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Gujarati

Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat. It is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati (circa 1100–1500 AD). In India, it is the official language in the state of Gujarat, as well as an official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.Gujarati is spoken by 4.5% of the Indian population, which amounts to 46 million speakers in India.Altogether, there are about 50 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide.(Source: Wikipedia)

Alphabet

The Gujarati alphabets are placed in cltk/corpus/gujarati/alphabet.py.

There are 13 vowels in Gujarati. Like Hindi and other similar languages, vowels in Gujarati have an independent form and a matra form used to modify consonants in word formation.

VOWELS = [ 'અ' , 'આ' , 'ઇ' , 'ઈ' , 'ઉ' , 'ઊ' , 'ઋ' , 'એ' , 'ઐ' , 'ઓ' , 'ઔ' , 'અં' , 'અઃ' ]

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script.

IAST_VOWELS_REPRESENTATION = ['a', 'ā', 'i', 'ī', 'u', 'ū','ṛ','e','ai','o','au','ṁ','ḥ']

There are 33 consonants. They are grouped in accordance with the traditional Sanskrit scheme of arrangement.

1. Velar: A velar consonant is a consonant that is pronounced with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate, also known as the velum, which is the back part of the roof of the mouth (e.g., k).

2. Palatal: A palatal consonant is a consonant that is pronounced with the body (the middle part) of the tongue against the hard palate (which is the middle part of the roof of the mouth) (e.g., j).

3. Retroflex: A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate (e.g., English t).

4. Dental: A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth (e.g., Spanish t).

  1. Labial: Labials or labial consonants are articulated or made with the lips (e.g., p).
# Digits

In[1]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import DIGITS

In[2]: print(DIGITS)
Out[2]:  ['','','','','','','','','','','૧૦']

# Velar consonants

In[3]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import VELAR_CONSONANTS

In[4]: print(VELAR_CONSONANTS)
Out[4]: [ '' , '' , '' , '' , '' ]

# Palatal consonants

In[5]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import PALATAL_CONSONANTS

In[6]: print(PALATAL_CONSONANTS)
Out[6]: ['' , '' , '' , '' , '' ]

# Retroflex consonants

In[7]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import RETROFLEX_CONSONANTS

In[8]: print(RETROFLEX_CONSONANTS)
Out[8]: ['' , '' , '' , '' , '']

# Dental consonants

In[9]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import DENTAL_CONSONANTS

In[10]: print(DENTAL_CONSONANTS)
Out[10]: ['' , '' , '' , '' , '' ]

# Labial consonants

In[11]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import LABIAL_CONSONANTS

In[12]: print(LABIAL_CONSONANTS)
Out[12]: ['' , '' , '' , '' , '']

There are 4 sonorant consonants in Gujarati:

# Sonorant consonants

In[1]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import SONORANT_CONSONANTS

In[2]: print(SONORANT_CONSONANTS)
Out[2]: ['' , '' , '' , '']

There are 3 sibilants in Gujarati:

# Sibilant consonants

In[1]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import SIBILANT_CONSONANTS

In[2]: print(SIBILANT_CONSONANTS)
Out[2]: ['' , '' , '']

There is one guttural consonant also:

# Guttural consonant

In[1]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import GUTTURAL_CONSONANT

In[2]: print(GUTTURAL_CONSONANTS)
Out[2]:['']

There are also three additional consonants in Gujarati:

# Additional consonants

In[1]: from cltk.corpus.gujarati.alphabet import ADDITIONAL_CONSONANTS

In[2]: print(ADDITIONAL_CONSONANTS)
Out[2]: ['' , 'ક્ષ' , 'જ્ઞ']