Latin treebank from the Perseus Digital Library
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Failed to load latest commit information.


This repository contains treebanks for Latin from the Ancient Latin Dependency Treebank, version 1.7. The file latin_treebank_perseus/ldt-1.5.xml contains all of the treebank data.

Part of speech

See for how models were created for the unigram, bigram, trigram, backoff (1, 2, 3), and crf models were made. They are kept in the cltk/latin_models_cltk <>_ repo.

The Lapos model was made with the Lapos tagger (cltk/lapos <>_) and the following command:

$ ./lapos-learn -m ./model latin_training_set.pos


This is a README file for the Latin Dependency Treebank, version 1.5.

  1. Preamble

    1.1 Source

     The Latin Dependency Treebank is available at:

    1.2 License

     LDT 1.5 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- 
     NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License:
  2. Documentation

    2.1 Data Format

     The data given in this treebank is provided as an XML document.  Each 
     word contains six required attributes:
     id: This is a unique identifier, and corresponds to the word's linear 
     position in the sentence.  The first word in a sentence is given 
     id 1.
     form: The token form of the word.
     lemma: The base lemma from which the word is derived.
     head: The id of the word's parent.  If a word depends on the sentence 
     root, its head is 0.
     relation: The syntactic relation between the word and its parent.  A 
     catalogue of syntactic tags can be found in the syntactic guidelines 
     described below.
     postag: The morphological analysis for the word.  This field is 9 
     characters long, and corresponds to the following morphological 
     	1: 	part of speech
     		n	noun
     		v	verb
     		t	participle
     		a	adjective
     		d	adverb
     		c	conjunction
     		r	preposition
     		p	pronoun
     		m	numeral
     		i	interjection
     		e	exclamation
     		u	punctuation
     	2: 	person
     		1	first person
     		2	second person
     		3	third person
     	3: 	number
     		s	singular
     		p	plural
     	4: 	tense
     		p	present
     		i	imperfect
     		r	perfect
     		l	pluperfect
     		t	future perfect
     		f	future
     	5: 	mood
     		i	indicative
     		s	subjunctive
     		n	infinitive
     		m	imperative
     		p	participle
     		d	gerund
     		g	gerundive
     		u	supine
     	6: 	voice
     		a	active
     		p	passive
     	7:	gender
     		m	masculine
     		f	feminine
     		n	neuter
     	8: 	case
     		n	nominative
     		g	genitive
     		d	dative
     		a	accusative
     		b	ablative
     		v	vocative
     		l	locative
     	9: 	degree
     		c	comparative
     		s	superlative
     	For example, the postag for the adjective "alium" is "a-s---ma-", 
     	which corresponds to the following features:
     	1: a	adjective
     	2: -
     	3: s	singular
     	4: -
     	5: -
     	6: -
     	7: m	masculine
     	8: a	accusative
     	9: -

    2.2 Text

     LDT 1.5 is comprised of excerpts from eight texts, in the following 
     Caesar:	1,488 words
     Cicero:	6,229 words
     Jerome:	8,382 words
     Ovid: 4,789 words
     Petronius: 12,474 words
     Propertius: 4,857 words
     Sallust: 12,311 words
     Vergil:	2,613 words
     The editions of these texts are as follows:
     Caesar, C. Julius, Commentarii Rerum in Gallia Gestarum VII: A Hirti 
     Commentarius VIII.  T. Rice Holmes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914).
     Cicero, M. Tullius, Orationes.  Recognovit brevique adnotatione critica 
     instruxit Albertus Curtis Clark (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908).
     Jerome, Vulgate Bible.  Bible Foundation and On-Line Book Initiative. 
     Ovid, Metamorphoses.  Hugo Magnus (ed.) (Gotha: Friedr. Andr. Perthes, 
     Petronius, Satyricon.  W. H. D. Rouse (ed.) (London: William Heinemann, 
     Propertius, Charm. Vincent Katz (trans.) (Los Angeles: Sun and Moon 
     Press, 1995).
     Vergil, Bucolica, Aeneis, Georgica. The Greater Poems of Virgil. J. B. 
     Greenough (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1882).
     C. Sallusti Crispi Catilina, Iugurtha, Orationes et epistulae excerptae
     de historiis. Axel W. Ahlberg (Leipzig: Teubner, 1919).
     The following document_ids in the treebank correspond to the following 
     Perseus:text:1999.02.0002	Caesar (Commentarii de Bello Gallico)
     Perseus:text:1999.02.0010	Cicero (In Catilinam)
     Perseus:text:1999.02.0060	Jerome (Vulgata)
     Perseus:text:1999.02.0055	Vergil (Aeneid)
     Perseus:text:1999.02.0029	Ovid (Metamorphoses)
     Perseus:text:2007.01.0001	Petronius (Satyricon)
     Perseus:text:1999.02.0066	Propertius (Elegies)
     Perseus:text:2008.01.0002	Sallust (Bellum Catilinae)

    2.3 Annotation Standards

     This release of the treebank has been annotated according to the 
     guidelines specified in version 1.3 of the "Guidelines for the Syntactic 
     Annotation of Latin Treebanks," found in docs/guidelines.pdf

    2.4 Authorship

     Each sentence in the Latin Dependency Treebank is built from the efforts
     of two independent annotators (marked "primary" in the data) reconciled
     by a third (marked "secondary").  We would like to recognize the 
     contribution of the following individuals toward its creation and thank
     them for their commitment to the advancement of Classical scholarship:
     James Artz, Calliopi Dourou, J. F. Gentile, Kenny Hickman, Alex Lessie, 
     Viet Luong, Meg Luthin, Molly Miller, Robin Ngo, Skylar Neil and the 
     Tufts University LAT-181 class (Spring 2008).