Cluster Quality Evaluation Software
ClusterEval implements novel and standard measures for the evaluation of cluster quality. This software has been used at the INEX XML Mining track [a] and in the MediaEval Social Event Detection task [b].
The goal of clustering is to place similar objects into groups or clusters and place disimilar objects into different clusters. These objects can range from written text as documents, to visual information as images, to sensor data from spacial tracking sensors, to customer profiles as age, height, shopping history, etc. Automated methods generate groupings using a variety of different data representations and algorithms. The goal of extrinsic cluster evaluation is to determine how well these groupings match with human constructed views of clusters. Therefore, an automated approach produces a better quality clustering when it better matches the human view of what constitutes a cluster. This extrinsic human generated view of clusters is referred to as the ground truth.
There are many different approaches to evaluating the quality of a clustering. Cluster evaluation can be either intrinsic or extrsinic. Intrinsic or internal evaluations measure how well cluster optimises the representation it uses to determine clusters. However, this software evaluates clusters extrinsically using external information about clusters. In version 1.0 clusters are evaluated using the classical classes-to-clusters approach, where a set of classes or categories determined by humans are used to determine how well a clustering matches this pre-defined classification. Future releases will include extrinsic evaluation using ad hoc queries as presented by De Vries et. al. .
The program will display its usage when given no parameters. A more detailed explanation of all the options, inputs and outputs are described in the following sections. For example, the following command with display how to use the program.
By default the program evaluates using the NMI measure. Included with this program are ground truths from the INEX 2010 XML mining track. A multiple label ground truth is contained in inex10_multiple_label.txt. It has been converted to single label by taking only the first label for each document in inex10_single_label.txt. Only the first 10,000 single label documents are contained in inex10_first_10000_single_label.txt. A clustering generated using TopSig document signatures  is contained in inex10_clusters_50.txt. The following example evaluates this clustering using the multiple label ground truth from the INEX 2010 XML Mining track.
$ ./cluster_eval.py inex10_multiple_label.txt inex10_clusters_50.txt
This programs takes ground truth sets of categories and clusterings in the same format. Each of these inputs assign class labels, categories or clusters to an object identifier. In the case of documents the object identifier is a document identifier such as the Wikipedia document ID. For example, a Wikipedia document with ID 19723050 [c] belongs to the three categories “Culture Musicalculture People”. This is represented as a single line of space seperated strings as illustrated in the following example. The first token is the Wikipedia document ID and all remaining tokens are categories that this document belongs to.
19723050 Culture Musicalculture People
All inputs follow the general format illustrated below. An input file consists of 1 or more lines in the following format. Each of the tokens are treated as a string. Therefore, the object identifiers and labels do not strictly have to be numeric. They can be any valid string.
<object identifier> <label 1> <label 2> ... <label n>
An object identifier can be repeated on multiple lines. This results in a state where all the labels will be assigned to the object identifier. The following example results in the same internal state of the program as the first single line example.
19723050 Culture 19723050 Musicalculture People
Cluster submissions follow the same format. The following example assigns Wikipedia document ID 19723050 to cluster 5.
Cluster submissions can also be multiple label. The following example assigns Wikipedia document ID 19723050 to clusters 5 and 10.
19723050 5 10
The ground truth or clustering or both can be multiple or single label. The program reports which inputs are single and multiple label.
This program implements many standard evaluation measures. The default measure if not specified to the program is the NMI measure. There are options for each of the measures as described in the usage. For a complete description and analysis of the measures please see De Vries et. al. .
Purity measures the fraction of each cluster that is the majority class label in the ground truth. Purity ignores class labels that are not the majority. All the following measures do not.
Entropy and Negentropy combine probabilities for each class label in the ground truth that exist in a cluster using the entropy measure. The probability for a class label is the fraction of the clusters that is the given class label.
F1 compares each pair of documents to and combines them using the harmonic mean.
The Old F1 measure transforms the clustering into a classification using the majority class label from the ground truth. This measure was used in the 2009 and 2010 INEX XML Mining track.
NMI compares the ground truth and clustering in an information theoretic sense that makes a trade-off between the number of clusters and quality.
Divergence from a Random Baseline augments any measure of cluster quality to account for ineffective or pathological clusterings. It can differentiate clusterings of no use, such as assigning each document to its own cluster. In this case the purity score is at its maximum at 1 but when augmented using this approach, it is adjusted to 0.
This software has been written by Chris De Vries between 2009 and 2013, and has been supported by the Queensland University of Technology Deputy Vice Chancellor’s and Australian Postgraduate Award scholarships. Furthermore, many people have helped in the formation and correction of ideas implemented in this software.
Persons who have contributed:
- Shlomo Geva
- Sangeetha Kutty
- Richi Nayak
- Peer reviewers of related published material
- Participants at INEX and MediaEval
 Christopher M De Vries, Shlomo Geva, and Andrew Trotman. Document clustering evaluation: Divergence from a random baseline. Workship Information Retrieval, WIR 2012, Dortmund, Germany, 2012.
 Christopher M De Vries, Richi Nayak, Sangeetha Kutty, Shlomo Geva, and Andrea Tagarelli. Overview of the inex 2010 xml mining track: Clustering and classification of xml documents. In Comparative Evaluation of Focused Retrieval, pages 363–376. Springer, 2011.
 Shlomo Geva and Christopher M De Vries. Topsig: topology preserving document signatures. In Proceedings of the 20th ACM international conference on Information and knowledge management, pages 333–338. ACM, 2011.