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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<style xmlns="http://purl.org/net/xbiblio/csl" class="in-text" version="1.0" demote-non-dropping-particle="sort-only" default-locale="en-GB">
<info>
<title>Harvard - University of Birmingham</title>
<id>http://www.zotero.org/styles/harvard-university-of-birmingham</id>
<link href="http://www.zotero.org/styles/harvard-university-of-birmingham" rel="self"/>
<link href="https://intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/as/libraryservices/icite/referencing/harvard/index.aspx" rel="documentation"/>
<link href="https://intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/as/libraryservices/library/documents/public/alcd-guides/sk04.pdf" rel="documentation"/>
<link href="http://www.oak-wood.co.uk/oss/birmingham-harvard-csl" rel="documentation"/>
<author>
<name>Chris Hastie</name>
<uri>http://www.oak-wood.co.uk</uri>
</author>
<category citation-format="author-date"/>
<category field="generic-base"/>
<summary>The Harvard author-date style - adapted for the University of Birmingham. See usage notes at http://www.oak-wood.co.uk/oss/birmingham-harvard-csl</summary>
<updated>2012-10-18T22:38:43+00:00</updated>
<rights license="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License</rights>
</info>
<locale>
<terms>
<term name="open-quote">“</term>
<term name="close-quote">”</term>
</terms>
<style-options punctuation-in-quote="true"/>
</locale>
<macro name="editor">
<names variable="editor" delimiter=", ">
<name name-as-sort-order="all" and="text" sort-separator=", " initialize-with="." delimiter-precedes-last="never" delimiter=", "/>
<label form="short" prefix=" (" suffix=")" strip-periods="false"/>
</names>
</macro>
<macro name="cite-editor">
<names variable="editor" delimiter=", ">
<name form="short" and="text" delimiter=", " delimiter-precedes-last="never" initialize-with=". "/>
</names>
</macro>
<macro name="bookauthor">
<names variable="container-author">
<name name-as-sort-order="all" and="text" sort-separator=", " initialize-with="." delimiter-precedes-last="never" delimiter=", "/>
<substitute>
<text macro="editor"/>
</substitute>
</names>
</macro>
<!-- different to author because author will return a title for films and broadcasts -->
<macro name="director">
<names variable="author">
<name name-as-sort-order="all" and="text" sort-separator=", " initialize-with="." delimiter-precedes-last="never" delimiter=", "/>
<substitute>
<text macro="editor"/>
</substitute>
</names>
</macro>
<macro name="author">
<choose>
<!--UoB requires title rather than author for videos, films and broadcasts -->
<if type="broadcast motion_picture" match="any">
<choose>
<if variable="container-title">
<text variable="container-title" font-weight="bold"/>
</if>
<else-if variable="title">
<text variable="title" font-weight="bold"/>
</else-if>
</choose>
</if>
<else-if type="bill legislation" match="any">
<text variable="title" font-weight="bold"/>
</else-if>
<else>
<names variable="author">
<name name-as-sort-order="all" and="text" sort-separator=", " initialize-with="." delimiter-precedes-last="never" delimiter=", "/>
<label form="short" prefix=" " strip-periods="false"/>
<substitute>
<text macro="editor"/>
<!-- for anonymous works, use title -->
<choose>
<if type="webpage">
<text variable="title" font-weight="bold"/>
</if>
<else-if variable="container-title">
<text variable="title" font-weight="normal"/>
</else-if>
<else>
<text variable="title" font-weight="bold"/>
</else>
</choose>
</substitute>
</names>
</else>
</choose>
</macro>
<macro name="author-short">
<choose>
<if type="broadcast motion_picture" match="any">
<choose>
<if variable="container-title">
<text variable="container-title"/>
</if>
<else-if variable="title">
<text variable="title"/>
</else-if>
</choose>
</if>
<else-if type="bill legislation" match="any">
<text variable="title"/>
</else-if>
<else>
<names variable="author">
<name form="short" and="text" delimiter=", " delimiter-precedes-last="never" initialize-with=". "/>
<substitute>
<text macro="cite-editor"/>
<text variable="title"/>
<names variable="translator"/>
</substitute>
</names>
</else>
</choose>
</macro>
<macro name="access">
<group delimiter=" ">
<group>
<text value="Available from: "/>
<!-- UoB like the name of the elibrary for books - store it in archive -->
<choose>
<if type="book chapter" match="any">
<text variable="archive" suffix=". "/>
</if>
</choose>
<text variable="URL"/>
</group>
<choose>
<if variable="URL">
<group prefix=" [" suffix="]">
<text term="accessed" text-case="capitalize-first" suffix=" "/>
<date variable="accessed">
<date-part name="day" suffix=" "/>
<date-part name="month" suffix=" "/>
<date-part name="year"/>
</date>
</group>
</if>
</choose>
</group>
</macro>
<macro name="title">
<choose>
<!-- if anonymous, title will already have appeared at author position, so return nothing -->
<if variable="author editor" match="any">
<choose>
<if type="bill book graphic legal_case legislation manuscript motion_picture report song webpage" match="any">
<text variable="title" font-weight="bold"/>
</if>
<else-if variable="container-title" match="none">
<text variable="title" font-weight="bold"/>
</else-if>
<else-if type="chapter paper-conference" match="any">
<text variable="title" quotes="true"/>
</else-if>
<else>
<text variable="title"/>
</else>
</choose>
</if>
</choose>
</macro>
<macro name="publisher">
<group delimiter=": ">
<text variable="publisher-place"/>
<text variable="publisher"/>
</group>
</macro>
<macro name="year-date">
<choose>
<if variable="issued">
<date variable="issued">
<date-part name="year"/>
</date>
</if>
<else>
<text term="no date" form="short"/>
</else>
</choose>
</macro>
<macro name="edition">
<choose>
<if is-numeric="edition">
<group delimiter=" ">
<number variable="edition" form="ordinal"/>
<text term="edition" form="short" strip-periods="false"/>
</group>
</if>
<else>
<text variable="edition" suffix="."/>
</else>
</choose>
</macro>
<macro name="pages">
<choose>
<if type="article-journal article-magazine" match="any">
<choose>
<if variable="volume issue" match="any">
<text variable="page"/>
</if>
<else>
<label variable="page" form="short" suffix=" "/>
<text variable="page"/>
</else>
</choose>
</if>
<else>
<group>
<label variable="page" form="short" suffix=" "/>
<text variable="page"/>
</group>
</else>
</choose>
</macro>
<macro name="volumes">
<group>
<text variable="number-of-volumes" suffix=" "/>
<label variable="volume" form="short" plural="always"/>
</group>
</macro>
<macro name="online">
<choose>
<if variable="URL">
<text value="[online]"/>
</if>
</choose>
</macro>
<macro name="issued">
<choose>
<if type="article-newspaper article-magazine motion_picture paper-conference broadcast" match="any">
<date variable="issued">
<date-part name="day" suffix=" "/>
<date-part name="month"/>
</date>
</if>
</choose>
<choose>
<if type="motion_picture broadcast paper-conference" match="any">
<date variable="issued">
<date-part name="year" prefix=" "/>
</date>
</if>
</choose>
</macro>
<citation et-al-min="3" et-al-use-first="1" disambiguate-add-year-suffix="true" collapse="year">
<layout prefix="(" suffix=")" delimiter="; ">
<group delimiter=", ">
<text macro="author-short"/>
<choose>
<if type="bill legislation" match="none">
<text macro="year-date"/>
</if>
</choose>
<group>
<label variable="locator" form="short" strip-periods="false"/>
<text variable="locator"/>
</group>
</group>
</layout>
</citation>
<bibliography hanging-indent="false" et-al-min="3" et-al-use-first="3">
<sort>
<key macro="author"/>
<key macro="year-date" sort="ascending"/>
<key variable="title"/>
</sort>
<layout>
<group delimiter=" ">
<choose>
<if type="bill legislation" match="any">
<text macro="author" suffix=". "/>
</if>
<else>
<text macro="author"/>
<choose>
<if variable="author editor" match="any">
<text macro="year-date" prefix=" (" suffix=")"/>
</if>
<else-if type="broadcast motion_picture" match="any">
<text macro="year-date" prefix=" (" suffix=")"/>
</else-if>
<else>
<text macro="year-date" prefix=" (" suffix=")."/>
</else>
</choose>
</else>
</choose>
<group delimiter=". ">
<choose>
<if type="bill legislation" match="any">
<group delimiter=". ">
<text variable="container-title" font-weight="bold"/>
<text macro="edition"/>
<text macro="editor"/>
<text variable="number" suffix=")" prefix="("/>
<text variable="note"/>
<text macro="online"/>
</group>
</if>
<else-if type="thesis">
<group delimiter=". ">
<group prefix=" " delimiter=" ">
<text macro="title" font-weight="bold"/>
<text macro="edition"/>
<text macro="online"/>
</group>
<group prefix=" " delimiter=", ">
<text variable="genre"/>
<text variable="publisher"/>
</group>
</group>
</else-if>
<else-if type="webpage">
<group prefix=" " delimiter=" ">
<text macro="title"/>
<text macro="online"/>
<text macro="edition"/>
</group>
</else-if>
<else-if type="manuscript">
<group delimiter=". ">
<group delimiter=" ">
<text macro="title"/>
<text variable="genre" prefix="[" suffix="]"/>
</group>
<text variable="archive"/>
<text variable="archive_location"/>
<text macro="online"/>
<text macro="publisher"/>
</group>
</else-if>
<else-if type="article-journal article-magazine article-newspaper interview map patent personal_communication song speech" match="any">
<group>
<group suffix=".">
<text macro="title" prefix=" "/>
<text macro="editor" prefix=" "/>
</group>
<group delimiter=" " prefix=" ">
<text variable="container-title" font-weight="bold"/>
<text macro="online"/>
</group>
<group prefix=", " delimiter=", ">
<text macro="issued"/>
<group delimiter=": ">
<group delimiter=" ">
<text variable="volume"/>
<text variable="issue" prefix="(" suffix=")"/>
</group>
<text macro="pages"/>
</group>
</group>
</group>
</else-if>
<else-if type="broadcast motion_picture" match="any">
<group delimiter=". ">
<group delimiter=", ">
<text variable="number"/>
<choose>
<if variable="container-title">
<text variable="title"/>
</if>
</choose>
</group>
<group delimiter=" ">
<choose>
<if type="motion_picture" match="any">
<text value="Film"/>
</if>
</choose>
<text macro="online"/>
</group>
<group delimiter=". ">
<text macro="director"/>
<text macro="publisher"/>
<text macro="issued"/>
</group>
</group>
</else-if>
<else-if type="bill book graphic legal_case report" match="any">
<group delimiter=". ">
<group prefix=" ">
<text macro="title"/>
<group delimiter=" " prefix=". ">
<text variable="collection-title"/>
<text variable="collection-number"/>
<text variable="number"/>
</group>
<group delimiter=". " prefix=". ">
<text macro="volumes"/>
<text macro="edition"/>
<text macro="editor"/>
</group>
<text macro="online" prefix=" "/>
</group>
<text macro="publisher" prefix=" "/>
<text variable="note" suffix=")" prefix="("/>
</group>
</else-if>
<else-if type="chapter" match="any">
<group>
<text macro="title" prefix=" " suffix="."/>
<group prefix=" " delimiter=" ">
<text term="in" text-case="capitalize-first" suffix=" " text-decoration="underline"/>
<text macro="bookauthor"/>
<group prefix=" " suffix=".">
<text variable="container-title" font-weight="bold"/>
<group delimiter=" " prefix=". ">
<text variable="collection-title"/>
<text variable="collection-number"/>
<text variable="number"/>
</group>
<group delimiter=". " prefix=". ">
<text macro="volumes"/>
<text macro="edition"/>
</group>
<text macro="online" prefix=" "/>
</group>
<group delimiter=". ">
<text macro="issued"/>
<text macro="publisher"/>
<text macro="pages"/>
</group>
</group>
</group>
</else-if>
<else-if type="paper-conference" match="any">
<group>
<text macro="title" prefix=" " suffix="."/>
<group delimiter=". ">
<group prefix=" " delimiter=" ">
<text term="in" text-case="capitalize-first" suffix=" " text-decoration="underline"/>
<text macro="editor" suffix="."/>
<text variable="container-title" font-weight="bold" suffix="."/>
<text variable="collection-title"/>
<group delimiter=". ">
<text variable="publisher-place" font-weight="bold"/>
<text macro="issued" font-weight="bold"/>
</group>
<text macro="online"/>
</group>
<group delimiter=". ">
<text variable="publisher"/>
<text macro="pages"/>
</group>
</group>
</group>
</else-if>
<else>
<group delimiter=". ">
<group>
<text macro="title" prefix=" "/>
<text macro="editor" prefix=" "/>
</group>
<group delimiter=" ">
<text variable="container-title" font-weight="bold"/>
<text macro="online"/>
</group>
<group prefix=" ">
<group prefix=" ">
<text variable="volume"/>
<text variable="issue" prefix=" (" suffix=")"/>
<text macro="issued"/>
</group>
<group prefix=" ">
<text macro="pages"/>
</group>
</group>
</group>
</else>
</choose>
<text prefix=" " macro="access"/>
</group>
</group>
</layout>
</bibliography>
</style>
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