X-Wide Association Study in HIV+ in Zambia
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Systematic Identification of Correlates of HIV-1 Infection: An X-Wide Association Study in Zambian Females

submitted for review, 2017




HIV-1 remains the leading cause of death among adults in Sub-Saharan Africa, and over 1 million people are infected annually. Better identification of at-risk groups could benefit prevention and treatment programmes. We systematically identified factors related to HIV-1 infection in two nationally representative cohorts of women that participated in Zambia’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS).


We conducted a comprehensive analysis to identify and replicate the association of 1,415 social, economic, environmental, and behavioral indicators with HIV-1 status. We used the 2007 and 2013-2014 DHS surveys conducted among 5,715 and 15,433 Zambian women, respectively (727 indicators in 2007; 688 in 2013-2014; 688 in both). We used false discovery rate criteria to identify indicators that are strongly associated with HIV-1 in univariate and multivariate models in the entire population, as well as in subgroups stratified by wealth, residence, age, and history of HIV-1 testing.

Getting Started

  • This github repository contains data processing and analysis code to execute 'X-wide association' in DHS data; please contact us or more information.
  • A browsable synposis of our findings can be found here: chiragjpgroup.org/hiv_zambia/