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NAME
Locale::Maketext::Lexicon - Use other catalog formats in Maketext
VERSION
This document describes version 0.70 of Locale::Maketext::Lexicon,
released October 4, 2008.
SYNOPSIS
As part of a localization class, automatically glob for available
lexicons:
package Hello::I18N;
use base 'Locale::Maketext';
use Locale::Maketext::Lexicon {
'*' => [Gettext => '/usr/local/share/locale/*/LC_MESSAGES/hello.mo'],
### Uncomment to decode lexicon entries into Unicode strings
# _decode => 1,
### Uncomment to fallback when a key is missing from lexicons
# _auto => 1,
### Uncomment to use %1 / %quant(%1) instead of [_1] / [quant, _1]
# _style => 'gettext',
};
Explicitly specify languages, during compile- or run-time:
package Hello::I18N;
use base 'Locale::Maketext';
use Locale::Maketext::Lexicon {
de => [Gettext => 'hello_de.po'],
fr => [
Gettext => 'hello_fr.po',
Gettext => 'local/hello/fr.po',
],
};
# ... incrementally add new lexicons
Locale::Maketext::Lexicon->import({
de => [Gettext => 'local/hello/de.po'],
})
Alternatively, as part of a localization subclass:
package Hello::I18N::de;
use base 'Hello::I18N';
use Locale::Maketext::Lexicon (Gettext => \*DATA);
__DATA__
# Some sample data
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: Hello 1.3.22.1\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso8859-1\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
#: Hello.pm:10
msgid "Hello, World!"
msgstr "Hallo, Welt!"
#: Hello.pm:11
msgid "You have %quant(%1,piece) of mail."
msgstr "Sie haben %quant(%1,Poststueck,Poststuecken)."
DESCRIPTION
This module provides lexicon-handling modules to read from other
localization formats, such as *Gettext*, *Msgcat*, and so on.
If you are unfamiliar with the concept of lexicon modules, please
consult Locale::Maketext and <http://www.autrijus.org/webl10n/> first.
A command-line utility xgettext.pl is also installed with this module,
for extracting translatable strings from source files.
The "import" function
The "import()" function accepts two forms of arguments:
(*format* => *source* ... )
This form takes any number of argument pairs (usually one); *source*
may be a file name, a filehandle, or an array reference.
For each such pair, it pass the contents specified by the second
argument to Locale::Maketext::Lexicon::*format*->parse as a plain
list, and export its return value as the %Lexicon hash in the
calling package.
In the case that there are multiple such pairs, the lexicon defined
by latter ones overrides earlier ones.
{ *language* => [ *format*, *source* ... ] ... }
This form accepts a hash reference. It will export a %Lexicon into
the subclasses specified by each *language*, using the process
described above. It is designed to alleviate the need to set up a
separate subclass for each localized language, and just use the
catalog files.
This module will convert the *language* arguments into lowercase,
and replace all "-" with "_", so "zh_TW" and "zh-tw" will both map
to the "zh_tw" subclass.
If *language* begins with "_", it is taken as an option that
controls how lexicons are parsed. See "Options" for a list of
available options.
The "*" is a special *language*; it must be used in conjunction with
a filename that also contains "*"; all matched files with a valid
language code in the place of "*" will be automatically prepared as
a lexicon subclass. If there is multiple "*" in the filename, the
last one is used as the language name.
Options
"_auto"
If set to a true value, missing lookups on lexicons are handled
silently, as if an "Auto" lexicon has been appended on all language
lexicons.
"_decode"
If set to a true value, source entries will be converted into
utf8-strings (available in Perl 5.6.1 or later). This feature needs
the Encode or Encode::compat module.
Currently, only the "Gettext" backend supports this option.
"_encoding"
This option only has effect when "_decode" is set to true. It
specifies an encoding to store lexicon entries, instead of
utf8-strings.
If "_encoding" is set to "locale", the encoding from the current
locale setting is used.
Subclassing format handlers
If you wish to override how sources specified in different data types
are handled, please use a subclass that overrides "lexicon_get_*TYPE*".
XXX: not documented well enough yet. Patches welcome.
NOTES
When you attempt to localize an entry missing in the lexicon, Maketext
will throw an exception by default. To inhibit this behaviour, override
the "_AUTO" key in your language subclasses, for example:
$Hello::I18N::en::Lexicon{_AUTO} = 1; # autocreate missing keys
If you want to implement a new "Lexicon::*" backend module, please note
that "parse()" takes an array containing the source strings from the
specified filehandle or filename, which are *not* "chomp"ed. Although if
the source is an array reference, its elements will probably not contain
any newline characters anyway.
The "parse()" function should return a hash reference, which will be
assigned to the *typeglob* (*Lexicon) of the language module. All it
amounts to is that if the returned reference points to a tied hash, the
%Lexicon will be aliased to the same tied hash if it was not initialized
previously.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks to Jesse Vincent for suggesting this module to be written.
Thanks also to Sean M. Burke for coming up with Locale::Maketext in the
first place, and encouraging me to experiment with alternative Lexicon
syntaxes.
Thanks also to Yi Ma Mao for providing the MO file parsing subroutine,
as well as inspiring me to implement file globbing and transcoding
support.
See the AUTHORS file in the distribution for a list of people who have
sent helpful patches, ideas or comments.
SEE ALSO
xgettext.pl for extracting translatable strings from common template
systems and perl source files.
Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::Lexicon::Auto,
Locale::Maketext::Lexicon::Gettext, Locale::Maketext::Lexicon::Msgcat,
Locale::Maketext::Lexicon::Tie
AUTHORS
Audrey Tang <cpan@audreyt.org>
COPYRIGHT
Copyright 2002-2008 by Audrey Tang <cpan@audreyt.org>.
This software is released under the MIT license cited below.
The "MIT" License
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
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