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Postgres extension and service for automated failover and high-availability
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pg_auto_failover

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pg_auto_failover is an extension and service for PostgreSQL that monitors and manages automated failover for a Postgres cluster. It is optimized for simplicity and correctness and supports Postgres 10 and newer.

We set up one PostgreSQL server as a monitor node as well as a primary and secondary node for storing data. The monitor node tracks the health of the data nodes and implements a failover state machine. On the PostgreSQL nodes, the pg_autoctl program runs alongside PostgreSQL and runs the necessary commands to configure synchronous streaming replication.

pg_auto_failover Architecture

The pg_auto_failover Monitor implements a state machine and relies on in-core PostgreSQL facilities to deliver HA. For example. when the secondary node is detected to be unavailable, or when its lag is too important, then the Monitor removes it from the synchronous_standby_names setting on the primary node. Until the secondary is back to being monitored healthy, failover and switchover operations are not allowed, preventing data loss.

pg_auto_failover consists of the following parts:

  • a PostgreSQL extension named pgautofailover
  • a PostgreSQL service to operate the pg_auto_failover monitor
  • a pg_auto_failover keeper to operate your PostgreSQL instances, see pg_autoctl run

Installing pg_auto_failover from packages

Ubuntu or Debian:

# Add the repository to your system
curl https://install.citusdata.com/community/deb.sh | sudo bash

# Install pg_auto_failover
sudo apt-get install postgresql-11-auto-failover

# Confirm installation
/usr/bin/pg_autoctl --version

Fedora, CentOS, or Red Hat:

# Add the repository to your system
curl https://install.citusdata.com/community/rpm.sh | sudo bash

# Install pg_auto_failover
sudo yum install -y pg-auto-failover10_11

# Confirm installation
/usr/pgsql-11/bin/pg_autoctl --version

Building pg_auto_failover from source

To build the project, just type make.

$ make
$ make install

For this to work though, the PostgreSQL client (libpq) and server (postgresql-server-dev) libraries must be available in your standard include and link paths.

The make install step will deploy the pgautofailover PostgreSQL extension in the PostgreSQL directory for extensions as pointed by pg_config, and install the pg_autoctl binary command in the directory pointed to by pg_config --bindir, alongside other PostgreSQL tools such as pg_ctl and pg_controldata.

Using pg_auto_failover

Once the building and installation is done, follow those steps:

  1. Install and start a pg_auto_failover monitor on your monitor machine:

    $ pg_autoctl create monitor --pgdata /path/to/pgdata

    Once this command is done, you should have a running PostgreSQL instance on the machine, installed in the directory pointed to by the --pgdata option, using the default port 5432.

    You may change the port using --pgport.

    The Postgres instance created will listen by default on all its network interfaces, and the monitor nodename is determined automatically by pg_autoctl by having a look at the network interfaces on the machine and doing some reverse then forward DNS queries. You may force the regitered nodename used with the --nodename option.

    The command also creates a autoctl user and database, and a autoctl_node user for the other nodes to use. In the pg_auto_failover database, the extension pgautofailover is installed, and some background worker jobs are active already, waiting until a PostgreSQL node gets registered to run health-checks on it.

  2. Get the Postgres URI (connection string) for the monitor node:

    $ pg_autoctl show uri
    postgres://autoctl_node@host/pg_auto_failover

    The following two steps are going to use the option --monitor which expects that connection string. So copy/paste your actual Postgres URI for the monitor in the next steps.

  3. Install and start a primary PostgreSQL instance:

    $ pg_autoctl create postgres --pgdata /path/to/pgdata     \
                                 --monitor postgres://autoctl_node@host/pg_auto_failover

    This command is using lots of default parameters that you may want to override, see its --help output for details. The three parameters used above are mandatory, though:

    • --pgdata sets the PGDATA directory where to install PostgreSQL, and if not given as an command line option then the environment variable PGDATA is used, when defined.

    • The nodename of this server is automatically discovered by pg_autoctl, and used by the other nodes to then connect to the newly created node: the monitor connects for running its health-checks, and the secondary instance connects using the replication protocol.

      To determine your nodename pg_autoctl implements the following three steps:

      1. open a connection to the monitor and looks the TCP/IP client address that has been used to make that connection.

      2. Do a reverse DNS lookup on this IP address to fetch a hostname for our local machine.

      3. If the reverse DNS lookup is successfull , then pg_autoctl does with a forward DNS lookup of that hostname.

      When the forward DNS lookup repsonse in step 3. is an IP address found in one of our local network interfaces, then pg_autoctl uses the hostname found in step 2. as the default --nodename. Otherwise it uses the IP address found in step 1.

      You may use the --nodename command line option to bypass the whole DNS lookup based process and force the local node name to a fixed value.

      The --nodename is used by other nodes to connect to this one, so it should be a hostname or an IP address that is reachable by the other members (localhost probably won't work).

      The provided --nodename is going to be used by pg_auto_failover to grant connection privileges in the Postgres HBA file. When using a hostname rather than an IP address, please make sure that reverse DNS is then working with the provided hostname, because that's how Postgres will then match any connection attempt with the HBA rules for granting connections, as described in Postgres documentation for the pg_hba.conf file, at the address field.

      In particular, this matching is done when setting-up replication from the primary to the secondary node by pg_auto_failover.

    • --monitor is the Postgres URI used to connect to the monitor that we deployed with the previous command, you should replace host in the connection string to point to the right host and port.

      Also, pg_auto_failover currently makes no provision on the monitor node with respect to database connection privileges, that are edited in PostgreSQL pg_hba.conf file. So please adjust the setup to allow for your keepers to be able to connect to the monitor.

    The initialisation step probes the given --pgdata directory for an existing PostgreSQL cluster, and when the directory doesn't exist it will go ahead and pg_ctl initdb one for you, after having registered the local node (nodename:pgport) to the pg_auto_failover monitor.

    Now that the installation is ready we can run the keeper service, which connects to the pg_auto_failover monitor every 5 seconds and implement the state transitions when needed:

    $ pg_autoctl run --pgdata /path/to/pgdata
  4. Install and start a secondary PostgreSQL instance:

    $ pg_autoctl create postgres --pgdata /path/to/pgdata     \
                                 --monitor postgres://autoctl_node@host/pg_auto_failover

    This command is the same as in the previous section, because it's all about initializing a PostgreSQL node again. This time, the monitor has a node registered as a primary server already, in the state SINGLE. Given this current state, the monitor is assigning this new node the role of a standby, and pg_autoctl create makes that happen.

    The command waits until the primary has prepared the PostgreSQL replication, which means editing pg_hba.conf to allow for connecting the standby with the replication privilege, and creating a replication slot for the standby.

    Once everything is ready, the monitor assign the goal state CATCHINGUP to the secondary server, which can now pg_basebackup from the primary, install its recovery.conf and start the PostgreSQL service.

    Once the pg_autoctl create command is done, again, it's important to run the keeper's service:

    $ pg_autoctl run --pgdata /path/to/pgdata

That's it! You now have a running pg_auto_failover setup with two PostgreSQL nodes using Streaming Replication to implement fault-tolerance.

Formations and Groups

In the previous example, the options --formation and --group are not used. This means we've been using the default values: the default formation is named default and the default group id is zero (0).

It's possible to add other services to the same running monitor by using another formation.

Application and Connection Strings

To retrieve the connection string to use at the application level, use the following command:

$ pg_autoctl show uri --formation default --pgdata ...
postgres://nodea:7020,nodeb:7010/citus?target_session_attrs=read-write

You can use that connection string from within your application, adjusting the username that is used to connect. By default, pg_auto_failover edits the Postgres HBA rules to allow the --username given at pg_autoctl create postgres time to connect to this URI from the database node itself.

To allow application servers to connect to the Postgres database, edit your pg_hba.conf file as documented in the pg_hba.conf file chapter of the PostgreSQL documentation.

Contributing

This project welcomes contributions and suggestions. Most contributions require you to agree to a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) declaring that you have the right to, and actually do, grant us the rights to use your contribution. For details, visit https://cla.microsoft.com.

When you submit a pull request, a CLA-bot will automatically determine whether you need to provide a CLA and decorate the PR appropriately (e.g., label, comment). Simply follow the instructions provided by the bot. You will only need to do this once across all repositories using our CLA.

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct. For more information see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact opencode@microsoft.com with any additional questions or comments.

Reporting Security Issues

Security issues and bugs should be reported privately, via email, to the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) at secure@microsoft.com. You should receive a response within 24 hours. If for some reason you do not, please follow up via email to ensure we received your original message. Further information, including the MSRC PGP key, can be found in the Security TechCenter.

Authors

License

Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

This project is licensed under the PostgreSQL License, see LICENSE file for details.

This project includes bundled third-party dependencies, see NOTICE file for details.

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