TypeChef is a research project with the goal of analyzing ifdef variability in C code with the goal of finding variability-induced bugs in large-scale real-world systems, such as the Linux kernel with several thousand features (or configuration options).
Instead of analyzing each variant for each feature combination in isolation, TypeChef parses the entire source code containing all variability in a variability-aware fashion without preprocessing. The resulting abstract syntax tree contains the variability in form of choice nodes. Eventually, a variability-aware type system performs type checking on these trees, variability-aware data-flow analysis performs data-flow analysis and so forth.
TypeChef was started with the goal of building a type system for C code with compile-time configurations. TypeChef was originally short for Type Checking Ifdef Variability. Over time it has grown into an infrastructure of all kinds of analyses. In all cases, the goal is to detect errors in all possible feature combinations, without resorting to a brute-force approach.
Architecture and Subprojects
The TypeChef project contains of four main components and several helper libraries.
A library for reasoning about feature expressions (subproject FeatureExprLib). The library allows to easily express and reason about expressions in propositional logic. It supports also parsing feature expressions and loading entire feature models (in textual format or a .dimacs file). For reasoning, internally both BDDs and SAT solvers are used which allows to scale reasoning even to feature models the size of the Linux kernel. The library can be (and is) reused in very different contexts also in Java code.
A library of conditional data structures for variational programming (subproject ConditionalLib) with several useful operations on conditional structures. Used heavily in all other subprojects. For a short introduction see VariationalProgramming.md.
A variability-aware lexer (also called partial preprocessor; subproject PartialPreprocessor) that reads unpreprocessed code and produces a conditional token stream. The variability-aware lexer is responsible for resolving macros and file inclusions and for normalizing
A variability-aware parser framework provides parser combinators to build variability-aware parsers (subproject ParserFramework).
The variability-aware parsers for GNU C and Java (subprojects CParser and JavaParser) use the parser framework to build parsers for the corresponding languages. The parsers read a conditional token stream and produce abstract syntax trees with corresponding choice nodes.
A variability-aware type system (subproject CTypeChecker) eventually checks variability in the abstract syntax tree. This will be supported by variability-aware linker checks.
A variability-aware control-flow and data-flow analysis (subproject CRewrite) provides implementations for successor/predecessor determination of abstract syntax tree elements in the presence of choice nodes and on top of it a variable liveness implementation.
Setups for analyzing individual systems together with useful tooling are available as separate github projects (see section evaluation below).
Installation and Usage
You can download a .jar file including all necessary libraries TypeChef.jar. Run as usual
java -jar TypeChef.jar ...
libraryDependencies += "de.fosd.typechef" %% "frontend" % "0.3.7"
To build TypeChef from source, we use sbt. Install git and download and compile the code as follows
git clone git://github.com/ckaestne/TypeChef.git cd TypeChef java -Xmx512M -Xss10m -jar sbt-launch.jar clean update compile
Due to library dependencies, setting up the TypeChef classpath
can be difficult. There are two convenient mechanisms:
sbt assembly to build a single jar file.
sbt mkrun to create a script
typechef.sh that sets a correct classpath.
Most functionality of TypeChef is accessible through parameters of
de.fosd.typechef.Frontend class. Call TypeChef with
--help to see a
list of configuration parameters. See also
You will need to set up system include paths with
a header file with the compiler's macro definitions with
for example, with
echo - | gcc -dM - -E -std=gnu99 for gcc).
Have a look at existing projects using TypeChef or contact us in
case of questions.
IntelliJ Idea install the sbt plugin sbt-idea
sbt gen-idea to create
corresponding project and classpath information for the
IDE. Similar sbt plugins for Eclipse are available. In general
avoid to set the classpath in IDEs manually, but let sbt
generate corresponding files for you.
Details on our syntax analysis of Linux have been published in an OOPSLA paper (see below). Details of the type checking and linker checking of Busybox were publishing in an subsequent OOPSLA paper (see below).
The implementation of the data-flow analysis has been evaluated in two case studies (BusyBox and Linux) and the result of this evaluation is available from http://fosd.net/vaa
The setups for running TypeChef on these projects are available as separate github projects, for example:
The project was only possible with fruitful collaboration of many researchers.
- Christian Kaestner (Carnegie Mellon University, project lead)
- Joerg Liebig (University of Passau)
- Paolo G. Giarrusso (Philipps University Marburg)
- Tillmann Rendel (Philipps University Marburg)
- Sebastian Erdweg (Technical University Darmstadt)
- Klaus Ostermann (Philipps University Marburg)
- Thorsten Berger (University of Leipzig)
- Alexander von Rhein (University of Passau)
- Sarah Nadi (University of Waterloo)
- Alex Eifler (Philipps University Marburg)
- David Kraus (Philipps University Marburg)
- Andy Kenner (Metop Research Institute, Magdeburg)
- Steffen Haase (Metop Research Institute, Magdeburg)
- Sven Apel (University of Passau)
For reasoning about propositional formulas, we use the SAT solver sat4j.
The GNU C parser is based on an ANTLR grammar for GNU C.
The Java parser is based on a grammar that can be traced back to the Java 1.5 grammar in the JavaCC repository.
Experimentally, the Xtc/SuperC parser is included as .jar file to provide an alternative lexer.
For convenience, we include a binary of sbt in the repository.
This work was supported in part by the European Research Council, grant #203099.
Fork the project, write bug reports, contact us, .... We are open for collaborations and extensions and other scenarios.
An indepth discussion of the parsing approach and our experience with parsing Linux was published at OOPSLA 2011:
Christian Kaestner, Paolo G. Giarrusso, Tillmann Rendel, Sebastian Erdweg, Klaus Ostermann, and Thorsten Berger. Variability-Aware Parsing in the Presence of Lexical Macros and Conditional Compilation. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA) (Portland, OR), New York, NY, October 2011. ACM Press.
In the context of a variability-aware module system, we discussed type checking and linker checks on the example of Busybox, published at OOPSLA 2012:
Christian Kästner, Klaus Ostermann, and Sebastian Erdweg. A Variability-Aware Module System. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA), pages 773--792, New York, NY: ACM Press, October 2012.
A description of how we scaled type system and data-flow analysis and a performance comparison with sampling strategies can be found here:
J. Liebig, A. von Rhein, C. Kästner, S. Apel, J. Dörre, and C. Lengauer. Scalable Analysis of Variable Software. In Proceedings of the European Software Engineering Conference and ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE), New York, NY: ACM Press, August 2013.
A more detailed discussion of the variability-aware lexer (or partial preprocessor) was presented at VaMoS 2011:
Christian Kästner, Paolo G. Giarrusso, and Klaus Ostermann. Partial Preprocessing C Code for Variability Analysis. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-intensive Systems (VaMoS) (Namur, Belgium), pages 137-140, New York, NY, USA, January 2011. ACM Press.
A simple variability-aware interpreter for executing test cases was build on top of TypeChef and published at FOSD 2012:
C. Kästner, A. von Rhein, S. Erdweg, J. Pusch, S. Apel, T. Rendel, and K. Ostermann. Toward Variability-Aware Testing. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Feature-Oriented Software Development (FOSD), pages 1--8, New York, NY: ACM Press, September 2012.
For an overview of variability-aware analysis in general, please refer to the a technical report on the following webpage http://fosd.net/spl-strategies and the following reports:
T. Thüm, S. Apel, C. Kästner, M. Kuhlemann, I. Schaefer, and G. Saake. Analysis Strategies for Software Product Lines. Technical Report FIN-2012-04, Magdeburg, Germany: University of Magdeburg, April 2012.
A. von Rhein, S. Apel, C. Kästner, T. Thüm, and I. Schaefer. The PLA Model: On the Combination of Product-Line Analyses. In Proceedings of the 7th Int'l Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-Intensive Systems (VaMoS), pages 14:1--14:8, New York, NY: ACM Press, January 2013.
Finally, an early overview of the project with a very preliminary implementation (now terribly outdated and superseeded by the papers above) was published at
Andy Kenner, Christian Kästner, Steffen Haase, and Thomas Leich. TypeChef: Toward Type Checking #ifdef Variability in C. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Feature-Oriented Software Development (FOSD) (Eindhoven, The Netherlands), pages 25-32, New York, NY, USA, October 2010. ACM Press.
- v0.3.7 (November 2014)
- Updated to Scala 2.11.4
- Lots of minor changes to type system and control flow graph
- Preparations to run on newer version of Linux
- v0.3.4 (March 2013)
- Updated to Scala 2.10.1
- Various fixes and extensions to the type system (e.g., support for both styles of parameter declarations in C, better handling of ignored types, correct type for sizeOf)
- Fixed bug in parser that caused duplicated subtrees and subtrees with unsatisfiable conditions in some cases of undisciplined ifdefs
- Report #error and #warning tags again during lexing
- Experimental integration of Xtc/SuperC lexer
- Changed defaults of several command line parameters
- Supports now the entire X86 setup for the Linux kernel
- And several more
- v0.3.3 (June 2012)
- v0.3.2 (May 2012)
TypeChef is published as open source under LGPL 3.0. See LICENSE.