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PSYCH 207: minor rewording of a few points.

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  1. BIN  psych207.pdf
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6 psych207.tex
@@ -1156,7 +1156,7 @@
\item The tumor problem: given a human being with a tumor, and rays that destroy organic tissue at sufficient intensity, by what procedure can one free him of the tumor by these rays and at the same time avoid destroying the healthy tissue that surrounds it?
\item The tumor/fortress analogy is structurally very similar, but superficially very different.
\item Without the fortress story, 10\% of people came up with an appropriate strategy for handling the brain tumor. With the fortress story, that jumped up to 30\%. After being told there's a hint in the fortress story, then being told the fortress story, that jumped up to 75\% of people.
- \item Improving personal performance with generating analogies improves with practice.
+ \item You can improve your personal performance with generating analogies through practice.
\item The tumor/fortress analogy is an example of a cross-domain analogy. Cross-domain analogies are harder to handle due to their superficial dissimilarity. \lecture{March 21, 2013}
\item An experiment was performed with analogies of varying degrees (varied how close the analogy was). The degree to which the frontal polar cortex is recruited is proportional to how far away the analogies are from each other in semantic space.
\item Humans are probably the only species with analogous reasoning.
@@ -1226,7 +1226,7 @@
\item The ease of which things come to mind increases their prevalence.
\item People were asked how many words they thought were in a book that had their second last letter being ``n''. They guessed not many. They were then asked how many words in the book end in ``ing'', and that number was bigger than the previous result (for the second last letter just being ``n''). That's not possible.
\item This happens because it's easy to recall words that end in ``ing''.
- \item Another example: asthma deaths. Many deaths are caused by asthma, and not many are caused by things like botulism or tornadoes (relatively). People seem to think the latter are more common causes of death, though, because it's more prevalent in the news media.
+ \item Another example: asthma deaths. Many deaths are caused by asthma, and not many are caused by things like botulism or tornadoes (relatively). People seem to think the latter are more common causes of death, though, because they're more prevalent in the news media.
\end{itemize}
\subsubsection{Representativeness}
@@ -1337,7 +1337,7 @@
\item Differences might be smaller than researchers think (or smaller than they'd like to admit).
\item In general, males outperform females in spatial tasks, and females outperform males in verbal tasks. This outperforming is within one standard deviation, so it isn't \emph{that} big of a difference. This is a relatively stable finding.
\item \textbf{Mean differences}: there's an overlapping distribution. Some females outperform males on spatial tasks, for instance, and some males outperform females on verbal tasks.
- \item \textbf{File drawer problem}: it's hard for researchers to publish null findings. This is a problem for research in \emph{all} fields. They may exaggerate their results a bit as a result of this, in order to publish something.
+ \item \textbf{File drawer problem}: it's hard for researchers to publish null findings. This is a problem for research in \emph{all} fields. They may exaggerate their results a bit as a consequence of this, in order to publish something.
\item \textbf{Experimenter expectancy effects}: confirmation bias.
\item Why are there some slight sex differences? There are two theories:
\begin{itemize}
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