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NES CPU Instruction Behavior Tests ---------------------------------- These tests verify most instruction behavior fairly thoroughly, including unofficial instructions. Failing instructions are listed by their opcode and name. Serious errors in behavior of basic opcodes might cause many false errors. The *_singles/ test all instructions, but test the official ones first, so you can tell whether you pass those even if your emulator hangs on the unofficial ones. The nsf_singles builds audibly report the opcodes of any failed instructions before the final result. Internal operation ------------------ Most instructions are tested by setting many combinations of input values for registers, flags, and memory, running the instruction under test, then updating a running checksum with the resulting values. After trying all interesting input combinations, the checksum is compared with the correct one (what a NES gives) to find whether the instruction passed. This approach makes it very easy to write the tests, since the instructions don't have to be each coded for separately; instead, only the different addressing modes need separate tests. Instructions ------------ U = Unofficial X = Freezes CPU, so not tested ? = Inconsistent/unknown behavior, so not tested 00 BRK #n 01 ORA (z,X) 02 X KIL 03 U SLO (z,X) 04 U DOP z 05 ORA z 06 ASL z 07 U SLO z 08 PHP 09 ORA #n 0A ASL A 0B U AAC #n 0C U TOP abs 0D ORA a 0E ASL a 0F U SLO abs 10 BPL r 11 ORA (z),Y 12 X KIL 13 U SLO (z),Y 14 U DOP z,X 15 ORA z,X 16 ASL z,X 17 U SLO z,X 18 CLC 19 ORA a,Y 1A U NOP 1B U SLO abs,Y 1C U TOP abs,X 1D ORA a,X 1E ASL a,X 1F U SLO abs,X 20 JSR a 21 AND (z,X) 22 X KIL 23 U RLA (z,X) 24 BIT z 25 AND z 26 ROL z 27 U RLA z 28 PLP 29 AND #n 2A ROL A 2B U AAC #n 2C BIT a 2D AND a 2E ROL a 2F U RLA abs 30 BMI r 31 AND (z),Y 32 X KIL 33 U RLA (z),Y 34 U DOP z,X 35 AND z,X 36 ROL z,X 37 U RLA z,X 38 SEC 39 AND a,Y 3A U NOP 3B U RLA abs,Y 3C U TOP abs,X 3D AND a,X 3E ROL a,X 3F U RLA abs,X 40 RTI 41 EOR (z,X) 42 X KIL 43 U SRE (z,X) 44 U DOP z 45 EOR z 46 LSR z 47 U SRE z 48 PHA 49 EOR #n 4A LSR A 4B U ASR #n 4C JMP a 4D EOR a 4E LSR a 4F U SRE abs 50 BVC r 51 EOR (z),Y 52 X KIL 53 U SRE (z),Y 54 U DOP z,X 55 EOR z,X 56 LSR z,X 57 U SRE z,X 58 CLI 59 EOR a,Y 5A U NOP 5B U SRE abs,Y 5C U TOP abs,X 5D EOR a,X 5E LSR a,X 5F U SRE abs,X 60 RTS 61 ADC (z,X) 62 X KIL 63 U RRA (z,X) 64 U DOP z 65 ADC z 66 ROR z 67 U RRA z 68 PLA 69 ADC #n 6A ROR A 6B U ARR #n 6C JMP (a) 6D ADC a 6E ROR a 6F U RRA abs 70 BVS r 71 ADC (z),Y 72 X KIL 73 U RRA (z),Y 74 U DOP z,X 75 ADC z,X 76 ROR z,X 77 U RRA z,X 78 SEI 79 ADC a,Y 7A U NOP 7B U RRA abs,Y 7C U TOP abs,X 7D ADC a,X 7E ROR a,X 7F U RRA abs,X 80 U DOP #n 81 STA (z,X) 82 U DOP #n 83 U AAX (z,X) 84 STY z 85 STA z 86 STX z 87 U AAX z 88 DEY 89 U DOP #n 8A TXA 8B ? XAA #n 8C STY a 8D STA a 8E STX a 8F U AAX abs 90 BCC r 91 STA (z),Y 92 X KIL 93 ? AXA (z),Y 94 STY z,X 95 STA z,X 96 STX z,Y 97 U AAX z,Y 98 TYA 99 STA a,Y 9A TXS 9B ? XAS abs,Y 9C U SYA abs,X 9D STA a,X 9E U SXA abs,Y 9F ? AXA abs,Y A0 LDY #n A1 LDA (z,X) A2 LDX #n A3 U LAX (z,X) A4 LDY z A5 LDA z A6 LDX z A7 U LAX z A8 TAY A9 LDA #n AA TAX AB U ATX #n AC LDY a AD LDA a AE LDX a AF U LAX abs B0 BCS r B1 LDA (z),Y B2 X KIL B3 U LAX (z),Y B4 LDY z,X B5 LDA z,X B6 LDX z,Y B7 U LAX z,Y B8 CLV B9 LDA a,Y BA TSX BB ? LAR abs,Y BC LDY a,X BD LDA a,X BE LDX a,Y BF U LAX abs,Y C0 CPY #n C1 CMP (z,X) C2 U DOP #n C3 U DCP (z,X) C4 CPY z C5 CMP z C6 DEC z C7 U DCP z C8 INY C9 CMP #n CA DEX CB U AXS #n CC CPY a CD CMP a CE DEC a CF U DCP abs D0 BNE r D1 CMP (z),Y D2 X KIL D3 U DCP (z),Y D4 U DOP z,X D5 CMP z,X D6 DEC z,X D7 U DCP z,X D8 CLD D9 CMP a,Y DA U NOP DB U DCP abs,Y DC U TOP abs,X DD CMP a,X DE DEC a,X DF U DCP abs,X E0 CPX #n E1 SBC (z,X) E2 U DOP #n E3 U ISC (z,X) E4 CPX z E5 SBC z E6 INC z E7 U ISC z E8 INX E9 SBC #n EA NOP EB U SBC #n EC CPX a ED SBC a EE INC a EF U ISC abs F0 BEQ r F1 SBC (z),Y F2 X KIL F3 U ISC (z),Y F4 U DOP z,X F5 SBC z,X F6 INC z,X F7 U ISC z,X F8 SED F9 SBC a,Y FA U NOP FB U ISC abs,Y FC U TOP abs,X FD SBC a,X FE INC a,X FF U ISC abs,X Multi-tests ----------- The NES/NSF builds in the main directory consist of multiple sub-tests. When run, they list the subtests as they are run. The final result code refers to the first sub-test that failed. For more information about any failed subtests, run them individually from nes_singles/ and nsf_singles/. Multi-tests ----------- The NES/NSF builds in the main directory consist of multiple sub-tests. When run, they list the subtests as they are run. The final result code refers to the first sub-test that failed. For more information about any failed subtests, run them individually from nes_singles/ and nsf_singles/. Flashes, clicks, other glitches ------------------------------- Some tests might need to turn the screen off and on, or cause slight audio clicks. This does not indicate failure, and should be ignored. Only the test result reported at the end is important, unless stated otherwise. Text output ----------- Tests generally print information on screen. They also output the same text as a zero-terminted string beginning at $6004, allowing examination of output in an NSF player, or a NES emulator without a working PPU. The tests also work properly if the PPU doesn't set the VBL flag properly or doesn't implement it at all. The final result is displayed and also written to $6000. Before the test starts, $80 is written there so you can tell when it's done. If a test needs the NES to be reset, it writes $81 there. In addition, $DE $B0 $G1 is written to $6001-$6003 to allow an emulator to detect when a test is being run, as opposed to some other NES program. In NSF builds, the final result is also reported via a series of beeps (see below). See the source code for more information about a particular test and why it might be failing. Each test has comments and correct output at the top. NSF versions ------------ Many NSF-based tests require that the NSF player either not interrupt the init routine with the play routine, or if it does, not interrupt the play routine again if it hasn't returned yet. This is because many tests need to run for a while without returning. NSF versions also make periodic clicks to avoid the NSF player from thinking the track is silent and thus ending the track before it's done testing. In addition to the other text output methods described above, NSF builds report essential information bytes audibly, including the final result. A byte is reported as a series of tones. The code is in binary, with a low tone for 0 and a high tone for 1, and with leading zeroes skipped. The first tone is always a zero. A final code of 0 means passed, 1 means failure, and 2 or higher indicates a specific reason as listed in the source code by the corresponding set_code line. Examples: Tones Binary Decimal Meaning - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - low 0 0 passed low high 01 1 failed low high low 010 2 error 2 -- Shay Green <firstname.lastname@example.org>