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README.md

cjdns

Dear Reader,

I suppose you are here because you are interested in alternative networks, perhaps for censorship resistance, perhaps network security and I have no doubt you are wondering what the hell this thing is supposed to do.

We can all find common ground in the statement that The Internet is painfully insecure. Free speech and privacy advocates find it insecure against government listening and blocking, governments find it insecure against hackers taking systems over and leaking secrets, and internet service providers find it insecure against DDoS kiddies who use large swarms of zombie machines to send enough traffic to overload a network link. These are, however, all different views of the same problem.

We have a number of somewhat competing offerings to solve this problem from ISPs and government. We have IPSEC, DNSSEC, numerous proposals from the mundane to the wild and wacky such as "internet drivers licenses".

The people who have developed these proposals are unfortunately limited in their thinking. ISPs are unable to see past the now almost 30 year old routing protocols which glue together the internet of today. Government actors are conditioned to think of something as secure when they have control over it. A quick look at x509 (the authentication system behind SSL) shows us that central points of failure inevitably live up to their name. In order to have a central authority, the people must not only be able to trust his motives but they must be able to trust his system's integrity as well. Recently people's e-mail was compromised when DigiNotar certificate authority was hacked and used to forge gmail certificates.

It is worthy of note that the vulnerability in DNS which ICE exploited to take down websites they deemed "dedicated to copyright infringement" was also used by Anonymous to replace a movie industry website with a manifesto.

A System Is Only Secure When Nobody Has Total Control

What is cjdns?

It is a routing engine designed for security, scalability, speed and ease of use. The dream: You type ./cjdroute and give it an interface which connects another node and it gives you an ipv6 address generated from a public encryption key and a virtual network card (TUN device) which you can use to send packets to anyone in the cjdns network to which you are connected.

How does it work?

In order to understand how cjdns works, it is important to understand how the existing internet works when you send a packet, at each "intersection in the road" the router reads the address on the packet and decides which turn it should take. In the cjdns net, a packet goes to a router and the router labels the packet with directions to a router which will be able to best handle it. That is, a router which is near by in physical space and has an address which is numerically close to the destination address of the packet. The directions which are added to the packet allow it to go through a number of routers without much handling, they just read the label and bounce the packet wherever the next bits in the label tell them to. Routers have a responsibility to "keep in touch" with other routers that are numerically close to their address and also routers which are physically close to them.

The router engine is a modified implementation of the Kademlia DHT design.

How close is it to complete?

A live testing network exists with at least 150 active nodes. The software has been tested and is known to work on x86, amd64, ARMv5, ARMv7, MIPS, PowerPC32 and PowerPC64. It is continually tested on Linux and Apple OSX systems. While the software itself is stable, the protocols and algorithms are new inventions and we still don't understand how they work in the real world so please update early and often to give developers the maximum latitude to make tweaks to the protocol and algorithms.

You Can Help!

If you have a system based on an alternative architecture, join the IRC channel and ask about running a buildbot. We are specifically looking for buildbots running on MIPS and ARM based systems but bots running on PowerPC, SPARC, Itanium or any other esoteric architectures are also helpful.

Join the IRC channel and ask about other ways you can help.

What about DNS?

DNS is a complex system to implement and highly complex to implement without central authority, if you would like to offer help with this part, I invite you to come join.

Further Reading & Discussion

Please read the Whitepaper, or at least skim it:

If you are still interested in this project and want to follow it, get in the channel on IRC:

Thank you for your time and interest, Caleb James DeLisle == cjdelisle == cjd


How to install cjdns

0. Install the build tools you will need.

sudo apt-get install cmake git build-essential

1. Retrieve cjdns from GitHub.

Clone the repository from GitHub and change to the source directory:

git clone https://github.com/cjdelisle/cjdns.git cjdns
cd cjdns

2. Build.

./do

Look for Build completed successfully, type ./cjdroute to begin setup., then proceed below:


Setup

Run cjdroute without options for HELP:

./cjdroute

0: Make sure you've got the stuff.

cat /dev/net/tun

If it says: cat: /dev/net/tun: File descriptor in bad state Good!

If it says: cat: /dev/net/tun: No such file or directory

Create it using:

sudo mkdir /dev/net ; sudo mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200 && sudo chmod 0666 /dev/net/tun

Then cat /dev/net/tun again.

If it says: cat: /dev/net/tun: Permission denied You're probably using a VPS based on the OpenVZ virtualization platform. Ask your provider to enable the TUN/TAP device, this is standard protocol so they should know exactly what you need.

1: Generate a new configuration file.

./cjdroute --genconf >> cjdroute.conf

2: Find a friend.

In order to get into the network you need to meet someone who is also in the network and connect to them. This is required for a number of reasons:

  1. It is a preventitive against abuse because bad people will be less likely to abuse a system after they were, in an act of human kindness, given access to that system.
  2. This is not intended to overlay The Old Internet, it is intended to replace it. Each connection will in due time be replaced by a wire, a fiber optic cable, or a wireless network connection.
  3. In any case of a disagreement, there will be a "chain of friends" linking the people involved so there will already be a basis for coming to a resolution.

tl;dr Get out and make some human contact once in a while!

You can meet people to peer with in the IRC channel:

NOTE: If you're just interested in setting up a local network between your own computers, this step is not necessary.

3: Fill in your friend's info.

In your cjdroute.conf file, you will see:

        // Nodes to connect to.
        "connectTo":
        {
            // Add connection credentials here to join the network
            // Ask somebody who is already connected.
        }

After adding their connection credentials, it will look like:

        // Nodes to connect to.
        "connectTo":
        {
            "0.1.2.3:45678":
            {
                "password": "thisIsNotARealConnection",
                "publicKey": "thisIsJustForAnExampleDoNotUseThisInYourConfFile.k"
            }
        }

You can add as many connections as you want to your "connectTo" section.

Your own connection credentials will be shown in a JSON comment above in your "authorizedPasswords" section. Do not modify this but if you want to allow someone to connect to you, give it to them.

It looks like this:

    /* These are your connection credentials
       for people connecting to you with your default password.
       adding more passwords for different users is advisable
       so that leaks can be isolated.

        "your.external.ip.goes.here:12345":
        {
            "password": "thisIsNotARealConnectionEither",
            "publicKey": "thisIsAlsoJustForAnExampleDoNotUseThisInYourConfFile.k"
        }
    */

your.external.ip.goes.here is to be replaced with the IPv4 address which people will use to connect to you from over The Old Internet.

4: Start it up!

sudo ./cjdroute < cjdroute.conf

If you want to have your logs written to a file:

sudo ./cjdroute < cjdroute.conf > cjdroute.log

If you want to be able to close your terminal and you don't use screen:

sudo su
./cjdroute < cjdroute.conf > /dev/null &

NOTE: when you use &, remember that you will have cjdroute processes running in the background if you are having problems use killall cjdroute to return to sanity. Use pgrep cjdroute or top to see if it running.

5: Get in IRC

Welcome to the network, you are now a real network administrator. There are responsibilities which come with being a network administrator which include being available in case there is something wrong with your equipment. You can connect to irc via irc.efnet.org. The channel to join is #cjdns and you should stay there so that we are able to reach you.

Notes

This starts cjdroute as the root user so cjdroute can configure your system and shed permissions. If you really want to start cjdroute as a non-root user, see Non-Standard Setups below.

Protect your conf file! A lost conf file means you lost your password and connections and anyone who connected to you will nolonger be able to connect. A compromised conf file means that other people can impersonate you on the network.

chmod 400 cjdroute.conf
mkdir /etc/cjdns && cp ./cjdroute.conf /etc/cjdns/

Self-Check Your Network

Once your node is running, you're now a newly minted IPv6 host. Your operating system may automatically reconfigure network services to use this new address. If this is not what you intend, you should check to see that you are not offering more services then you intended to. ;)

1: Obtain IP address.

Use ifconfig -a to find your TUN device's IPv6 address. (Same as above.)

2: Scan for open services.

Run nmap to discover which services are accessible from this address. For example, to scan the address fcf7:75f0:82e3:327c:7112:b9ab:d1f9:bbbe:

nmap -6 -n -r -v -p1-65535 -sT fcf7:75f0:82e3:327c:7112:b9ab:d1f9:bbbe

This should result in an output like the following.

Starting Nmap 5.61TEST2 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2011-12-29 20:40 EST
Initiating Connect Scan at 20:40
Scanning fcf7:75f0:82e3:327c:7112:b9ab:d1f9:bbbe [65535 ports]
Completed Connect Scan at 20:40, 4.38s elapsed (65535 total ports)
Nmap scan report for fcf7:75f0:82e3:327c:7112:b9ab:d1f9:bbbe
Host is up (0.00073s latency).
All 65535 scanned ports on fcf7:75f0:82e3:327c:7112:b9ab:d1f9:bbbe are closed

Read data files from: /usr/local/bin/../share/nmap
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 4.60 seconds
    Raw packets sent: 0 (0B) | Rcvd: 0 (0B)

3: If you see anything open, fix it.

Examples for SSH and Samba are below.

SSH

Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config:

ListenAddress 192.168.1.1

^ Replace 192.168.1.1 in the example above with your STATIC IP (or map DHCP via MAC).

Samba

Edit /etc/samba/smb.conf:

[global]
interfaces = eth0
bind interfaces only = Yes

^ This will cause Samba to not bind to tun0 (or whichever TUN device you are using).

Thats it for now! Got More? Tell us on IRC.


Non-Standard Setups

Most Users Don't Need To Read Below This Point

Instructions for building or installing in non-default ways.

Start cjdroute as non-root user.

If you're using an OpenVZ based VPS then you will need to use this as OpenVZ does not permit persistent tunnels.

Create a cjdns user:

sudo useradd cjdns

Create a new TUN device and give the cjdns user authority to access it:

sudo /sbin/ip tuntap add mode tun user cjdns dev cjdroute0

4b-1: Setup the interface manually

Run those commands to prepare your TUN device:

sudo /sbin/ip addr add <your ipv6 address>/8 dev cjdroute0
sudo /sbin/ip link set cjdroute0 up

These commands should be executed as root now every time the system restarts.

Old versions of iproute2

If you see an error when running /sbin/ip, your version of iproute2 might be old.

sudo /sbin/ip tuntap add mode tun user cjdns
Object "tuntap" is unknown, try "ip help".

The fix: for now grab a copy of a newer ip binary and copy it to your home directory. Replacing the system binaries is not likely a good idea.

4b-2: Fire it up!

sudo -u cjdns ./cjdroute < cjdroute.conf

To delete a tunnel, use this command:

sudo /sbin/ip tuntap del mode tun <name of tunnel>

Dynamically linking to Libevent2

By default, the build process will search your system for Libevent2 and if it is not found, it will download, compile, and statically link it. If you would like to link it dynamically follow these instructions.

1: Remove older versions of dependencies: libevent and libevent-dev.

Be sure libevent is gone and remove if found. It will cause problems during the build.

Check to see which libevent is installed:

dpkg -l | grep ^ii| grep libevent

This should produce:

ii  libevent-dev            1.3e-3     Development libraries, header files and docs
ii  libevent1               1.3e-3     An asynchronous event notification library

In such a case:

sudo apt-get remove libevent-dev

Note: You may need to (re)compile TOR if you use it.

2: Obtain latest libevent2 dependency manually.

CHECK https://github.com/libevent/libevent for LATEST version. (This document assumes 2.0.16.)

Grab the stable tarball from libevent and untar:

wget https://github.com/downloads/libevent/libevent/libevent-2.0.16-stable.tar.gz
tar -xzf libevent-2.0.16-stable.tar.gz

Enter directory and compile libevent:

cd libevent-2.0.16-stable
./configure

Resolve missing dependencies if needed and run again until all errors gone:

make
sudo make install

3: Compile cjdns using NO_STATIC.

By compiling with NO_STATIC, the process will fail rather than defaulting to static link.

NO_STATIC=1 cmake ..
make

You can also force a static build even if you have libevent2 by using:

STATIC=1 cmake ..
make

Installing cjdns on OpenIndiana

In order to install cjdns on an OpenIndiana system, do the following:

sudo pkg set-publisher -p http://pkg.openindiana.org/sfe
sudo pkg install runtime/gcc@4.6.2,5.11-0.151.1:20111222T011404Z
sudo pkg install gnu-make
sudo pkg install header-math
sudo pkg install git
sudo pkg install tuntap
git clone git://github.com/cjdelisle/cjdns.git
cd cjdns
./do

Once it has completed successfully, simply type ./cjdroute and follow the normal instructions

Accessing the cjdns admin interface

When cjdnroute is up and running, an administrative interface will listen on localhost:11234 (this can be changed in the cjdroute.conf configuration file).

You can access this api using the following tools, to get interesting information.

cjdns-tool

cjdns-tool is a toolset for querying the admin api using the command line. It is written in ruby and maintained by kris kechagia. To install it, simply type

sudo apt-get install rubygems
clone https://github.com/kechagia/cjdns-tool.git cjdns-tool
cd cjdns-tool
sudo gem install cjdns-tool

cjdns-tool can dump the local routing table in a traceroute-like fashion, as count routes as well as doing a ping sweep to see which nodes are alive and what their response time is. For usage information you can either type

cjdns-tool help

and expore for yourself, or visit the readme.

python library

cjdns comes with a python library to access the api. For more information, read the readme.

perl library

The perl port of the python api library is maintained by Mikey. For usage instructions, head over to the readme.

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