Simple monad type for nodejs
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monad.js provdes simple monadic data types for NodeJS (or any CommonJS implementation).


Maybe reprents a value that may or may not be present. This is natural when a value, or the result of a function, may or may not result in something meaningful. Traditionally, null or undefined is used for such cases, but these are ticking time bombs.

Example usage:

var monad = require('./monad');

var maybe = monad.maybe(1); // Results in a Just(1) instance.
var value = {
  return v + 3;
}).getOr(0); // Get the contained value, or 0 if this were a Nothing.

The maybe constructor yields a Just instance if the argument is non-null.

var maybe = monad.maybe(null);

Here, maybe will be Nothing, and so mapping/binding will result in Nothing.

var value = {
  return v + 3;

Because maybe is Nothing, value will contain the default value 20.


Either is similar to Maybe, but represents one of two possible outcomes. A natural use for this is a function that may return a real value, or otherwise throw an exception. Unlike Maybe, Either can contain the reason for failure. Consider a function that may throw an exception:

function dangerous(s) {
  return s.length;
var len = dangerous(null);

If you call this function with a null argument, an exception will be thrown. The eitherEx constructor conveniently turns a function into one that results in an Either:

var safe = monad.eitherEx(dangerous);
var len = safe(null);

No exception is thrown here. Instead, len is an instance of the Either monad Right, which generally represents a successful result. To decompose an Either, use fold, providing the behavior for a success scenario and a failure scenario:

var length = len.fold(
  function(error) {
    console.log('Failed: ' + error);
    return 0; // return a default
  function(length) {
    return length;

You'll probably find that the functions you pass to fold are generic and reusable. In such cases, avoid ad-hoc functions because they are noisy.