in Cherokee, and PHP
with the MySQL module installed. The default configuration already
provides a valid PHP configuration for Cherokee if you have php-cgi
installed, but you can follow the appropriate recipe about
link:cookbook_php.html[setting up PHP] in case you don't have it
available for some reason.
Provided the above conditions are met, you could start Drupal's
installation and you would already be able to have your site up and
However, we can add several refinements to Cherokee's
settings. Mainly:
. Forward all requests for (or whatever domain is
resolved to our machine) to
. Set up an appropriate url rewriting configuration for Drupal.
. Serve directly the static content to avoid the dynamic-processing
. Use the regex from Drupal's .htaccess for denying access to certain
With this we should be able to do everything Drupal's supposed to do,
and it should work with Imagecache's dynamic thumbnail generation.
There are two ways of installing Drupal: it can either be installed as
a new virtual server or be installed inside a directory of some of the
virtual servers that already exist. We'll begin by covering the first
scenario, and will then make a trivial adaptation to cover the second
Setting up Cherokee on a new virtual server
Default virtual server
We'll begin by cloning the default virtual server, just to keep the
default PHP configuration. Create a clone named ``.
Then, we'll delete every erasable rule in the default virtual server
since we are going to use it to redirect every petition not matched by
the virtual server. We will set the remaining one to be
managed by the `Redirection` handler, like this:
|Type |Regular Expression |Redirection
|External |(.*)$ |$1
This clears the first milestone. The remaining three will be
accomplished by tweaking the `` virtual server.
First step
Remember to set up the `Document root` to `/var/www/drupal`.
Delete all the rules except `php` and `Default`.
As previously, we will manage the `Default` rule with the redirection
|Type |Regular Expression |Redirection
|Internal |^/(.*)$ |/index.php?q=$1
Second step
Remember to set up Drupal as custom error handler for the virtual
server. Do so in the `Error Handler` tab, selecting the `Custom
redirections` option and sending 404 errors to Drupal.
|Error |URL
|404 Not Found |/index.php
Third step
Next, we need to address the clean URLs matter. To do so, create
another redirection rule.
|Type |Regular Expression |Redirection
|Internal |^/(.*)\?(.*)$ |/index.php?q=$1&$2
Fourth step
After this we will go straight to another milestone: directly serving
static files, which is an easy task to accomplish. Just set up a
`File Exists`-type rule. Check the `Match any` checkbox, and manage it
with the `Static file` handler. Remember to activate the `IO Cache`
option and to specify whatever expiration period you see fit for these
files. If you ever edit the configuration just remember that this rule
should be located after the PHP rule. Otherwise you will end up
statically serving them instead of processing them via PHP. In fact it
is a good idea to keep your rules for dynamic contents in a high
position on your list of rules.
Fifth step
Now to block bad paths, as specified by the htaccess file provided
with Drupal. For this we will use an internal `Regular
expression`-type rule matching the following expression:
Handle this with the `HTTP error` handler:
|403 Forbidden
Sixth step
The last thing to do on Cherokee's side is to specify a sixth rule
that fixes an issue with how requests for the root are managed having
the `File exists` handler in place. Simply define yet another
redirection rule for this regular expression:
|Type |Regular Expression |Redirection
|Internal |^/$ |/index.php
All done. After this you should have six rules in your list. This
configuration does work. Reorder your rules accordingly if you seem to
have any trouble.
.List of rules
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_vserver_rules.png[Drupal VServer Rules]
Now, to install Drupal!
Setting up Cherokee on an existing virtual server
You will also have to define a set of 6 rules, although in this case
it will be a bit different.
We will be using the default virtual server, a web directory `/blog`
and we will assume we are going to install Drupal under
`/var/www/drupal` on our directory tree.
First step
Regular Expression internal redirection.
.Redirection handler
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_dir_rules_1.png[Drupal Directory Rule]
.Redirection handler
|Type |Regular Expression |Redirection
|Internal |^/blog/([0-9]+)$ |/blog/index.php?q=/node/$1
Second step
Regular Expression internal redirection.
.Redirection handler
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_dir_rules_2.png[Drupal Directory Rule]
.Redirection handler
|Type |Regular Expression |Redirection
|Internal |/blog/index.php |^/blog/$
Third step
`/blog` directory rule with custom document root set to `/var/www/drupal`
.Custom document root
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_dir_rules_3.png[Drupal Directory Rule]
Fourth step
Now to block bad paths, as specified by the htaccess file provided
with Drupal. For this we will use an internal `Regular
expression`-type rule matching the following expression:
Handle this with the `HTTP error` handler:
.HTTP error
|403 Forbidden
.HTTP error
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_dir_rules_4.png[Drupal Directory Rule]
Fifth step
Send static files as such. For this you will define a complex rule
using both a `Directory` (set to `/blog`), and a `File Exist` types.
Remember to enable caching, as in the screenshot.
.Rule for static files
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_dir_rules_6.png[Drupal Directory Rule]
.Rule for static files
.First sub-rule
|Field | Value
|Rule type | Directory
|Web directory| /blog
.Second sub-rule
|Rule type | File Exists
|Match any file | Enabled
|Use I/O cache | Enabled
|Only match files | Enabled
|If dir, check index files | Disabled
Sixth step
The last rule related to Drupal's configuration should be a catch-all
internal redirection for a couple of regular expressions.
.Redirection handler
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_dir_rules_7.png[Drupal Directory Rule]
.Redirection handler
|Type |Regular Expression |Redirection
|Internal |^/(.*)\?(.*)$ |/blog/index.php?q=$1&$2
|Internal |^/(.*)$ |/blog/index.php?q=$1
At the end of the process you should end up with a list of 8
rules. Rearrange from top to bottom according to the order given in
the steps if you seem something is wrong with your setup.
.Rule list
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal_dir_rules.png[Drupal Directory Rules]
The last one and any subsequent rules will belong to the previously
defined virtual server.
As before, once you are done configuring Cherokee you can proceed to
set up Drupal.
Setting up Drupal
First download and uncompress the distributed Drupal release into
`/var/www/drupal`, and create a database suitable for the installation.
Log in to MySQL:
mysql -u root -p
And create the database for Drupal. We will be using the name
'drupal', the user 'drupaluser' and the password 'drupalpassword', but
you should set up your own.
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON drupal.* TO drupaluser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'drupalpassword';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON drupal.* TO drupaluser@localhost.localdomain IDENTIFIED BY 'drupalpassword';
Then point your web browser to `http://localhost` and follow the
instructions provided by the installer.
You will need to copy the config file and change the permissions manually to proceed:
cd /var/www/drupal/sites/default
cp default.settings.php settings.php
chmod 644 settings.php
And the installation will be almost automatic. Just fill up the
requested values and you will obtain the following results once your
are through.
.Drupal in action
image::media/images/cookbook_drupal.png[Drupal in action!]
As of Drupal 6.14, a problem has been reported related to gzip
compression of multilingual contents. You are advised to disable gzip
compression for the rule that manages PHP in your Drupal `Virtual
Server`. If you are not using a multilingual Drupal or find another
workaround for the issue, you will probably want to enable gzip
encoding on the PHP rule to increase performance.
# Config snippet from ericdrex
# 2009
vserver!60!directory_index = index.php,index.html
vserver!60!document_root = /var/www/drupal
vserver!60!domain!1 =
vserver!60!error_handler = error_redir
vserver!60!error_handler!404 = /index.php
vserver!60!keepalive = 1
vserver!60!logger = combined
vserver!60!logger!access!buffsize = 16384
vserver!60!logger!access!filename = /var/log/cherokee/drupal.access
vserver!60!logger!access!type = file
vserver!60!logger!error!filename = /var/log/cherokee/drupal.error
vserver!60!logger!error!type = file
vserver!60!nick = drupal
# works around a bug in file exists rule below by catching request for the root.
vserver!60!rule!600!encoder!deflate = 0
vserver!60!rule!600!encoder!gzip = 0
vserver!60!rule!600!handler = redir
vserver!60!rule!600!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!60!rule!600!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /index.php
vserver!60!rule!600!match = request
vserver!60!rule!600!match!final = 1
vserver!60!rule!600!match!request = ^/$
vserver!60!rule!600!only_secure = 0
# php
vserver!60!rule!500!encoder!deflate = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!encoder!gzip = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!handler = fcgi
vserver!60!rule!500!handler!balancer = round_robin
vserver!60!rule!500!handler!balancer!source!1 = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!handler!check_file = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!handler!error_handler = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!handler!pass_req_headers = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!handler!xsendfile = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!match = extensions
vserver!60!rule!500!match!extensions = php
vserver!60!rule!500!match!final = 1
vserver!60!rule!500!only_secure = 0
# block bad paths, including with ?something appended (tricky!)
vserver!60!rule!400!encoder!deflate = 1
vserver!60!rule!400!encoder!gzip = 1
vserver!60!rule!400!handler = custom_error
vserver!60!rule!400!handler!error = 403
vserver!60!rule!400!match = request
vserver!60!rule!400!match!directory = /
vserver!60!rule!400!match!extensions = module,inc
vserver!60!rule!400!match!final = 1
vserver!60!rule!400!match!request = \.(engine|inc|info|install|module|profile|po|sh|.*sql|theme|tpl(\.php)?|xtmpl)(\?.*)?$|^(code-style\.pl|Entries.*|Repository|Root|Tag|Template)$
vserver!60!rule!400!only_secure = 0
# clean urls rewrite for request with ?post=params
vserver!60!rule!300!encoder!deflate = 1
vserver!60!rule!300!encoder!gzip = 1
vserver!60!rule!300!expiration = time
vserver!60!rule!300!expiration!time = 1w
vserver!60!rule!300!handler = file
vserver!60!rule!300!handler!iocache = 1
vserver!60!rule!300!match = exists
vserver!60!rule!300!match!exists = a
vserver!60!rule!300!match!final = 1
vserver!60!rule!300!match!iocache = 1
vserver!60!rule!300!match!match_any = 1
vserver!60!rule!300!only_secure = 0
vserver!60!rule!200!encoder!deflate = 0
vserver!60!rule!200!encoder!gzip = 0
vserver!60!rule!200!handler = redir
vserver!60!rule!200!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!60!rule!200!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /index.php?q=$1&$2
vserver!60!rule!200!match = request
vserver!60!rule!200!match!final = 1
vserver!60!rule!200!match!request = ^/(.*)\?(.*)$
vserver!60!rule!200!only_secure = 0
# same for requests with no POST params
vserver!60!rule!100!encoder!deflate = 0
vserver!60!rule!100!encoder!gzip = 0
vserver!60!rule!100!handler = redir
vserver!60!rule!100!handler!rewrite!1!regex = ^(.*)$
vserver!60!rule!100!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!60!rule!100!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /index.php?q=$1
vserver!60!rule!100!match = default
vserver!60!rule!100!match!final = 1
vserver!60!rule!100!only_secure = 0
# Drupal under a subdirectory
# 2010/09
vserver!1000!rule!1080!handler = redir
vserver!1000!rule!1080!handler!rewrite!1!regex = ^/blog/([0-9]+)$
vserver!1000!rule!1080!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1080!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /blog/index.php?q=/node/$1
vserver!1000!rule!1080!match = request
vserver!1000!rule!1080!match!request = ^/blog/([0-9]+)$
vserver!1000!rule!1070!handler = redir
vserver!1000!rule!1070!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1070!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /blog/index.php
vserver!1000!rule!1070!match = request
vserver!1000!rule!1070!match!request = ^/blog/$
vserver!1000!rule!1060!document_root = /var/www/drupal
vserver!1000!rule!1060!match = directory
vserver!1000!rule!1060!match!directory = /blog
vserver!1000!rule!1060!match!final = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1050!handler = custom_error
vserver!1000!rule!1050!handler!error = 403
vserver!1000!rule!1050!match = and
vserver!1000!rule!1050!match!left = directory
vserver!1000!rule!1050!match!left!directory = /blog
vserver!1000!rule!1050!match!right = request
vserver!1000!rule!1050!match!right!request = \.(engine|inc|info|install|module|profile|test|po|sh|.*sql|theme|tpl(\.php)?|xtmpl|svn-base)$|^(code-style\.pl|Entries.*|Repository|Root|Tag|Template|all-wcprops|entries|format)$
vserver!1000!rule!1040!encoder!gzip = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1040!handler = fcgi
vserver!1000!rule!1040!handler!balancer = round_robin
vserver!1000!rule!1040!handler!balancer!source!1 = 1
vserver!1000!rule!1040!handler!error_handler = 1
vserver!1000!rule!1040!match = extensions
vserver!1000!rule!1040!match!extensions = php
vserver!1000!rule!1040!match!final = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1040!timeout = 30
vserver!1000!rule!1030!handler = file
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match = and
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match!left = directory
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match!left!directory = /blog
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match!right = exists
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match!right!iocache = 1
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match!right!match_any = 1
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match!right!match_index_files = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1030!match!right!match_only_files = 1
vserver!1000!rule!1020!handler = redir
vserver!1000!rule!1020!handler!rewrite!1!regex = ^/(.*)\?(.*)$
vserver!1000!rule!1020!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1020!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /blog/index.php?q=$1&$2
vserver!1000!rule!1020!handler!rewrite!2!regex = ^/(.*)$
vserver!1000!rule!1020!handler!rewrite!2!show = 0
vserver!1000!rule!1020!handler!rewrite!2!substring = /blog/index.php?q=$1
vserver!1000!rule!1020!match = directory
vserver!1000!rule!1020!match!directory = /blog
# Plus the rest of vserver rules
source!1!env!PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN = 5
source!1!env!PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS = 490
source!1!host =
source!1!interpreter = /usr/bin/php-cgi -b
source!1!nick = PHP Interpreter
source!1!type = interpreter
# Drupal on a dedicated Virtual Server
# 2010/09
vserver!1020!document_root = /var/www/drupal
vserver!1020!nick =
vserver!1020!rule!1060!handler = redir
vserver!1020!rule!1060!handler!rewrite!1!regex = ^/([0-9]+)$
vserver!1020!rule!1060!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!1020!rule!1060!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /index.php?q=/node/$1
vserver!1020!rule!1060!match = request
vserver!1020!rule!1060!match!request = ^/([0-9]+)$
vserver!1020!rule!1050!handler = custom_error
vserver!1020!rule!1050!handler!error = 403
vserver!1020!rule!1050!match = request
vserver!1020!rule!1050!match!request = \.(engine|inc|info|install|module|profile|test|po|sh|.*sql|theme|tpl(\.php)?|xtmpl|svn-base)$|^(code-style\.pl|Entries.*|Repository|Root|Tag|Template|all-wcprops|entries|format)$
vserver!1020!rule!1040!handler = redir
vserver!1020!rule!1040!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!1020!rule!1040!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /index.php
vserver!1020!rule!1040!match = fullpath
vserver!1020!rule!1040!match!fullpath!1 = /
vserver!1020!rule!1030!encoder!gzip = 0
vserver!1020!rule!1030!handler = fcgi
vserver!1020!rule!1030!handler!balancer = round_robin
vserver!1020!rule!1030!handler!balancer!source!1 = 1
vserver!1020!rule!1030!handler!error_handler = 1
vserver!1020!rule!1030!match = extensions
vserver!1020!rule!1030!match!extensions = php
vserver!1020!rule!1030!match!final = 0
vserver!1020!rule!1030!timeout = 30
vserver!1020!rule!1020!handler = file
vserver!1020!rule!1020!match = exists
vserver!1020!rule!1020!match!iocache = 1
vserver!1020!rule!1020!match!match_any = 1
vserver!1020!rule!1020!match!match_index_files = 0
vserver!1020!rule!1020!match!match_only_files = 1
vserver!1020!rule!1010!handler = redir
vserver!1020!rule!1010!handler!rewrite!1!regex = ^/(.*)\?(.*)$
vserver!1020!rule!1010!handler!rewrite!1!show = 0
vserver!1020!rule!1010!handler!rewrite!1!substring = /index.php?q=$1&$2
vserver!1020!rule!1010!handler!rewrite!2!regex = ^/(.*)$
vserver!1020!rule!1010!handler!rewrite!2!show = 0
vserver!1020!rule!1010!handler!rewrite!2!substring = /index.php?q=$1
vserver!1020!rule!1010!match = default
source!1!env!PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN = 5
source!1!env!PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS = 490
source!1!host =
source!1!interpreter = /usr/bin/php-cgi -b
source!1!nick = PHP Interpreter
source!1!type = interpreter
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