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Jenkins pipeline shared library adding features for Maven, Docker, SonarQube and others
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README.md

Cloudogu logo

ces-build-lib

Jenkins Pipeline Shared library, that contains additional features for Git, Maven, etc. in an object-oriented manner as well as some additional pipeline steps.

Table of contents

Usage

@Library('github.com/cloudogu/ces-build-lib@6cd41e0')
import com.cloudogu.ces.cesbuildlib.*
  • Best practice: Use a defined version (e.g. a commit, such as 6cd41e0 in the example above) and not a branch such as develop. Otherwise your build might change when the there is a new commit on the branch. Using branches is like using snapshots!
  • When build executors are docker containers and you intend to use their Docker host in the Pipeline: Please see #8.

Syntax completion

You can get syntax completion in your Jenkinsfile when using the ces-build-lib, by adding it as dependency to your project.

You can get the source.jar from JitPack.

With Maven this can be done like so:

  • Define the JitPack repository:
    <repositories>
        <repository>
            <id>jitpack.io</id>
            <url>https://jitpack.io</url>
        </repository>
    </repositories>
  • And the ces-build-lib dependency:
    <dependency>
        <!-- Shared Library used in Jenkins. Including this in maven provides code completion in Jenkinsfile. -->
        <groupId>com.github.cloudogu</groupId>
        <artifactId>ces-build-lib</artifactId>
        <!-- Keep this version in sync with the one used in Jenkinsfile -->
        <version>888733b</version>
        <!-- Don't ship this dependency with the app -->
        <optional>true</optional>
        <!-- Don't inherit this dependency! -->
        <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>

Or you can download the file (and sources) manually and add them to your IDE. For example:

  • https://jitpack.io/com/github/cloudogu/ces-build-lib/9fa7ac4/ces-build-lib-9fa7ac4.jar
  • https://jitpack.io/com/github/cloudogu/ces-build-lib/9fa7ac4/ces-build-lib-9fa7ac4-sources.jar

Current version is .
For further details and options refer to the JitPack website.

This is confirmed to work with IntelliJ IDEA.

Maven

Maven from local Jenkins tool

Run maven from a local tool installation on Jenkins.

See MavenLocal

def mvnHome = tool 'M3'
def javaHome = tool 'JDK8'
Maven mvn = new MavenLocal(this, mvnHome, javaHome)

stage('Build') {
    mvn 'clean install'
}

Maven Wrapper

Run maven using a Maven Wrapper from the local repository.

Maven mvn = new MavenWrapper(this)

stage('Build') {
    mvn 'clean install'
}

This uses Java Runtime on the Build agent's PATH. Similar to MavenLocal you can also specify a JDK from a local tool installation on Jenkins:

def javaHome = tool 'JDK8'
Maven mvn = new MavenWrapper(this, javaHome)

stage('Build') {
    mvn 'clean install'
}

Maven in Docker

Run maven in a docker container. This can be helpful, when

  • constant ports are bound during the build that cause port conflicts in concurrent builds. For example, when running integration tests, unit tests that use infrastructure that binds to ports or
  • one maven repo per builds is required For example when concurrent builds of multi module project install the same snapshot versions.

The builds are run inside the official maven containers from Dockerhub

See MavenInDocker

Maven mvn = new MavenInDocker(this, "3.5.0-jdk-8")

stage('Build') {
    mvn 'clean install'
}

Maven starts new containers

If you run Docker from your maven build, because you use the docker-maven-plugin for example, you can connect the docker socket through to your docker in maven like so:

stage('Unit Test') {
    // The UI module build runs inside a docker container, so pass the docker host to the maven container
    mvn.enableDockerHost = true

    mvn docker:start 

    // Don't expose docker host more than necessary
    mvn.enableDockerHost = false
}

There are some security-related concerns about this. See Docker.

Local repo

If you would like to use Jenkin's local maven repo (or more accurate the one of the build executor, typically at /home/jenkins/.m2) instead of a maven repo per job (within each workspace), you can use the following option.

Maven mvn = new MavenInDocker(this, "3.5.0-jdk-8")
mvn.useLocalRepoFromJenkins = true

This speed speeds up the first build and uses less memory. However, concurrent builds of multi module projects building the same version (e.g. a SNAPSHOT), might overwrite their dependencies, causing non-deterministic build failures.

Lazy evaluation / execute more steps inside container

If you need to execute more steps inside the maven container you can pass a closure to your maven instance that is lazily evaluated within the container. The String value returned are the maven arguments.

Maven mvn = new MavenInDocker(this, "3.5.0-jdk-8"),
echo "Outside Maven Container! ${new Docker(this).findIp()}"
mvn {
    echo "Insinde Maven Container! ${new Docker(this).findIp()}"
    'clean package -DskipTests'
}

Deploying to Nexus repository

Deploying artifacts

ces-build-lib makes deploying to nexus repositories easy, even when it includes signing of the artifacts and usage of the nexus staging plugin (as necessary for Maven Central or other Nexus repository pro instances).

Simple deployment

The most simple use case is to deploy to a nexus repo (not Maven Central):

  • Just set the repository using Maven.useDeploymentRepository() passing a repository ID (you can choose), the URL as well as a nexus username and password/access token as jenkins username and password credential.
  • Call Maven.deployToNexusRepository(). And that is it.

Simple Example:

mvn.useDeploymentRepository([id: 'ces', url: 'https://ecosystem.cloudogu.com/nexus', credentialsId: 'nexusSystemUserCredential', type: 'Nexus3'])
mvn.deployToNexusRepository()    

Right now, the two supported repository types are Nexus2 and Nexus3, where Nexus 3 is used when type parameter is not set.

Note that if the pom.xml's version contains -SNAPSHOT, the artifacts are automatically deployed to the snapshot repository (e.g. on oss.sonatype.org). Otherwise, the artifacts are deployed to the release repository (e.g. on oss.sonatype.org).

Signing artifacts (e.g. Maven Central)

If you want to sign the artifacts before deploying, just set the credentials for signing before deploying, using Maven.setSignatureCredentials() passing the secret key as ASC file (as jenkins secret file credential) and the passphrase (as jenkins secret text credential). An ASC file can be exported via gpg --export-secret-keys -a ABCDEFGH > secretkey.asc. See Working with PGP Signatures

Deploying with staging (e.g. Maven Central)

Another option is to use the nexus-staging-maven-plugin instead of the default maven-deploy-plugin. This is useful if you deploy to a Nexus repository pro, such as Maven Central.

Just use the Maven.deployToNexusRepositoryWithStaging() instead of Maven.deployToNexusRepository().

When deploying to Maven Central, make sure that your pom.xml adheres to the requirements by Maven Central, as stated here.

Note that as of nexus-staging-maven-plugin version 1.6.8, it does seem to read the distribution repositories from pom.xml only.

That is, you need to specify them in your pom.xml, they cannot be passed by the ces-build-lib. So for example for maven central you need to add the following:

<distributionManagement>
    <snapshotRepository>
        <id>ossrh</id>
        <url>https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots</url>
    </snapshotRepository>
    <repository>
        <id>ossrh</id>
        <url>https://oss.sonatype.org/service/local/staging/deploy/maven2/</url>
    </repository>
</distributionManagement>

The repository ID (here: ossrh) and the base nexus URL (here: https://oss.sonatype.org) must match the one passed to ces-build-lib using useDeploymentRepository().

Summing up, here is an example for deploying to Maven Central:

mvn.useDeploymentRepository([id: 'ossrh', url: 'https://oss.sonatype.org', credentialsId: 'mavenCentral-UsernameAndAcccessTokenCredential', type: 'Nexus2'])
mvn.setSignatureCredentials('mavenCentral-secretKey-asc-file','mavenCentral-secretKey-Passphrase')
mvn.deployToNexusRepositoryWithStaging()            

Note that the staging of releases might well take 10 minutes. After that, the artifacts are in the release repository, which is later (feels like nightly) synced to Maven Central.

For an example see cloudogu/command-bus.

Deploying sites

Similar to deploying artifacts as described above, we can also easily deploy a Maven site to a "raw" maven repository.

Note that the site plugin does not provide options to specify the target repository via the command line. That is, it has to be configured in the pom.xml like so:

<distributionManagement>
    <site>
        <id>ces</id>
        <name>site repository cloudogu ecosystem</name>
        <url>dav:https://your.domain/nexus/repository/Site-repo/${project.groupId}/${project.artifactId}/${project.version}/</url>
    </site>
</distributionManagement>

Where Site-repo is the name of the raw repository that must exist in Nexus to succeed.

Then, you can deploy the site as follows:

mvn.useDeploymentRepository([id: 'ces', credentialsId: 'nexusSystemUserCredential'])
mvn.deploySiteToNexus()

Where

  • the id parameter must match the one specified in the pom.xml(ces in the example above),
  • the nexus username and password/access token are passed as jenkins username and password credential (nexusSystemUserCredential).
  • there is no difference between Nexus 2 and Nexus 3 regarding site deployments.

For an example see cloudogu/continuous-delivery-slides-example

Passing additional arguments

Another option for deployToNexusRepositoryWithStaging() and deployToNexusRepository() is to pass additional maven arguments to the deployment like so: mvn.deployToNexusRepositoryWithStaging('-X') (enables debug output).

Maven Utilities

Available from both local Maven and Maven in Docker.

  • mvn.getVersion()
  • mvn.getProperty('project.build.sourceEncoding')

See Maven

Git

An extension to the git step, that provides an API for some commonly used git commands and utilities. Mostly, this is a convenient wrapper around using the sh 'git ...' calls.

Example:

Git git = new Git(this)

stage('Checkout') {
  git 'https://your.repo'
  /* Don't remove folders starting in "." like .m2 (maven), .npm, .cache, .local (bower), etc. */
  git.clean('".*/"')
}

Credentials

You can optionally pass usernamePassword credentials to Git during construction. These are then used for cloning and pushing.

Git annonymousGit = new Git(this)
Git gitWithCreds = new Git(this, 'ourCredentials')


annonymousGit 'https://your.repo'
gitWithCreds 'https://your.repo' // Implicitly passed credentials

Git Utilities

Read Only

  • git.clean() - Removes all untracked and unstaged files.
  • git.clean('".*/"') - Removes all untracked and unstaged files, except folders starting in "." like .m2 (maven), .npm, .cache, .local (bower), etc.
  • git.branchName - e.g. feature/xyz/abc
  • git.simpleBranchName - e.g. abc
  • git.commitAuthorComplete - e.g. User Name <user.name@doma.in>
  • git.commitAuthorEmail - e.g. user.name@doma.in
  • git.commitAuthorName - e.g. User Name
  • git.commitHash - e.g. fb1c8820df462272011bca5fddbe6933e91d69ed
  • git.commitHashShort - e.g. fb1c882
  • git.repositoryUrl - e.g. https://github.com/orga/repo.git
  • git.gitHubRepositoryName - e.g. orga/repo
  • git.tag - e.g. 1.0.0 or undefined if not set
  • git.isTag() - is there a tag on the current commit?

Changes to local repository

  • git.add('.')
  • git.commit('message', 'Author', 'Author@mail.server)
  • git.commit('message') - uses the name and email of the last committer as author and committer.

Changes to remote repository

  • git.push('master') - pushes origin
  • pushGitHubPagesBranch('folderToPush', 'commit Message') - Commits and pushes a folder to the gh-pages branch of the current repo. Can be used to conveniently deliver websites. See https://pages.github.com. Note:
    • Uses the name and email of the last committer as author and committer.
    • the gh-pages branch is temporarily checked out to the .gh-pages folder.
    • Don't forget to create a git object with credentials.
    • Example: cloudogu/continuous-delivery-slides-example

Docker

The Docker class provides the default methods of the global docker variable provided by docker plugin:

Docker methods provided by the docker plugin

  • withRegistry(url, credentialsId = null, Closure body): Specifies a registry URL such as https://docker.mycorp.com/, plus an optional credentials ID to connect to it.
    Example:
    def dockerImage = docker.build("image/name:1.0", "folderOfDockfile")
    docker.withRegistry("https://your.registry", 'credentialsId') {
      dockerImage.push()
    }
  • withServer(uri, credentialsId = null, Closure body): Specifies a server URI such as tcp://swarm.mycorp.com:2376, plus an optional credentials ID to connect to it.
  • withTool(toolName, Closure body): Specifies the name of a Docker installation to use, if any are defined in Jenkins global configuration. If unspecified, docker is assumed to be in the $PATH of the Jenkins agent.
  • image(id): Creates an Image object with a specified name or ID.
    Example:
     docker.image('google/cloud-sdk:164.0.0').inside("-e HOME=${pwd()}") {
          sh "echo something"
       }
    The image returned by the Docker class has additional features see bellow.
  • build(image, args): Runs docker build to create and tag the specified image from a Dockerfile in the current directory. Additional args may be added, such as '-f Dockerfile.other --pull --build-arg http_proxy=http://192.168.1.1:3128 .'. Like docker build, args must end with the build context.
    Example:
    def dockerContainer = docker.build("image/name:1.0", "folderOfDockfile").run("-e HOME=${pwd()}")

Additional features provided by the Docker class

The Docker class provides additional convenience features:

  • String findIp(container) returns the IP address for a docker container instance
  • String findIp() returns the IP address in the current context: the docker host ip (when outside of a container) or the ip of the container this is running in
  • String findDockerHostIp() returns the IP address of the docker host. Should work both, if running inside or outside a container
  • String findEnv(container) returns the environment variables set within the docker container as string
  • boolean isRunningInsideOfContainer() return true if this step is executed inside a container, otherwise false
  • boolean isRunning(container) return true if the container is in state running, otherwise false

Example from Jenkinsfile:

 Docker docker = new Docker(this)
 def dockerContainer = docker.build("image/name:1.0").run()
 waitUntil {
     sleep(time: 10, unit: 'SECONDS')
     return docker.isRunning(dockerContainer)
 }
 echo docker.findIp(dockerContainer)
 echo docker.findEnv(dockerContainer)

Docker.Image methods provided by the docker plugin

  • id: The image name with optional tag (mycorp/myapp, mycorp/myapp:latest) or ID (hexadecimal hash).
  • inside(String args = '', Closure body) : Like withRun this starts a container for the duration of the body, but all external commands (sh) launched by the body run inside the container rather than on the host. These commands run in the same working directory (normally a Jenkins agent workspace), which means that the Docker server must be on localhost.
  • pull: Runs docker pull. Not necessary before run, withRun, or inside.
  • run(String args = '', String command = ""): Uses docker run to run the image, and returns a Container which you could stop later. Additional args may be added, such as '-p 8080:8080 --memory-swap=-1'. Optional command is equivalent to Docker command specified after the image(). Records a run fingerprint in the build.
  • withRun(String args = '', String command = "", Closure body): Like run but stops the container as soon as its body exits, so you do not need a try-finally block.
  • tag(String tagName = image().parsedId.tag, boolean force = true): Runs docker tag to record a tag of this image (defaulting to the tag it already has). Will rewrite an existing tag if one exists.
  • push(String tagName = image().parsedId.tag, boolean force = true): Pushes an image to the registry after tagging it as with the tag method. For example, you can use image().push 'latest' to publish it as the latest version in its repository.

Additional features provided by the Docker.Image class

  • mountJenkinsUser(): Setting this to true provides the user that executes the build within docker container's /etc/passwd. This is necessary for some commands such as npm, ansible, git, id, etc. Those might exit with errors withouta user present.

    Why?
    Note that Jenkins starts Docker containers in the pipeline with the -u parameter (e.g. -u 1042:1043). That is, the container does not run as root (which is a good thing from a security point of view). However, the userID/UID (e.g. 1042) and the groupID/GID (e.g. 1043) will most likely not be present within the container which causes errors in some executables.

    How?
    Setting this will cause the creation of a passwd file that is mounted into a container started from this image() (triggered by run(), withRun() and inside() methods). This passwd file contains the username, UID, GID of the user that executes the build and also sets the current workspace as HOME within the docker container.

  • mountDockerSocket(): Setting this to true mounts the docker socket into the container.
    This allows the container to start other containers "next to" itself, that is "sibling" containers. Note that this is similar but not the same as "Docker In Docker".

    Note that this will make the docker host socket accessible from within the the container. Use this wisely. Some people say, you should not do this at all. On the other hand, the alternative would be to run a real docker host in docker a docker container, aka "docker in docker" or "dind" (which is possible. On this, however, other people say, you should not do this at all. So lets stick to mounting the socket, which seems to cause less problems.

    This is also used by MavenInDocker

  • installDockerClient(String version): Installs the docker client with the specified version inside the container.
    This can be called in addition to mountDockerSocket(), when the "docker" CLI is required on the PATH.

    For available versions see here. For an exampl see here

Examples:

Docker Container that uses its own docker client:

new Docker(this).image('docker') // contains the docker client binary
    .mountJenkinsUser()
    .mountDockerSocket()
    .inside() {
        sh 'whoami' // Would fail without mountJenkinsUser = true
        sh 'id' // Would fail without mountJenkinsUser = true
        
        // Start a "sibling" container and wait for it to return
        sh 'docker run hello-world' // Would fail without mountDockerSocket = true 
        
    }

Docker container that does not have its own docker client

new Docker(this).image('kkarczmarczyk/node-yarn:8.0-wheezy')
    .mountJenkinsUser()
    .mountDockerSocket()
    .installDockerClient('17.12.1')
    .inside() {
        // Start a "sibling" container and wait for it to return
        sh 'docker run hello-world' // Would fail without mountDockerSocket = true & installDockerClient()
    }

SonarQube

When analyzing code with SonarQube there are a couple of challenges that are solved using ces-build-lib's SonarQube class:

  • Setting the branch name (note that this only works in Jenkins multi-branch pipeline builds, regular pipelines don't have information about branches - see #11)
  • Analysis for Pull Requests
  • Commenting on Pull Requtests
  • Updating commit status in GitHub for Pull Requests
  • Using the SonarQube branch plugin (SonarQube 6.x, developer edition and sonarcloud.io)

Constructors

In general, you can analyse with or without the SonarQube Plugin for Jenkins:

  • new SonarQube(this, [sonarQubeEnv: 'sonarQubeServerSetupInJenkins']) requires the SonarQube plugin and the SonarQube server sonarQubeServerSetupInJenkins setup up in your Jenkins instance. You can do this here: https://yourJenkinsInstance/configure.
  • new SonarQube(this, [token: 'secretTextCred', sonarHostUrl: 'http://ces/sonar']) does not require the plugin and uses an access token, stored as secret text credential secretTextCred in your Jenkins instance.
  • new SonarQube(this, [usernamePassword: 'usrPwCred', sonarHostUrl: 'http://ces/sonar']) does not require the plugin and uses a SonarQube user account, stored as username with password credential usrPwCred in your Jenkins instance.

With the SonarQube instance you can now analyze your code. When using the plugin (i.e. sonarQubeEnv) you can also wait for the quality gate status, that is computed by SonarQube asynchronously. Note that this does not work for token and usernamePassword.

A complete example

stage('Statical Code Analysis') {
  def sonarQube = new SonarQube(this, [sonarQubeEnv: 'sonarQubeServerSetupInJenkins'])

  sonarQube.analyzeWith(new MavenInDocker(this, "3.5.0-jdk-8"))

  if (!sonarQube.waitForQualityGateWebhookToBeCalled()) {
    currentBuild.result ='UNSTABLE'
  }
}

Note that

  • Calling waitForQualityGateWebhookToBeCalled() requires a WebHook to be setup in your SonarQube server (globally or per project), that notifies Jenkins (url: https://yourJenkinsInstance/sonarqube-webhook/).
    See SonarQube Scanner for Jenkins.
  • Calling waitForQualityGateWebhookToBeCalled() will only work when an analysis has been performed in the current job, i.e. analyzeWith() has been called and in conjuction with sonarQubeEnv.
  • When used in conjunction with SonarQubeCommunity/sonar-build-breaker, waitForQualityGateWebhookToBeCalled() will fail your build, if quality gate is not passed.
  • For now, SonarQube can only analyze using Maven. Extending this to use the plain SonarQube Runner in future, should be easy, however.

Branches

By default, the SonarQube class uses the old logic, of passing the branch name to SonarQube, which will create one project per branch. This is deprecated from SonarQube 6.x, but the alternative is the paid-version-only Branch Plugin.

You can enable the branch plugin like so:

sonarQube.isUsingBranchPlugin = true
sonarQube.analyzeWith(mvn)

Note that using the branch plugin requires a first analysis without branches.

You can do this on Jenkins or locally.

On Jenkins, you can achieve this by setting the following for the first run:

sonarQube.isIgnoringBranches = true
sonarQube.analyzeWith(mvn)

Recommendation: Use Jenkins' replay feature for this. Then commit the Jenkinsfile with isUsingBranchPlugin.

An alternative is running the first analysis locally, e.g. with maven mvn clean install sonar:sonar -Dsonar.host.url=https://sonarcloud.io -Dsonar.organization=YOUR-ORG -Dsonar.login=YOUR-TOKEN

SonarCloud

SonarCloud is a public SonarQube instance that has some extra features, such as PullRequest decoration for GitHub, BitBucket, etc. ces-build-lib encapsulates the setup in SonarCloud class. It works just like SonarQube, i.e. you can create it using sonarQubeEnv, token, etc. and it provides the analyzeWith() and waitForQualityGateWebhookToBeCalled() methods.
The only difference: You either have to pass your organization ID using the sonarOrganization: 'YOUR_ID' parameter during construction, or configure it under https://yourJenkinsInstance/configure as "Additional analysis properties" (hit the "Advanced..." button to get there): sonar.organization=YOUR_ID.

Example using SonarCloud:

  def sonarQube = new SonarCloud(this, [sonarQubeEnv: 'sonarcloud.io', sonarOrganization: 'YOUR_ID'])

  sonarQube.analyzeWith(new MavenInDocker(this, "3.5.0-jdk-8"))

  if (!sonarQube.waitForQualityGateWebhookToBeCalled()) {
    currentBuild.result ='UNSTABLE'
  }

Just like for ordinary SonarQube, you have to setup a webhook in SonarCloud for waitForQualityGateWebhookToBeCalled() to work (see above).

If you want SonarCloud to decorate your Pull Requests, you will have to

See also Pull Request analysis.

Note that SonarCloud uses the Branch Plugin, so the first analysis has to be done differently, as described in Branches.

Pull Requests in SonarQube

As described above, SonarCloud can annotate PullRequests using the SonarCloud Application for GitHub. You can also do this from a regular SonarQube using the GitHub Plugin for SonarQube. To do so, SonarQube needs credentials for the GitHub repo, defined as Jenkins credentials. Please see here how to create those in GitHub. Then save the GitHub access token as secret text in Jenkins at

  • https://yourJenkinsInstance/credentials/ or
  • https://yourJenkinsInstance/job/yourJob/credentials/.

Finally pass the credentialsId to SonarQube in your pipleine like so

sonarQube.updateAnalysisResultOfPullRequestsToGitHub('sonarqube-gh')
sonarQube.analyzeWith(mvn)

Note: When analysing the Pull Request using the SonarQube class, SonarQube.analyzeWith() will only perform a preview analysis. That is, the results are not sent to the server.

Steps

mailIfStatusChanged

Provides the functionality of the Jenkins Post-build Action "E-mail Notification" known from freestyle projects.

catchError {
 // Stages and steps
}
mailIfStatusChanged('a@b.cd,123@xy.z')

See mailIfStatusChanged

isPullRequest

Returns true if the current build is a pull request (when the CHANGE_IDenvironment variable is set) Tested with GitHub.

stage('SomethingToSkipWhenInPR') {
    if (!isPullRequest()) {
      // ...
    }
    
}

findEmailRecipients

Determines the email recipients: For branches that are considered unstable (all except for 'master' and 'develop') only the Git author is returned (if present). Otherwise, the default recipients (passed as parameter) and git author are returned.

catchError {
 // Stages and steps
}
mailIfStatusChanged(findEmailRecipients('a@b.cd,123@xy.z'))

The example writes state changes email to 'a@b.cd,123@xy.z' + git author for stable branches and only to git author for unstable branches.

findHostName

Returns the hostname of the current Jenkins instance. For example, ff running on http(s)://server:port/jenkins, server is returned.

Examples

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