Permalink
Browse files

PSYCH 207: added April 2, 2013 lecture.

  • Loading branch information...
1 parent ac7440d commit ad53b70a8a56b7b5ba483b181bf9e2ccf0ad198b @christhomson committed Apr 3, 2013
Showing with 54 additions and 0 deletions.
  1. BIN psych207.pdf
  2. +54 −0 psych207.tex
View
Binary file not shown.
View
@@ -1316,5 +1316,59 @@
\end{itemize}
\item Changes (1) and (3) can be slowed down, by doing things like aerobic exercises. It's hard to say the same about (2) because it's harder to measure.
+
+ \item There are reductions in bottom-up perceptual processing abilities, and an increase in top-down processes (involving the frontal lobes), as people age. \lecture{April 2, 2013}
+ \item Compensatory strategies are used to alleviate these ability reductions.
+ \item Arthur Rubinstein, a pianist, used several compensatory strategies as he got older:
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item Selection. He played fewer pieces.
+ \item Optimization. He practiced these pieces more often.
+ \item Compensation. He would play slower before fast segments to make the fast segments seem faster. He did this to counteract his loss in mechanical speed.
+ \end{itemize}
+
+ \item People often use distributed cognition (off-loading) more as they get older. They use Google more, or rely on partners/family members to fill in gaps.
+ \item A cue experiment was conducted where youth and adults had to remember pairs of words. The adults were separated into two groups: low performance, and high performance (at this specific task). The right hemisphere was active for this task for the youth. The older, low performance adults used the same neural tissue more intensively. The older, high performance adults used a combination of the corresponding (homologous) regions in both the left and right hemispheres.
+ \item The more active the mind is, the less of a memory deficit that forms over time. Surprisingly, physical exercise also helps maintain cognitive abilities. One study showed that regular exercise reduced the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease, even in people who were predisposed to the disease.
+ \end{itemize}
+
+ \subsection{Sex Differences}
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item People place a lot of emphasis on finding differences between the sexes, and not on other arbitrary differentiators like eye color.
+ \item Differences might be smaller than researchers think (or smaller than they'd like to admit).
+ \item In general, males outperform females in spatial tasks, and females outperform males in verbal tasks. This outperforming is within one standard deviation, so it isn't \emph{that} big of a difference. This is a relatively stable finding.
+ \item \textbf{Mean differences}: there's an overlapping distribution. Some females outperform males on spatial tasks, for instance, and some males outperform females on verbal tasks.
+ \item \textbf{File drawer problem}: it's hard for researchers to publish null findings. This is a problem for research in \emph{all} fields. They may exaggerate their results a bit as a result of this, in order to publish something.
+ \item \textbf{Experimenter expectancy effects}: confirmation bias.
+ \item Why are there some slight sex differences? There are two theories:
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item \textbf{Socialization}: reading materials, communication styles, access to puzzles \& video games all differ between the sexes.
+ \item \textbf{Lateralization}: it might be genetics. Women have more brain resources that are used for verbal processing. They have bilateral resources (both hemispheres), which makes them more likely to retain their verbal skills after brain damage than men. The reverse is true for men, and spatial abilities.
+ \end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
+
+ \section{The Big Picture, and Future Directions}
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item Conscious experience is largely reconstructive.
+ \item Cognition = Attention + Perception + Emotion + Social Interactions.
+ \item Cognitive science is used in industry for informing law, and for interacting with others.
+ \item Cognitive science can inform developmental work.
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item Emotional processes cause dumb things to happen.
+ \item An experiment was conducted that asked teens and adults if something was a good idea or not, while they were in an MRI machine.
+ \item Good ideas were judged quickly be both teens and adults.
+ \item Bad ideas took slightly longer for both adults and teens, but teens took significantly longer than adults to think about bad ideas.
+ \item Why is this? Adults have an insula activation (an initial disgust response). It's an emotionally negative response. Meanwhile, teens activate the analytical regions of their brain.
+ \end{itemize}
+
+ \item An fMRI could be used as a lie detector.
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item Traditional polygraph detectors measure bodily response (sweating, heart rate), but they aren't helpful if the individual doesn't feel guilty.
+ \item Using an fMRI as a lie detector works but has problems. It's still better than polygraph lie detectors though.
+ \item An experiment gave participants a group of cards. They were asked to tell the truth about certain cards and to lie about others.
+ \item Lies are indicated by heightened activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC).
+ \item It's a good deception detector. It determines if the person is self-monitoring or not.
+ \end{itemize}
+
+ \item Neuroeconomics: using cognitive science to think about the impact your behavior has on others.
+ \end{itemize}
\end{document}

0 comments on commit ad53b70

Please sign in to comment.