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ClojureScript Day #1

Important things to note

This should be a dialog, not a lecture

stop me, ask questions, understand deeply

There are still many things I don’t know or haven’t decided

some tasks will be research

some pushback welcome

I reserve BDFL rights :)

This is an opportunity to get involved early

stay flexible to avoid pain

Welcome Chouser!

One of my first and best users and contributors

Someone whose opinions I value, and a Clojure expert

Author of a Clojure book not (yet) working at Relevance!

The first to walk down the ClojureScript road

This is a key Clojure/core (with help) deliverable

We do more than maintain, we lead

community should be stunned (shhh!)

I’m very excited about this aspect

let’s knock this out of the park!

Intro and rationale

Problem statement

Javascript is the only programmable technology in key target environments

i.e. the browser

nothing will change that for years to come

Javascript has the greatest reach in other key environments

i.e. mobile

Javascript (the language) is not very robust

Fewer good parts than bad parts

Much convention and discipline required to avoid headaches

Conventions differ between shops, libs

Ever increasing pressure to create richer applications in these environments

requiring more and larger libraries

ordinary minification doesn’t scale up

increasing requirements complexity

can’t add language or environment complexity on top

Rationale

solving this problem will give developers important leverage

empower them to tackle more difficult problems

with greater confidence in the robustness of their solutions

inspire next-generation approaches to web and mobile development

Strategy

Compile (a subset of) Clojure to Javascript

reach everywhere JS does

Clojure is simpler, more robust, more concise, more powerful overall than JS

yet maps well to JS as implementation artifact

Leverage best-of-breed JS appraoches

Currently, IMO that is Google’s, with Closure compiler and libraries

called gclosure hereafter

Fortunately both open sourced

Gclosure’s strategy is whole-program optimization

resulting application includes only code actually used

this is essential to writing large (and small) applications against large and manifold libraries

while allowing those libs to be written in a straightforward, non-clever manner

This is not just about the browser

Node.js, plugins anywhere JS is accepted, any future JS-based environments

Non-objectives

complete Closure

subset, but try to make identical features identical

document differences

porting large applications in their entirety

portability layers unifying JS and Java

cross platform reach is about moving core competencies and libraries, not everything

Profit!

ClojureScript becomes the most powerful language for generating the smallest and fastest JS applications

ClojureScript runs everywhere JS runs

This is Clojure’s client story

This is Clojure’s mobile story

A powerful tool for anyone willing to learn Clojure

Tactics

Don’t change Clojure itself

even though it might make things easier

track those things we’d like to be different, and work into Clojure dev schedule

The ClojureScript compiler is written in Clojure

The reader is Clojure’s

Macros are written in Clojure

therefor, no compiler at runtime, no eval

browser-hosted REPL a non-target!

also, some things that are runtime-reified in Clojure (namespaces, Vars) may not be in ClojureScript

GClosure’s strategy requires JS to be written in a particular idiom

especially for the most advanced optimization

ClojureScript will always generate code compliant with advanced optimizations

ClojureScript will use the same packaging and dependency strategy as gclosure

The gclosure library is an accepted dependency

but nothing else (other than base JS)

ok, and maybe some stealing from GWT output, if we’re desperate

but that’s really it

in particular, use gclosure for all environmental conditionality

we make no per-browser decisions ourselves

The gclosure compiler is optional, but recommended for final delivery

but don’t be too stupid without it

The compiler has an enriched primitive set (vs Clojure’s)

deftype

defprotocol

extend-type

need no runtime lib

allows bootstrap abstraction and data structures to be written in terms of these

The runtime library is completely written in ClojureScript

No Javascript!

js* primitive escape hatch to reach gnarly stuff that ClojureScript won’t expose

Presumptions

JS is single-threaded, forever

nevertheless, we will use Clojure reference primitives (at least atom)

Roadmap

Compiler

It’s alive!

a few more primitives to go

output needs to be sussed out

esp tested with gclosure compiler

some niceties missing (load-file etc)

Libraries

Many core macros imported and work

testing required

some missing, like binding, dotimes

This space intentionally left blank (core.cljs)

that’s why you’re here!

Much work, but following trodden ground

Move the core abstractions to protocols
Implement the core data structures with deftype
copy fn impls, tweaking as needed

Tooling

ClojureScript written to the spec of gclosure

Actual integration with tool chain TODO

Deps builder

Compilation with gclosure compiler

drive through API for greatest control vs CLI

finding/loading gclosure lib

testing

delivery

REPL and other expected dev conveniences

load (file), load-js

Inside the compiler

I will not be the only one who knows this!

only 500 lines

Recursive descent parser

2 phases

analyze

code data in -> AST data out

all ordinary Clojure data

each expr recursively analyzes nested exprs

checks for correct structure

emit

AST data in -> print JS (via side effect to out)

this allows with-out-str, or direct to file
alternative - thread output stream, meh

each expr recursively emits nested exprs

Both analyze and emit are polymorphic

using multimethods

other than a little hand-routing at top of analyze, no global switch statement

extend the compiler by defining parse and emit methods

add special ops to specials set

The threaded environment (env)

most important, :context and :locals

all name-introducing exprs (e.g. fn, let) augment the environment before passing to children

Tricky bit - :context

In ClojureScript everything is an expression

but not in JS

optimal output requires knowledge of the context

:statement, :return, :expr

non-exprs in expr contexts require transformation (usually a function wrapper)

Primitives walkthrough

if

def

fn*

do

let*

loop*

recur

new

set!

ns

deftype*

.

js*

Macros walkthrough

macroexpansion

defprototype

extend-type

import-macros

the core/core trick

Evaluation model

top down, form at a time

just like Clojure

just like JS

What’s missing?

validation that compilation ns resolved names exist in ns

more correctness checking

better error messages

strategy for apply

What’s where

src/clj/cljs/compiler.clj

the compiler

src/clj/cljs/core.clj

core macros

src/cljs/core.cljs

core library

Todo

separate org file

Breakout and tackle tasks

we’ll substantially be in the same file

ideas for making that work?

Regroup and feedback

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