Testing RESTful APIs
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README.md

Rester

Framework for testing (RESTful) HTTP APIs

Rester allows you to test your APIs using a non-programmatic or non-GUI based approach, which are some of the more conventional ways of testing RESTFul APIs. Rester is inspired by various unit testing frameworks like JUnit, 'unittest' (python) etc and is conceptually organized like those frameworks, but is geared towards testing RESTful API endpoints. With Rester, all tests are specified in YAML or JSON.

Why Rester?

Testing RESTful APIs generally involves two prediticable steps -

  • Invoke the API end point
  • Validate the response - headers, payload etc

Most testing tools available for testing RESTful APIs use some sort of a GUI based approach which doesn't lend itself towards re-use, better code organization, abstraction and some of the other benefits that are generally available with more programmatic frameworks like JUnit. Programmatically building test cases provides the highest level of flexibility and sophistication, but the downside to this approach is that it ends up with lots of fairly tedious and repetitive code. Conceptually, Rester is similar to existing unit testing frameworks, but it uses JSON or YAML (instead of a programming language) to implement/specify the actual tests. Programmers and non-programmers can reap the benefits with the Rester approach.

Note: As of now Rester only supports APIs that don't require explicit authentication of calls, but future versions will support OAuth. Rester was mainly created to test internal APIs that generally bypass the need for authentication of the calls.

Practical uses of Rester

  • Perform "integration" testing of internal and external API endpoints
  • Examine and test complex response payloads
  • You can simply use Rester to dump and analyze API responses - headers, payload etc.

Assumptions

  • Rester does not manage the life-cycle of the container or the server that exposes the API endpoints, but assumes the API endpoints (to be tested) are up and avaliable.
  • Unlike other unittesting frameworks however, Rester does guarantee the order of execution of the TestSteps within a TestCase. For a better understanding of TestSteps and TestCases see the "General Concepts" section below. The ordering will come in handy if you want to test a series of API end-points (invoked in succession) that modify system state in a particular way.

General Concepts

  • TestSuite: A TestSuite is collection of TestCases. The idea is to group related 'test cases' together. Use either YAML or JSON.

Globals can be defined in the either a TestSuite or TestCase.

globals:
  variables:
    request_opts: # special for the request library.
      verify: false # disable CERT checking for SSL
    http: "http://localhost:8905"
    https: "https://localhost:8081"
test_cases:
  - servers.yaml
  - cors.yaml
  - xdomain.yaml
  - notfound.yaml
  • TestCase: A TestCase contains one or more TestSteps. You can declare globals variables, which are scoped to the TestCase, and add to or override the globals defined in the TestSuite.
name: "Ping"
globals: 
  variables: 
    http: "http://localhost:8905"
    https: "https://localhost:8081"
testSteps:
 - ...
 - ...
  • TestStep: All of the action takes place in a TestStep.

A TestStep contains the following:

  • API end point invocation - As part of the API endpoint invocation, you can provide the following params -
    • URL
    • HTTP headers
    • URL params
    • HTTP method - get, put, post, delete, patch - any method supported by the requests library. ('get' is used by default)

URL is the only mandatory param.

  • A series of "assert" statements specified as part of the asserts element

Example of a TestStep (JSON):

  {
    "testSteps": [
        {
            "name":"Name of TestStep",
            "apiUrl":"http://example/api/v1/helloworld/print",
            "asserts":{
                "headers":{
                    "content-type":"application/json; charset=utf-8"
                },
                "payload":{
                    "message":"Hello World!"
                }
            }
        }
     ]
}

A complete example as YAML, leveraging the yaml references:

name: "Ping"
globals: 
  variables: 
    http: "http://localhost:8905"
    https: "https://localhost:8081"
testSteps: 
  - &test1
    name: "ping http"
    apiUrl: "{http}/ping"
    method: "get"
	raw: true
    asserts: 
      headers: 
        connection: "keep-alive"
        content-type: "text/plain; charset=utf-8"
      payload:
        __raw__: "pong"
  - 
    <<: *test1
    name: "ping https"
    apiUrl: "{https}/ping"

Example Output

See: https://gist.github.com/ninowalker/1fe8aad019feab3fe265

Installation

pip install git+https://github.com/chitamoor/Rester.git@master

Rester command line options

  • Run the default test case -

    apirunner

    This will look for the default test case, test_case.json in the current directory

  • Run a specific test case use the command line option --tc=<file_name>

    e.g. invoke a test case specified in the file "./rester/examples/test_case.json"

    apirunner --tc=./rester/examples/test_case.json

  • Run a specific test suite use the command line option --ts=<file_name>

    e.g. invoke a test suite specified in the file "./rester/examples/test_suite.json"

    apirunner --ts=./rester/examples/test_suite.json

Other command line options

  • Adjust the log output or details Rester support varying levels of logs - DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR. You can specify the level using the command line option --log=

    e.g. run the API with INFO level

    apirunner --log=INFO

  • Just dump the JSON output

TestCase options

  • Skipping tests

TestStep options

Examples of API request invocations

  • Specify the HTTP headers as part of an API request
 testSteps: [
   {
      "name":"Name of TestStep",
 		   "apiUrl":"http://example/api/v1/helloworld/print",
 		   "headers":{
           "content-type":"application/json;"
      },
      ....
   }
 ]
  • Specify the URL params as part of an API request. There are two ways to specific URL params, which are mentioned below -

    testSteps: [
      {
         "name":"Name of TestStep",
    		   "apiUrl":"http://example/api/v1/helloworld/print",
    		   "headers":{
    		      ...
         },
         "params":{
              "param_1":"value1",
              "param_2":"value2"
         },
         ....
      }
    ]
    
    testSteps: [
     {
       "name":"Name of TestStep",
     	"apiUrl":"http://example/api/v1/helloworld/print?param_1=value1&param_2=value2",
        ....
     }
    ]
    
  • Perform an HTTP POST

    testSteps: [
      {
          "name":"Name of TestStep",
          "apiUrl":"http://example/api/v1/helloworld/print",
          "headers":{
              ...
          },
          "method":"post"
          "params":{
              "param_1":"value1",
              "param_2":"value2"
          },
         ....
      }
    ]
    
  • Get a non-JSON response, using the raw option.

name: "Ping"
globals: 
  variables: 
    http: "http://localhost:8905"
testSteps: 
 - name: "ping http"
    apiUrl: "{http}/ping"
    method: "get"
    raw: true
    asserts: 
      headers: 
        content-type: "text/plain; charset=utf-8"
      payload:
        __raw__: "pong"

Examples of assert statements

As mentioned previously, all of the assert statements are specified within an asserts element

  • Assert "content-type" HTTP header
 testSteps: [
   {
     "name":"Name of TestStep",
     "apiUrl":"http://example/api/v1/helloworld/print?param_1=value1&param_2=value2",
      ....
   }

   "asserts":{

       "headers":{
         "content-type":"application/json; charset=utf-8"
       },

       ....

   }
 ]

Assert specific payload elements

  • "output.level" is 2
  • "output.result" is eqal to "Message Success"
  • "output.status" is greater than 3
  • "output.body" contains the word 'launched'
 testSteps: [
   {
     "name":"Name of TestStep",
     "apiUrl":"http://example/api/v1/helloworld/print?param_1=value1&param_2=value2",
      ....
   }

   "asserts":{
       "headers": {
          ....
       },

       "payload":{
           "output.level":2,
           "output.result":"Message Success",
           "output.status":"-gt 3",
   		      "output.body":"exec 'launched' in value"
       },
       ....

   }
 ]

Assert logical operators:

  • -gt - greater than

    
    e.g. parent.child > 3
    
        "payload":{
              "parent.child":"-gt 3",
        }
    
  • -ge - greater than eqal to

    e.g. parent.child >= 3
    
        "payload":{
              "parent.child":"-ge 3",
        }
    
  • -lt - lesser than

    
    e.g. parent.child < 2
    
        "payload":{
              "parent.child":"-lt 2",
        }
    
  • -le - lesser than eqal to

    
    e.g. parent.child <= 2
    
        "payload":{
              "parent.child":"-le 2",
        }
    
  • -ne - not eqal to

    
    e.g. parent.child.message != "success"
    
        "payload":{
              "parent.child.message":"-ne success",
        }
    
  • -eq - equal to

  e.g. parent.child.message == "success"
      "payload":{
            "parent.child.message":"-eq success",  # either will work
            "parent.child.message":"success",
      }
  • exec - evaluate a python expression where the node is passed in as value
  e.g. parent.child.message == "hello world"
      "payload":{
            "parent.child.message":"exec len(value) > 7 and value.endswith('world')",
      }

Storing intermediate values

Values from the payload can be extracted and assigned to variables in the variable name space. The assignments are specified as part of the postAsserts element and should be placed right after the asserts element.

    "asserts":{
        "headers": {
           ....
        },
        "payload":{
            "output.result":"Message Success",
            ....
        },
        ....
    },
    "postAsserts": {
        "variable_for_next_step":""output.id"
        ....
    }

Basic JSON Type checking

The following JSON types are supported - Integer, Float, String, Array, Boolean and Object

  • check if parent.child.message is a String
       "payload":{
            "parent.child.message":"String",
      }
  • check if parent.child.version is an Integer
      "payload":{
            "parent.child.version":"Integer",
      }
  • check if parent.child is an Object
      "payload":{
            "parent.child":"Object",
      }

Support for lists/arrays

  • Sample payload
       "entries":[{
                  "id":1
                  },
                  {
                  "id":2
                  },{
                  "id":3
                  }
                ]
      }
  • For the above payload, verify that entries is an Array element
       "payload":{
            "entries":"Array"
      }
  • Verify the length of the entries Array element
       "payload":{
            "entries._length":3,
      }
  • Verify the first and the second element of the entries Array element
       "payload":{
            "entries[0].id":1,
            "entries[1].id":2
      }

Using variables declarations

  • Variables are declared in the "globals" section of the TestSuite

     "globals":{
        "variables":{
          "baseApiUrl":"https://example.com",
          "api_key":"YOUR_KEY",
          "rule_key":"CONFIG_KEY"
        }
     },
     ...
    testSteps: [
      {
        "name":"Name of TestStep",
        "apiUrl":"http://{baseApiUrl}/api/v1/helloworld/print?param_1=value1
        ....
      }
    ]
    

Dockerized Rester

Run the docker image raseev/rester

Running an existing test from the examples directory

  docker run -it --rm --name rester raseev/rester apirunner --ts examples/weather/test_suite.json 

  docker run -it --rm --name rester raseev/rester apirunner --ts examples/imdb/test_suite.json 

Running a new test

Use the docker volume option to specific the directory that contains the tests

  docker run -v $(pwd)/rester/examples:/tests -it --rm --name rester raseev/rester apirunner --ts tests/imdb/test_suite.json --log=DEBUG

Contact

rajeev@chitamoor.com

Contributors

Nino Walker - nino@livefyre.com

Changes

Unreleased

  • Breaking change: __raw__ to raw on the TestStep.
  • Feature: status to TestStep.asserts, allowing for non-200 replies.

#TODO

  • Use meta-programming to allow direct integration into unittest frameworks, and run with tests a la nose, to leverage all the things.
    • Use code eval for all tests, because expressiveness; value == '123' instead of 123.
  • Allow module imports for inclusion in the eval tests.
  • Support for computed variables; e.g. time: time.time()
  • Merge variables into the eval space; no string expansion on asserts.
  • Support for enums
  • Support for OAuth
  • Run in record mode to capture responses for testing directly.