Decode / encode XML to/from map[string]interface{} (or JSON); extract values with dot-notation paths and wildcards. Replaces x2j and j2x packages.
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examples Add/refactor wrapper functions Sep 14, 2018
j2x Running gofmt Apr 5, 2015
x2j-wrapper fix README Mar 26, 2018
x2j Running gofmt Apr 5, 2015
LICENSE update Jan 1, 2016
anyxml.go conform nil map marshaling to nil value marshaling Jul 27, 2018
anyxml_test.go conform nil map marshaling to nil value marshaling Jul 27, 2018
atomFeedString.xml refactor decoder, patch encoder, add test cases and benchmarks Nov 16, 2015
attrprefix_test.go handle error conditions in Xml() and XmlIndent() Nov 30, 2016
badxml_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
bom_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
bulk_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
bulkraw_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
data_test.go Running gofmt Apr 5, 2015
doc.go clarify doc May 31, 2018
escapechars.go Implement XMLEscapeChars() for XMLSeq(), XMLSeqIndent(). Aug 29, 2016
escapechars_test.go Implement XMLEscapeChars() for XMLSeq(), XMLSeqIndent(). Aug 29, 2016
example_test.go fix documentation Jun 23, 2018
exists.go Update exists.go Apr 11, 2018
exists_test.go [Add] test on checking exist with sub keys Apr 12, 2018
files.go deprecate XmlWriterBufSize variable Feb 20, 2017
files_test.badjson Process Map values from JSON and XML files May 16, 2014
files_test.badxml Process Map values from JSON and XML files May 16, 2014
files_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
files_test.json Process Map values from JSON and XML files May 16, 2014
files_test.xml Process Map values from JSON and XML files May 16, 2014
files_test_dup.json test stuff Aug 2, 2014
files_test_dup.xml sort attributes/tags when encoding XML May 20, 2015
files_test_indent.json test stuff Aug 2, 2014
files_test_indent.xml sort attributes/tags when encoding XML May 20, 2015
gob.go support gob encoding/decoding of/to Maps Mar 29, 2018
gob_test.go add symmetric test for gob encoding/decoding Mar 30, 2018
j2x_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
json.go Cleanup documentation. Sep 12, 2016
json_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
keystolower_test.go clean up code and test case Feb 6, 2017
keyvalues.go Add/refactor wrapper functions Sep 14, 2018
keyvalues2_test.go merge SetNewvalFieldSeparator and SetSubkeyFieldSeparator into SetFie… Feb 10, 2017
keyvalues_test.go Add/refactor wrapper functions Sep 14, 2018
leafnode.go fix docs and example Feb 22, 2017
leafnode_test.go allow LeafNodes to doc list members in paths using ".N" rather than "… Feb 22, 2017
misc.go handle arbitrary prefixes for attributes in Map in utility methods Jul 13, 2016
misc_test.go more cleanup for SetAttrPrefix() and fix test cases Jul 14, 2016
mxj.go regularize other bool return statements Dec 12, 2017
mxj_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
namespace_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
nan_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
newmap.go fix typo Jun 11, 2017
newmap_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018 readme,doc.go: fix 'NewMapReader' typo May 10, 2018
remove.go refactoring, RenameKey returns an error if the newName already exists Apr 17, 2015
remove_test.go now you can Remove a path, now RenameKey will return an error if the … Apr 17, 2015
rename.go clean up error messages Dec 19, 2016
rename_test.go refactoring, RenameKey returns an error if the newName already exists Apr 17, 2015
seqnum_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
set.go check for nil return from ValueForPath() Jun 29, 2015
set_test.go refactoring TestSetValueForPath Apr 16, 2015
setfieldsep.go fix doc and minor refactor May 29, 2017
snakecase_test.go Handle CoerceKeysToSnakeCase in XmlSeq; add test case. Jan 19, 2017
songtext.xml refactor decoder, patch encoder, add test cases and benchmarks Nov 16, 2015
strict.go improve docs Jun 10, 2016
strict_test.go Allow overriding "-" prefix when unmarshaling XML. Jun 25, 2016
struct.go fix doc Apr 20, 2017
struct_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
updatevalues.go minor refactoring Feb 16, 2017
updatevalues_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
xml.go memleak in cast func May 29, 2018
xml2_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
xml3_test.go tweak test case Oct 22, 2016
xml_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
xmlseq.go regularize syntax for bool return Dec 11, 2017
xmlseq_test.go fix vet complaint for go v1.10 Mar 23, 2018
xmppStream_test.go HandleXMPPStreamTag typo; extend to NewMapXmlSeq also. Feb 6, 2017

mxj - to/from maps, XML and JSON

Decode/encode XML to/from map[string]interface{} (or JSON) values, and extract/modify values from maps by key or key-path, including wildcards.

mxj supplants the legacy x2j and j2x packages. If you want the old syntax, use mxj/x2j and mxj/j2x packages.

Related Packages provides functions for validating XML data.

Refactor Decoder - 2015.11.15

For over a year I've wanted to refactor the XML-to-map[string]interface{} decoder to make it more performant. I recently took the time to do that, since we were using in a production system that could be deployed on a Raspberry Pi. Now the decoder is comparable to the stdlib JSON-to-map[string]interface{} decoder in terms of its additional processing overhead relative to decoding to a structure value. As shown by:
BenchmarkNewMapXml-4         	  100000	     18043 ns/op
BenchmarkNewStructXml-4      	  100000	     14892 ns/op
BenchmarkNewMapJson-4        	  300000	      4633 ns/op
BenchmarkNewStructJson-4     	  300000	      3427 ns/op
BenchmarkNewMapXmlBooks-4    	   20000	     82850 ns/op
BenchmarkNewStructXmlBooks-4 	   20000	     67822 ns/op
BenchmarkNewMapJsonBooks-4   	  100000	     17222 ns/op
BenchmarkNewStructJsonBooks-4	  100000	     15309 ns/op


2018.04.18: mv.Xml/mv.XmlIndent encodes non-map[string]interface{} map values - map[string]string, map[int]uint, etc.
2018.03.29: mv.Gob/NewMapGob support gob encoding/decoding of Maps.
2018.03.26: Added mxj/x2j-wrapper sub-package for migrating from legacy x2j package.
2017.02.22: LeafNode paths can use ".N" syntax rather than "[N]" for list member indexing.
2017.02.10: SetFieldSeparator changes field separator for args in UpdateValuesForPath, ValuesFor... methods.
2017.02.06: Support XMPP stream processing - HandleXMPPStreamTag().
2016.11.07: Preserve name space prefix syntax in XmlSeq parser - NewMapXmlSeq(), etc.
2016.06.25: Support overriding default XML attribute prefix, "-", in Map keys - SetAttrPrefix().
2016.05.26: Support customization of xml.Decoder by exposing CustomDecoder variable.
2016.03.19: Escape invalid chars when encoding XML attribute and element values - XMLEscapeChars().
2016.03.02: By default decoding XML with float64 and bool value casting will not cast "NaN", "Inf", and "-Inf".
            To cast them to float64, first set flag with CastNanInf(true).
2016.02.22: New mv.Root(), mv.Elements(), mv.Attributes methods let you examine XML document structure.
2016.02.16: Add CoerceKeysToLower() option to handle tags with mixed capitalization.
2016.02.12: Seek for first xml.StartElement token; only return error if io.EOF is reached first (handles BOM).
2015.12.02: XML decoding/encoding that preserves original structure of document. See NewMapXmlSeq()
            and mv.XmlSeq() / mv.XmlSeqIndent().
2015-05-20: New: mv.StringIndentNoTypeInfo().
            Also, alphabetically sort map[string]interface{} values by key to prettify output for mv.Xml(),
            mv.XmlIndent(), mv.StringIndent(), mv.StringIndentNoTypeInfo().
2014-11-09: IncludeTagSeqNum() adds "_seq" key with XML doc positional information.
            (NOTE: PreserveXmlList() is similar and will be here soon.)
2014-09-18: inspired by NYTimes fork, added PrependAttrWithHyphen() to allow stripping hyphen from attribute tag.
2014-08-02: AnyXml() and AnyXmlIndent() will try to marshal arbitrary values to XML.
2014-04-28: ValuesForPath() and NewMap() now accept path with indexed array references.

Basic Unmarshal XML to map[string]interface{}

type Map map[string]interface{}

Create a Map value, 'mv', from any map[string]interface{} value, 'v':

mv := Map(v)

Unmarshal / marshal XML as a Map value, 'mv':

mv, err := NewMapXml(xmlValue) // unmarshal
xmlValue, err := mv.Xml()      // marshal

Unmarshal XML from an io.Reader as a Map value, 'mv':

mv, err := NewMapXmlReader(xmlReader)         // repeated calls, as with an os.File Reader, will process stream
mv, raw, err := NewMapXmlReaderRaw(xmlReader) // 'raw' is the raw XML that was decoded

Marshal Map value, 'mv', to an XML Writer (io.Writer):

err := mv.XmlWriter(xmlWriter)
raw, err := mv.XmlWriterRaw(xmlWriter) // 'raw' is the raw XML that was written on xmlWriter

Also, for prettified output:

xmlValue, err := mv.XmlIndent(prefix, indent, ...)
err := mv.XmlIndentWriter(xmlWriter, prefix, indent, ...)
raw, err := mv.XmlIndentWriterRaw(xmlWriter, prefix, indent, ...)

Bulk process XML with error handling (note: handlers must return a boolean value):

err := HandleXmlReader(xmlReader, mapHandler(Map), errHandler(error))
err := HandleXmlReaderRaw(xmlReader, mapHandler(Map, []byte), errHandler(error, []byte))

Converting XML to JSON: see Examples for NewMapXml and HandleXmlReader.

There are comparable functions and methods for JSON processing.

Arbitrary structure values can be decoded to / encoded from Map values:

mv, err := NewMapStruct(structVal)
err := mv.Struct(structPointer)

Extract / modify Map values

To work with XML tag values, JSON or Map key values or structure field values, decode the XML, JSON or structure to a `Map` value, 'mv', or cast a `map[string]interface{}` value to a `Map` value, 'mv', then:
paths := mv.PathsForKey(key)
path := mv.PathForKeyShortest(key)
values, err := mv.ValuesForKey(key, subkeys)
values, err := mv.ValuesForPath(path, subkeys)
count, err := mv.UpdateValuesForPath(newVal, path, subkeys)

Get everything at once, irrespective of path depth:

leafnodes := mv.LeafNodes()
leafvalues := mv.LeafValues()

A new Map with whatever keys are desired can be created from the current Map and then encoded in XML or JSON. (Note: keys can use dot-notation.)

newMap, err := mv.NewMap("oldKey_1:newKey_1", "oldKey_2:newKey_2", ..., "oldKey_N:newKey_N")
newXml, err := newMap.Xml()   // for example
newJson, err := newMap.Json() // ditto


The package is fairly well self-documented with examples.

Also, the subdirectory "examples" contains a wide range of examples, several taken from golang-nuts discussions.

XML parsing conventions

Using NewMapXml()

  • Attributes are parsed to map[string]interface{} values by prefixing a hyphen, -, to the attribute label. (Unless overridden by PrependAttrWithHyphen(false) or SetAttrPrefix().)
  • If the element is a simple element and has attributes, the element value is given the key #text for its map[string]interface{} representation. (See the 'atomFeedString.xml' test data, below.)
  • XML comments, directives, and process instructions are ignored.
  • If CoerceKeysToLower() has been called, then the resultant keys will be lower case.

Using NewMapXmlSeq()

  • Attributes are parsed to map["#attr"]map[<attr_label>]map[string]interface{}values where the <attr_label> value has "#text" and "#seq" keys - the "#text" key holds the value for <attr_label>.
  • All elements, except for the root, have a "#seq" key.
  • Comments, directives, and process instructions are unmarshalled into the Map using the keys "#comment", "#directive", and "#procinst", respectively. (See documentation for more specifics.)
  • Name space syntax is preserved:
    • <ns:key>something</ns.key> parses to map["ns:key"]interface{}{"something"}
    • xmlns:ns="" parses to map["xmlns:ns"]interface{}{""}


  • By default, "Nan", "Inf", and "-Inf" values are not cast to float64. If you want them to be cast, set a flag to cast them using CastNanInf(true).

XML encoding conventions

  • 'nil' Map values, which may represent 'null' JSON values, are encoded as <tag/>. NOTE: the operation is not symmetric as <tag/> elements are decoded as tag:"" Map values, which, then, encode in JSON as "tag":"" values.
  • ALSO: there is no guarantee that the encoded XML doc will be the same as the decoded one. (Go randomizes the walk through map[string]interface{} values.) If you plan to re-encode the Map value to XML and want the same sequencing of elements look at NewMapXmlSeq() and mv.XmlSeq() - these try to preserve the element sequencing but with added complexity when working with the Map representation.

Running "go test"

Because there are no guarantees on the sequence map elements are retrieved, the tests have been written for visual verification in most cases. One advantage is that you can easily use the output from running "go test" as examples of calling the various functions and methods.


I make extensive use of JSON for messaging and typically unmarshal the messages into map[string]interface{} values. This is easily done using json.Unmarshal from the standard Go libraries. Unfortunately, many legacy solutions use structured XML messages; in those environments the applications would have to be refactored to interoperate with my components.

The better solution is to just provide an alternative HTTP handler that receives XML messages and parses it into a map[string]interface{} value and then reuse all the JSON-based code. The Go xml.Unmarshal() function does not provide the same option of unmarshaling XML messages into map[string]interface{} values. So I wrote a couple of small functions to fill this gap and released them as the x2j package.

Over the next year and a half additional features were added, and the companion j2x package was released to address XML encoding of arbitrary JSON and map[string]interface{} values. As part of a refactoring of our production system and looking at how we had been using the x2j and j2x packages we found that we rarely performed direct XML-to-JSON or JSON-to_XML conversion and that working with the XML or JSON as map[string]interface{} values was the primary value. Thus, everything was refactored into the mxj package.