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OAI Harvest Manager is a Java application for managing OAI-PMH harvesting. It is intended to allow definition of a harvesting workflow (involving OAI harvesting and subsequent operations like transformations or mappings of metadata between schemata) in a few minutes using a configuration file only.

This application contains a modified version of the OCLC harvester2 library (license), which implements the OAI-PMH requests.

Basic Glossary

In OAI-PMH, an individual metadata datum is called a record. Clients, such as this application, that fetch records are called harvesters. The server application from which records are obtained is called a provider. The base URL of the provider (i.e. the request URL without any parameters) is also called an OAI-PMH endpoint.


Building this app requires JDK 11 and Apache Maven. It can be built simply using the command:

mvn clean install

If you use a Java IDE, it is highly likely it also offers a simple way to do the above.

You can also use the script to run a build within an environment provisioned with suitable versions of the JDK and Maven. Requires docker.

The above build process creates a package named target/oai-harvest-manager-x.y.z.tar.gz (where x.y.z is a version number).

Running the Application

There are no installation instructions to speak of: simply unpack the above package into wherever you like. Be sure the system can find java however. The deployment package contains a script to start the app, (for Unix systems including Mac OS X; we can add a Windows batch file if anyone wants it). The simplest usage is: config.xml

where config.xml is the configuration file you wish to use. Additionally, parameters can be defined on the command line. For example: timeout=30 config.xml

will set the connection timeout to 30 seconds. This value will override the timeout value defined in config.xml, if any. The first parameter that does not contain = is taken as the configuration file name.

If you used to run a build you can use config.xml to run this build


The behaviour of the app is determined by a single configuration file. The configuration file is composed of four sections:

  • settings, where options such as directory paths and timeouts are set;
  • directories, where output paths are defined;
  • actions, the most complex section, where actionSequences of actions can be defined for different metadata formats (actions include semantic transformations and saving intermediary or final results into a file); and
  • providers, where endpoints for the providers to be harvested are listed.

To get a clear idea of the structure of the configuration file, see the sample configuration files or the CLARIN configuration files in juxtaposition with the explanation for each section below.

Configuring Settings

The configuration parameters in this section govern the working directory (all output directories will be interpreted relative to it); connection limits including retry count, connection delay and timeout; thread control settings, including the resource pool size (which can be reduced to lessen memory footprint, or increased to speed up processing if resources are plentiful); and settings related to incremental harvesting.

Set the dry-run setting to true to run the harvester without making the actual harvest requests to the OAI-PMH endpoints.

Configuring Directories

The output paths listed in this section must each be given a unique identifier. Additionally, the max-files attribute can be used to set a limit on the number of files in a single directory. If this is non-zero, subdirectories will be created in such a way that each subdirectory has at most max-files files in it. The usefulness of this setting largely depends on the total number of records you expect to store in a single directory and the file system used.

Configuring Actions

Multiple action actionSequences can be defined in this section. Each sequence corresponds to a format specification followed by a number of sequential actions.

The format definition is made up of a match type (attribute match) and match value (attribute value). The match type is one of prefix, which simply specifies and OAI-PMH metadata prefix, namespace, and schema. When one of the latter two types is used, the harvest manager will contact the provider with a ListMetadataFormats query and choose all metadata prefixes that correspond to the specified namespace or schema.

The actions are manipulations of one or more metadata records, each of which operates on the result of the previous action. A number of action types are available:

  • The save action stores the record in a new file in a specified output directory, specified by an identifier matching one of the directories defined in the previous section. The attribute suffix can be used to specify the file extension (the most typical value being ```suffix=".xml"`). If the attribute group-by-provider is specified, a separate subdirectory will be created for each endpoint. By setting history param operation will created history file.

  • The split action split a OAI-PMH envelope that contains multiple records into individual record. It retains the part of the OAI-PMH envelope that is specific for the record, such as the date it was fetched and its OAI-PMH identifier, and the actual metadata record itself.

  • The strip action removes the OAI-PMH envelope and retains only the actual metadata record. Note that the envelope contains information not found within the record itself, such as the date it was fetched and its OAI-PMH identifier.

  • The transform action applies a mapping, defined in an XSLT file, to the metadata record. This can be used, among other things, for semantic mapping between metadata schemata. See the included configuration files for an example. The XSLT recieves various parameters:

    1. config the configuration file used
    2. provider_name the provider name
    3. provider_uri the endpoint
    4. record_identifier the id of the record to transform

For each provider, the first format definition that the provider supports will determine the action sequence to be executed. If one of the actions in a sequence fails, the subsequent actions are not carried out and an error message is logged (but processing of any other metadata record is unaffected).

Configuring Providers

For each provider, the following can be defined:

  • The url attribute (mandatory) specifies the endpoint. Any URL parameters (for example, ?verb=Identify is commonly included when endpoint addresses are discussed) are unnecessary and will be stripped off automatically.

  • The name attribute specifies the name to use for the provider (which may in turn determine file paths, depending on other settings). If no name is specified, the provider will be contacted and the name from its Identify response used. If no valid response is received within a reasonable time, a generic string like Unnamed provider at is used instead.

  • The attribute static, when set to true, indicates that the provider is static. See the section below on static providers for details.

  • Some of the global configuration options (retry count, connection delay and timeout) can be overwritten for a specific provider by adding them as attributes to the provider element.

  • The attribute exclusive, when set to true, indicates that the provider should be harvested on its own, i.e. no other harvesting threads should be active, this can be used when a provider has some huge records.

  • The provider element may contain multiple set child elements, which specify the names of OAI-PMH sets to be harvested.

There is also a special case where provider names may be imported from a centre registry. So far, this registry is only used by the CLARIN community. The registry is specified by its URL. All the provider endpoints defined in the registry will be harvested. Sometimes, it might be necessary to exclude an endpoint from the ones defined in the registry. This can be done by specifying its URL in the configuration file used for harvesting. In other cases an endpoint loaded from the registry needs its specific configuration timeout, this can be done in a similar vain as excluding. Please review the instructions in the configuration files supplied in the package.

Static Providers

This app provides support for a special case: harvesting directly from a static provider, as defined in the OAI static repository guidelines.

Essentially, a static repository is a provider that only has to make available a single XML file which contains all of their records. The method intended by the OAI-PMH family of standards for dealing with this situation is that the static repository uses a gateway to intermediate access, so that harvesters may access their metadata via standard OAI-PMH requests through the gateway. The OAI Harvest Manager allows direct harvesting of the XML file, bypassing any intermediary. This allows harvesting in a very efficient manner, as only a single file needs to be transferred in place of possibly thousands of individual OAI-PMH requests.

Please note that this type of use is beyond the scope of the OAI-PMH standard and should be viewed as an option for implementation efficiency that sacrifices some compliance with standards.

To use a static provider, specify the URL of the XML file as the endpoint and set the attribute static for that provider in the configuration file to true. Records harvested from static providers only have a minimal envelope that includes datestamp (of the record) and identifier but excludes request specific attributes such as response datestamps.


The harvester will create the directory 'log' in which log files will reside. Alternatively, you can specify a directory for these by defining the LOG_DIR environment variable. A log file per provider will be created, which is convenient for debugging specific providers.

Implementation Notes

Processing for each provider runs in a separate thread. It is not possible to target a single provider with multiple threads (except in the special case where sets are used; then it is possible to mention the provider multiple times in the provider list, each with different set(s), and the multiple references to the same provider will then be treated like different providers).

For efficiency, thread pools containing prepared action objects are constructed for each action referenced in the actions section of the configuration file. Different action actionSequences share the same pool for the exact same action. Consider the following example, assuming that the configuration parameter resource-pool-size is set to 5:

    <format match="namespace" value="">
      <action type="save" dir="orig"/>
      <action type="strip"/>
      <action type="save" dir="cmdi" history="true"/>
    <format match="prefix" value="olac">
      <action type="save" dir="orig"/>
      <action type="strip"/>
      <action type="save" dir="olac" group-by-provider="false"/>

In this case, a total of 15 objects are pooled for the save actions: 5 for saving to the directory orig in a pool shared by the two action actionSequences, and 5 each for the directories cmdi and olac, only used by one action sequence each.

The pooling implementation is particularly important when transformations are used, as preparing a transformation object involves parsing the XSLT, potentially a time-consuming process.