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UAA Security Features and Configuration

It is the responsibility of a Resource Server to extract information about the user and client application from the access token and make an access decision based on that information. This guide will help authors of resource Servers and maintainers of client and user account data to understand the range of information available and the kinds of decisions that can be taken. The UAA itself is a Resource Server, so the access decisions taken by the UAA are used as an example.

User Accounts

Security Metadata

User accounts are either of type "user" or type "admin" (using the SCIM type field from the core schema). These translate into granted authorities, [uaa.user] or [uaa.admin,uaa.user] respectively, for the purposes of access decisions within the UAA (i.e. admin users also have the user role). Granted authorities are not directly visible to Resource Servers, but they show up as scopes in the access tokens.

Resource Servers may choose to use this information as part of an access decision, and this may be good enough for simple use cases (e.g. users belong to a small number of relatively static roles), but in general they will need to maintain their own acess decision data since roles on UAA don't necessarily correspond to the same thing on a Resource Server.

Support for SCIM groups is currently provided only through the authorities attribute of the user object. Resource Servers that are also SCIM clients can modify this attribute themselves, but it might be better (and safer) if the data don't change much to have an admin user or client do the role assignments. In any case it is recommended that Resource Servers have sensible defaults for new users that have not yet been assigned a role.

Bootstrap

There are 2 distinct scenarios:

  1. Demo or test with vanilla code and no special environment. A UAA service started with no active Spring profile will initialize a single user account (marissa/koala).

  2. A vcap environment: integration testing or in production. If the service starts with any active Spring profile by default it will not touch the user database. The SCIM endpoints can be used to provision user accounts, once a client with the correct privileges has been registered.

In either case additional user accounts and client registrations can be bootstrapped at start up by providing some data in uaa.yml. Example users:

scim:
  users:
    - paul|wombat|paul@test.org|Paul|Smith|uaa.admin
    - stefan|wallaby|stefan@test.org|Stefan|Schmidt

The format for the user is username|password|email|first_name|last_name(|comma-separated-authorities). Remember that authorities are represented as groups in SCIM.

Account lockout policy

In its default configuration, the UAA does not lock accounts permanently when a user repeatedly fails authentication. Instead it temporarily locks a user out for a short period (5 minutes by default) after 5 failed logins within the previous hour. The failure count is reset when a user successfully authenticates.

OAuth Client Applications

Security Metadata

Client application meta data can be used by Resource Servers to make an access decision, and by the Authorization Server (the UAA itself) to decide whether to grant an access token.

Scope values are arbitrary strings, but are a contract between a client and a Resource Server, so in cases where UAA acts as a Resource Server there are some "standard" values (scim.read, scim.write, passsword.write, openid, etc.) whose usage and meaning is described below. Scopes are used by the Authorization Server to deny a token requested for a scope not on the list, and should be used by a Resource Server to deny access to a resource if the token has insufficient scope.

UAA client applications have the following meta data (some are optional, but to prevent mistakes it is usually better to use a default value):

  • authorized-grant-types: a comma-separated list of OAuth2 grant types, as defined in the spec: choose from client_credentials, password, implicit, refresh_token, authorization_code. Used by the Authorization Server to deny a token grant if it is not on the list. If in doubt use authorization_code and refresh_token.
  • scope: a list of permitted scopes for this client to obtain on behalf of a user (so not relevant to client_credentials grants). Also used as the default scopes for a token where the client does not explicitly specify scopes in the authorization request.
  • authorities: a list of granted authorities for the client (e.g. uaa.admin or any valid scope value). The authorities are used to define the default scopes that are assigned to a token in a client_credentials grant, and to limit the legal values if explicit scopes are requested in that case.
  • secret: the shared secret used to authenticate token grant requests and token decoding operations (not revealed to Resource Server).
  • resource-ids: white list of resource ids to be included in the decoded tokens granted to this client. The UAA does not store any data here (it should be none for all clients), but instead creates a list of resource ids dynamically from the scope values when a token is granted. The resource id is extracted from a scope using a period separator (the last occurrence in the string) except for some standard values (e.g. openid) that are not controlled by the UAA or its own resources. So a scope of cloud_controller.read is assigned a resource id of cloud_controller, for instance.

Bootstrap

Client registration can be initialized by adding client details data to uua.yml. The UAA always starts with a registered admin client. There are 2 typical scenarios for additional client registration bootstraps:

  1. Demo or test with vanilla code and no custom uaa.yml. A UAA service started with no active Spring profile will start with some client registrations (used in samples to make the out-of-the box experience for new users as convenient as possible). More clients and user accounts will be created by the integration tests.

  2. A vcap environment: integration testing or in production. By default no clients are created if any Spring profile is active, but client registrations can be configured in uaa.yml and in some well-known situations clients this will happen. In particular, the dev_setup environment and the CF.com deployment job both start up with additional client registrations that are needed by the basic Cloud Foundry use cases (vmc and cloud_controller). If the vcap Spring profile is active in the integration tests, no additional accounts will be created.

Clients are bootstrapped from config if they are not present in the backend when the system starts up (i.e. once the system has started up once config changes will not affect the client registrations for existing clients). Certain fields (e.g. secret) can be reset if the bootstrap component is configured to do so (it is not by default).

The admin client has the following properties (in the default uaa.yml always present on the classpath but overriddable by specifying all the values again in a custom config file):

  id: admin
  secret: adminsecret
  authorized-grant-types: client_credentials
  scope: none
  authorities: uaa.admin,clients.read,clients.write,clients.secret

The admin client can be used to bootstrap the system by adding additional clients. In particular, user accounts cannot be provisioned until a client with access to the scim resource is added.

Demo Environment

The default Spring profile initializes 3 clients in addition to the admin client, e.g. if the server is started from the command line after a fresh clone from github for demo purposes:

vmc:
  id: vmc
  authorized-grant-types: implicit
  scope: cloud_controller.read,cloud_controller.write,openid,password.write
  authorities: uaa.none
  resource-ids: none
app:
  id: app
  secret: appclientsecret
  authorized-grant-types: password,authorization_code,refresh_token
  scope: cloud_controller.read,cloud_controller.write,openid,password.write,tokens.read,tokens.write
  authorities: uaa.none
  resource-ids: none

VCAP Dev Setup

In dev_setup these client accounts (in addition to the admin client) are initialized:

cloud_controller:
  authorized-grant-types: client_credentials
  scope: none
  authorities: scim.read,scim.write,password.write,tokens.read,tokens.write
  id: cloud_controller
  secret: ...
  resource-ids: none
vmc:
  id: vmc
  authorized-grant-types: implicit
  scope: cloud_controller.read,cloud_controller.write,openid,password.write
  authorities: uaa.none
  resource-ids: none
  redirect-uri: http://uaa.cloudfoundry.com/redirect/vmc

The cloud controller secret is generated during the setup. The same clients are initialized in CF.com, but the secret is different. Additional clients can be added during start up using uaa.yml, e.g.

oauth:
  clients:
    vmc:
      authorized-grant-types: implicit
      scope: cloud_controller.read,cloud_controller.write,password.write,openid
      authorities: uaa.none
      id: vmc
      resource-ids: none
      redirect-uri: http://uaa.cloudfoundry.com/redirect/vmc

Token Scope Rules

When a client application asks for a new access token it can optionally provide a set of requested scopes (space separated, e.g. scope=openid cloud_controller.read). The UAA will use that set if provided and that will be the scope of the token if granted. Otherwise, if no explicit value is requested, defaults will be supplied according to what the client and user are allowed to do. The rules governing the defaults and what is allowed are described next.

User Tokens

A token granted on behalf of a user (grant type anything except client_credentials) takes its default scopes from the scope field of the client registration. Whether or not the default values are used, the requested scopes are then validated:

  • The user's authorities (SCIM groups) are augmented with some static values, configurable but defaulting to [openid, cloud_controller.read, cloud_controller.write]
  • Allowed scopes consist of the intersection of the client scope and the augmented user authorities.
  • Disallowed scopes are removed from the request.
  • If all the requested scopes are disallowed then clients get a 400 response with a JSON error message indicating the allowed values (for implicit grants it should be a 302 according to the OAuth2 spec, but that change hasn't been implemented yet). The exception to that rule is for clients with no registered scopes (no error in that case), but there shouldn't be any such clients in a production system.

Note that the filtering of scopes by user authorities might mean that a client gets a narrower-scoped token than it originally asked for, e.g. if it asks for no scope=dash.admin dash.user openid, the token might come back with only dash.user openid. Tokens are opaque to client applications, so they have to be prepared for resource servers to deny access to some resources based on the scope of the token when it is presented.

Client Tokens

A token issued on a client_credentials grant has default and allowed scopes equal to the client authorities. Requesting a disallowed scope will result in a 400 reponse and an error message that indicates the allowed scopes. A client would normally take the default scopes when acting on its own behalf - since no approval is necessary there is no point narrowing the scope.

UAA Resources

All OAuth2 protected resource have an id (as listed individually). Any request whose token does not have a matching resource id (aud field in decoded token) will be rejected. Resources that are not OAuth2 protected resources do not have a resource id (e.g. those with simple HTTP Basic authentication).

Token Management

Resource ID = tokens. Rules:

  • Revoke user token:
    • Token has scope uaa.admin, or
    • If token represents user, user is authenticated and is the owner of the token to be revoked, and token has scope tokens.write
  • List user tokens:
    • Token has scope uaa.admin or
    • If token represents user, user is authenticated and is the owner of the token to be read, and token has scope tokens.read
  • Revoke client token:
    • Token has scope uaa.admin or
    • Token represents the client in the token to be revoked, and token has scope tokens.write
  • List client tokens:
    • Token has scope uaa.admin or
    • Token represents the client in the token to be revoked, and token has scope tokens.read

Client Registration

Resource ID = clients. Rules:

  • Remove, update or add client registration
    • Token has scope clients.write
  • Inspect client registration
    • Token has scope clients.read

Client Secret Mangagement

Resource ID null (so all clients can change their password). Rule:

  • Change secret
    • Token has scope clients.secret
    • Either token has scope uaa.admin or client can only change its own secret
    • Either token has scope uaa.admin or client provides the old secret
    • Even if token has scope uaa.admin client must provide the old value to change its own secret

Password Change

Resource ID = password. Rules:

  • Change password
    • Token has scope password.write
    • If token represents a client, scope includes uaa.admin
    • If token represents a user, either scope includes uaa.admin or user provides the old password

User Account Management

Resource ID = scim. Rules:

  • List or search users

    • Token with scope scim.read provides read/query access to ALL users in the UAA
  • Delete, add user account

    • Token has scope scim.write
  • Update existing user account

    • Token with scope scim.write lets you update ANY user's information in the UAA

In addition, a User Token obtained by a client with authorities scim.me (eg. token from authorization_code or password grant flow) provides read/query/update access to that particular user's account.

Username from ID Queries

Resource ID = scim. Rules:

  • Obtain username information via /ids/Users
  • filter parameter must be supplied
  • Only attributes userName and id are returned (and can be queried on)

User Profiles

Used for Single Sign On (OpenID Connect lite). Resource ID = openid. Rules:

  • Obtain user profile data
    • Token has scope openid

Groups & Membership Management

Resource ID = scim. Rules:

  • List or Search groups

    • Token has scope scim.read
  • Delete or Add groups

    • Token has scope scim.write
  • Update group name or add/remove members

    • Token has either scim.write OR groups.update

In addition, a User Token obtained by a client with authorities scim.me (eg. token from authorization_code or password grant flow) provides the following access:

  • List or Search groups

    • Response contains the group(s) that lists the user as a reader.
  • Update group name or add/remove members

    • The user is listed as a writer in the group being updated.

Token Resources for Providers

The UAA uses HTTP Basic authentication for these resources, so they are no OAuth2 protected resources, but to simplify the security data client registrations are used, so only registered clients can access them. The caller must have a secret (so vmc and other implicit grant clients need not apply).

  • Obtain access token at /oauth/token

    • Client is authenticated
    • If grant type is authorization_code client must have the code
  • Inspect access token at /check_token

    • Client is authenticated
    • Client has authority uaa.resource
  • Obtain token key (for decoding JWT tokens locally) at /token_key

    • Client is authenticated
    • Client has authority uaa.resource

Management Information

The /varz endpoint is protected by HTTP Basic authentication with credentials that are externalized via uaa.yml. They have defaults (varz:varzclientsecret) and can also be overridden via System properties.

Login Prompts

The login endpoint is unsecured. Any client can ask it and it will respond with some information about the system and the login prompts required to authenticate.

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