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liberal JSON-only HTTP request routing for node.

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README.md

journey

liberal JSON-only HTTP request routing for node.

introduction

Journey's goal is to provide a fast and flexible RFC 2616 compliant request router for JSON consuming clients.

synopsis

var journey = require('journey');

//
// Create a Router
//
var router = new(journey.Router);

// Create the routing table
router.map(function () {
    this.root.bind(function (req, res) { res.send("Welcome") });
    this.get(/^trolls\/([0-9]+)$/).bind(function (req, res, id) {
        database('trolls').get(id, function (doc) {
            res.send(200, {}, doc);
        });
    };
    this.post('/trolls').bind(function (req, res, data) {
        sys.puts(data.type); // "Cave-Troll"
        res.send(200);
    });
});

require('http').createServer(function (request, response) {
    var body = "";

    request.addListener('data', function (chunk) { body += chunk });
    request.addListener('end', function () {
        //
        // Dispatch the request to the router
        //
        router.handle(request, body, function (result) {
            response.writeHead(result.status, result.headers);
            response.end(result.body);
        });
    });
}).listen(8080);

installation

$ npm install journey

API

You create a router with the journey.Router constructor:

var router = new(journey.Router);

You define some routes, with bound functions:

router.get('/hello').bind(function (req, res) { res.send('Hi there!') });
router.put('/candles').bind(function (req, res) { ... });

Note that you may also use the map function to define routes.

The router object exposes a handle method, which takes three arguments: an http.ServerRequest instance, a body, and a callback, as such:

function route(request, body, callback)

and asynchronously calls the callback with an object containing the response headers, status and body, on the first matching route:

{ status: 200,
  headers: {"Content-Type":"application/json"},
  body: '{"journey":"Welcome"}'
}

Note that the response body will either be JSON data, or empty.

Routes

Here are a couple of example routes:

// route                                // matching request
router.get('/users')                    // GET    /users
router.post('/users')                   // POST   /users
router.del(/^users\/(\d+)$/)            // DELETE /users/45
router.put(/^users\/(\d+)$/)            // PUT    /users/45

router.route('/articles')               // *           /articles
router.route('POST',          '/users') // POST        /users
router.route(['POST', 'PUT'], '/users') // POST or PUT /users

router.root                             // GET /
router.any                              // Matches all request
router.post('/', {                      // Only match POST requests to /
    assert: function (req) {         // with data in the body.
        return req.body.length > 0;
    }
});

Any of these routes can be bound to a function or object which responds to the apply method. We use bind for that:

router.get('/hello').bind(function (req, res) {});

If there is a match, the bound function is called, and passed the response object, as first argument. Calling the send method on this object will trigger the callback, passing the response to it:

router.get('/hello').bind(function (req, res) {
    res.send(200, {}, {hello: "world"});
});

The send method is pretty flexible, here are a couple of examples:

                            // status, headers, body
res.send(404);              // 404     {}       ''
res.send("Welcome");        // 200     {}       '{"journey":"Welcome"}'
res.send({hello:"world"});  // 200     {}       '{"hello":"world"}'

res.send(200, {"Server":"HAL/1.0"}, ["bob"]);

As you can see, the body is automatically converted to JSON, and if a string is passed, it acts as a message from journey. To send a raw string back, you can use the sendBody method:

res.sendBody(JSON.stringify({hello:"world"}));

This will bypass JSON conversion.

URL parameters

Consider a request such as GET /users?limit=5, I can get the url params like this:

router.get('/users').bind(function (req, res, params) {
    params.limit; // 5
});

How about a POST request, with form data, or JSON? Same thing, journey will parse the data, and pass it as the last argument to the bound function.

Capture groups

Any captured data on a matched route gets passed as arguments to the bound function, so let's say we have a request like GET /trolls/42, and the following route:

get(/^([a-z]+)\/([0-9]+)$/)

Here's how we can access the captures:

router.get(/^([a-z]+)\/([0-9]+)$/).bind(function (req, res, resource, id, params) {
    res;      // response object
    resource; // "trolls"
    id;       // 42
    params;   // {}
});

Summary

A bound function has the following template:

function (request, responder, [capture1, capture2, ...], data/params)

Paths

Sometimes it's useful to have a bunch of routes under a single namespace, that's what the path function does. Consider the following path and unbound routes:

router.path('/domain', function () {
    this.get();        // match 'GET /domain'
    this.root;         // match 'GET /domain/'
    this.get('/info'); // match 'GET /domain/info'

    this.path('/users', function () {
        this.post();   // match 'POST /domain/users'
        this.get();    // match 'GET  /domain/users'
    });
})

Filters

Often it's convenient to disallow certain requests based on predefined criteria. A great example of this is Authorization:

function authorize (request, body, cb) {
  return request.headers.authorized === true
      ? cb(null)
      : cb(new journey.NotAuthorized('Not Authorized'));
}

function authorizeAdmin (request, body, cb) {
  return request.headers.admin === true
      ? cb(null)
      : cb(new journey.NotAuthorized('Not Admin'));
}

Journey exposes this in three separate location through the filter API:

Set a global filter

var router = new(journey.Router)({ filter: authorize });

Note: This filter will not actually be enforced until you use the APIs exposed in (2) and (3)

Set a scoped filter in your route function

var router = new(journey.Router)({ filter: authorize });

router.map(function () {
    this.filter(function () {
        //
        // Routes in this scope will use the 'authorize' function
        //
    });

    this.filter(authorizeAdmin, function () {
        //
        // Routes in this scope will use the 'authorizeAdmin' function
        //
    });
});

Set a filter on an individual route

var router = new(journey.Router)({ filter: authorize });

router.map(function () {
    this.get('/authorized').filter().bind(function (req, res, params) {
        //
        // This route will be filtered using the 'authorize' function
        //
    });

    this.get('/admin').filter(authorizeAdmin).bind(function (req, res, params) {
        //
        // This route will be filtered using the 'authorizeAdmin' function
        //
    });
});

Accessing the request object

From a bound function, you can access the request object with this.request, consider a request such as POST /articles, and a route:

router.route('/articles').bind(function (req, res) {
    this.request.method; // "POST"
    res.send("Thanks for your " + this.request.method + " request.");
});

license

Released under the Apache License 2.0

See LICENSE file.

Copyright (c) 2010 Alexis Sellier

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