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PSYCH 207: added March 28, 2013 lecture.

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\item We've evolved to have cheater detection \textendash{} that is, we're really good at determining if anyone is violating a social contract. We define cheating as someone who deliberately takes benefits without paying costs or meeting certain requirements.
\item Cheater detection depends on the context to define cheating.
+ \subsection{Decision Making in the Brain} \lecture{March 28, 2013}
+ \subsubsection{Decision Making in the Split Brain}
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item People with split brains can draw two distinct shapes at the same time (one with each hand), whereas normal people cannot.
+ \item When shown a picture of a face that was designed out of fruits or books the left hemisphere (shown on right) will recognize the fruits/books, and the right hemisphere will recognize the facial features.
+ \item There are a couple of approaches to probability guessing: frequency matched, or maximized.
+ \item Frequency matched (left hemisphere) is where guesses are based on the relative frequencies of what's been observed in the past.
+ \item The maximized approach (right hemisphere) is to always choose the option that has occurred most frequently in the past.
+ \item The optimal strategy in a frequency experiment is to maximize every time. Why? You'll never predict it correctly 100\% of the time.
+ \item The left hemisphere is trying to find causal patterns. It tries to out-guess randomness that is not actually there. This is called the \textbf{left hemisphere interpreter}.
+ \item The ability to form inferences about two events is part of the left hemisphere.
+ \item Each hemisphere responds differently to the kinds of relations it has to solve.
+ \end{itemize}
+ \subsubsection{Decision Making, Emotion, and the Brain}
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item Cognition is part of a highly interactive system involving the interplay between attention, perception, emotion, and social interactions.
+ \item Ultimatum game: you have the opportunity to split \$10 with someone. You'll receive a one-time offer from your partner, then you must decide to accept or reject the offer. If you reject the offer, you both go home with nothing.
+ \item If you're offered \$1, you'll probably reject it to punish the other person, so they won't be able to keep \$9. This punishment is because of their greed.
+ \item The rational thing to do in this situation is to take any offer of money, because any amount is better than no amount.
+ \item Remember: this is a one-time offer. There are no future offers, so the punishment is not meant to change their behavior to benefit you in the future.
+ \item Why do we want to prevent their greed? We get an initial disgust response.
+ \item This experiment is an example of a highly cognitive act that is affected by emotions.
+ \item Often times, emotional processing happens quicker than cognitive processing.
+ \end{itemize}
+ \section{Individual Differences}
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item There is less variability in low-level processes.
+ \item The more high-level or complex a task is, the more it will likely differ based on individual differences.
+ \item Recall that chess novices have a superficial representation of the board while experts have a deeper understanding. They define importance differently, too.
+ \item Individual differences and expertise will change cognition.
+ \end{itemize}
+ \subsection{Aging}
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item Aging also changes cognition as part of individual differences.
+ \item Processing speed slows down.
+ \item Memory also slows down with age. Senior's moments occur. Episodic and working memory decline steadily with age, due to degeneration of the frontal lobes as you age.
+ \item Semantic memory does not decrease. It sometimes increases, actually.
+ \item Indirect, unconscious memory is relatively preserved over time.
+ \item As you age, three brain changes occur:
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item Reductions in brain volume stemming from gray and white matter atrophy (shrinkage).
+ \item Synaptic degeneration which impairs communication between neurons.
+ \item Reductions in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to the brain.
+ \end{itemize}
+ \item Changes (1) and (3) can be slowed down, by doing things like aerobic exercises. It's hard to say the same about (2) because it's harder to measure.
+ \end{itemize}

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