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CLICS - The Database of Cross-Linguistic Colexifications

The original Database of Cross-Linguistic Colexifications (CLICS), has established a computer-assisted framework for the interactive representation of cross-linguistic colexification patterns. It has proven to be a useful tool for various kinds of investigation into cross-linguistic semantic associations, ranging from studies on semantic change, patterns of conceptualization, and linguistic paleontology. But CLICS has also been criticized for obvious shortcomings. Building on standardization efforts reflected in the CLDF initiative and novel approaches for fast, efficient, and reliable data aggregation, CLICS² expanded the original CLICS database. CLICS³ - the third installment of CLICS - exploits the framework pioneered in CLICS² to more than double the amount of data aggregated in the database.


CLICS Release Authors Title Reference
CLICS List, Terhalle, and Urban Using network approaches to enhance the analysis of cross-linguistic polysemies List2013a
CLICS Mayer, List, Terhalle, and Urban An Interactive Visualization of Crosslinguistic Colexification Patterns Mayer2014
CLICS² List, Greenhill, Anderson, Mayer, Tresoldi, and Forkel CLICS². An improved database of cross-linguistic colexifications assembling lexical data with help of cross-linguistic data formats List2018e
CLICS³ Rzymski, Tresoldi, et al. The Database of Cross-Linguistic Colexifications, reproducible analysis of cross- linguistic polysemies PREPRINT

Datasets and Software

Datasets providing lexical data aggregated in CLICS and software tooling the CLICS processing workflow is accesible and archived on Zenodo via the CLICS community.

Web application

Since CLICS², the latest release of the CLICS database and colexification network can be explored in a clld application at


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The Database of Cross-Linguistic Colexifications



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