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Commands to Manipulate Files
C-x C-f find-file.
C-x C-s save-buffer. Save.
C-x s save-some-buffers. Save All.
Commands to Manipulate Buffers
C-x b switch-to-buffer.
C-x C-b list-buffers.
C-x k kill-buffer. Asks to save if modified.
C-x C-q vc-toggle-read-only. Toggle read-only <-> read-write.
If the file under version control, it will check the file out for you.
Commands to Manipulate Windows
C-v scroll-up.
M-v scroll-down.
C-x o other-window. Switch to another window.
C-x 1 delete-other-windows. Deletes all other windows except the current one.
C-x 0 delete-window. Deletes just the current window.
C-x 2 split-window-vertically. Splits the current window in two, vertically.
C-x 3 split-window-horizontally. Splits the current window in two, horizontally.
C-M-v scroll-other-window. Just like C-v, but scrolls the other window.
Infinite Undo with Redo
C-_ undo. (Also C-x u and C-/)
Motion and Objects
C-f forward-char. Moves forward (to the right) over a character.
C-b backward-char. Moves backward (to the left) over a character.
M-f forward-word. Moves forward over a word.
M-b backward-word. Moves backward over a word.
C-n next-line. Moves down to the next line.
C-p previous-line. Moves up to the previous line.
C-a beginning-of-line. Moves to the beginning of the current line.
C-e end-of-line. Moves to the end of the current line.
M-a backward-sentence. Moves to the beginning of the current sentence.
M-e forward-sentence. Moves to the end of the current sentence.
M-{ backward-paragraph. Move to the beginning of the current paragraph.
M-} forward-paragraph. Move to the end of the current paragraph.
C-x [ backward-page. Moves to the beginning of the current page.
C-x ] forward-page. Moves to the end of the current page.
M-< beginning-of-buffer. Moves to the beginning of the buffer.
M-> end-of-buffer. Moves to the end of the buffer.
Deleting, Killing and Yanking
Deletion means to remove text from the buffer without saving it.
Killing means to save the removed text, so that it can be yanked back later someplace else.
C-d delete-char. Deletes the character to the right of (under, if the cursor is a block that covers a character) the cursor.
DEL delete-backward-char. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor.
M-d kill-word. Kills to the end of the word to the right of the cursor (forward).
M-DEL backward-kill-word. Kills to the beginning of the word to the left of the cursor (backward).
C-k kill-line. Kills to the end of the current line.
C-u 0 C-k kill-line. Kills to the beginning of the current line.
C-u -1 C-k kill-line. Kills to the beginning of the current line, and previous newline character.
M-k kill-sentence. Kills to the end of the current sentence.
C-u -1 M-k kill-sentence. Kills to the beginning of the current sentence.
C-M-k kill-sexp. Kills the sexp after the cursor.
C-u -1 C-M-k kill-sexp. Kills the sexp before the cursor.
Help
C-h a command-apropos. List commands matching the given name or regexp.
C-h f describe-function. Show documentation on the given function.
C-h v describe-variable. Show documentation on the given variable.
C-h c describe-key-briefly. Name the function bound to the given key sequence.
C-h k describe-key. Show documentation for the function bound to the given key sequence.
C-h w where-is. Show key sequences bound to the given command name.
C-h m describe-mode. Documentation on the current major mode.
C-h l view-lossage. Show the last 100 keystrokes.
C-h after any prefix key will display all available shortcuts under that prefix.
From http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/keith/tcl-course/emacs-tutorial.html