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ll.c is an implementation of a singly-linked list (stack) in C, featuring a simple API, ease-of-use, and type-safety.

The API and implementation is inspired by that of sds. In particular, operations return the new value, in the style of functional programming; and the list pointers are "hidden" by being stored before the actual data for each list item.


#include <stdio.h>
#include "ll.h"

struct thing {
    char *word;

int main()
    struct thing *thing = NULL; /* list */

    thing = ll_new(thing);
    thing->word = "world";

    thing = ll_new(thing);
    thing->word = "hello";

    char *hello = thing->word;
    thing = ll_pop(thing);
    char *world = thing->word;
    printf("%s %s\n", hello, world);

    return 0;

Creating a list

Create a list by declaring a pointer to the list item type. Any type can be used - ints, pointers, structs, etc. Usually you will want to initialize the list to NULL, so that you can tell where the end of the list is.

int *numbers = NULL;
char **strings = NULL;
struct {
	char *foo;
} *anon = NULL;

Adding to a list

item *ll_new(item *ll); /* where item is the type of your list */

Call ll_new with the current list and you will get a new list with a reference to the previous list.

ll_new uses a macro to figure out the size of the type you are passing to it, so it will allocate a new item of the same size.

int *numbers = NULL;
numbers = ll_new(numbers);
*numbers = 100;
numbers = ll_new(numbers);
*numbers = 200;

anon = ll_new(anon);
anon->foo = "one";
anon = ll_new(anon);
anon->foo = "two";
anon = ll_new(anon);
anon->foo = "three";

Getting items from a list

item *ll_pop(item *ll);
item *ll_next(item *ll);

ll_pop and ll_next will return the list starting from the next item (like cdr in lisp). ll_pop will also free the current list pointer before returning.

int *num = ll_next(numbers);
/* *num == 100 */
num = ll_next(num);
/* num == NULL */

anon = ll_pop(anon);
/* anon->foo == "two" */
anon = ll_pop(anon);
/* anon->foo == "one" */
anon = ll_pop(anon);
/* anon == NULL */

Iterating through a list

ll_foreach(list, item)

You can use the convenience macro ll_foreach to iterate through item of a list.

Since this is a singly-linked list, items will be iterated through in the reverse order from how they were added.

int *nums = NULL;
int sum = 0;
*(nums = ll_new(nums)) = 5;
*(nums = ll_new(nums)) = 10;

ll_foreach(nums, num) {
	sum += *num;
/* sum == 15 */

You could also iterate using a plain for loop. Use ll_pop to free the list pointers as you go, or ll_next to keep the list intact.

int *num;
for (num = numbers; num; num = ll_next(num)) {
	printf("%d\n", *num); /* prints 200, then 100 */

Destroying a list

void ll_free(void *ll);

Use the ll_free function to release all the list pointers in a list. This is equivalent to popping each list item and discarding them.


$ make test

See the test file test_ll.c to find more examples of using ll.


Copyright © 2014 Charles Lehner

ll is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

ll is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this program. If not, see

For more details see the files LICENSE and LICENSE.LESSER.


A Linked List library for C



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