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#ifndef GenericFunction_h
#define GenericFunction_h
// Worth reading the comments at the top of Field.h
struct GenericFunction {
// A single method within the generic function
struct OneMethod {
// Data
seal::reflex::Member function_member;
const Inserter* inserter;
// ------------------------------------------------------------
OneMethod(seal::reflex::Member fn) :
// The inserter used for any single method is invariant, so find
// it at method construction time, and store it forever
// Find the type returned by this method
seal::reflex::Type Reflex_type = this->function_member.type().returnType();
// Find its inserter
this->inserter = ::find_inserter(Reflex_type);
// Data
std::vector<OneMethod> methods;
std::string name;
bool is_static;
bool is_constructor;
PyObject* dispatch_table;
// ------------------------------------------------------------
// Constructor: Until methods are added, the Generic Function knows
// nothing besides its name
GenericFunction(std::string function_name)
: name(function_name),
// ------------------------------------------------------------
// Add a single method to this Generic Function
void add_method(seal::reflex::Member new_method) {
// Consider subclassing rather than ifs, for the following.
// For now assume that if one method is static, then they're all
// static. I don't see a clean solution to this problem.
this->is_static = new_method.isStatic();
this->is_constructor = new_method.isConstructor();
// ------------------------------------------------------------
// Calling the generic function involves checking the types of the
// arguments and parameters and dispatiching to the appropriate
// method, if there is one.
PyObject* __call__(PyObject* args);
// ------------------------------------------------------------
// Implement the descriptor protocol for turning this fn into a
// bound/unbound method.
PyObject* __get__(PyObject *args) {
// The GenericFunction itself:
PyObject* func = PyTuple_GetItem(args, 0);
// Static functions need no binding instance or class binding,
// return them unaltered.
if (this->is_static) {
return func;
// The instance through which we were accessed.
PyObject* obj = PyTuple_GetItem(args, 1);
// The class through which we were accessed.
PyObject* type = PyTuple_GetItem(args, 2);
// no instance => unbound method (accessed through class).
if (obj == Py_None)
obj = NULL;
return PyMethod_New(func, obj, type);
// ------------------------------------------------------------
// Find the applicable method, and extractors
std::vector<void*>* dispatch(PyObject* args) {
// Lookup cached dispatch
PyObject* Py_extractors_and_method = PyDict_GetItem(this->dispatch_table, args);
if (Py_extractors_and_method) {
return (std::vector<void*>*)PyCObject_AsVoidPtr(Py_extractors_and_method);
// Lookup failed ...
size_t number_of_arguments_passed = PyTuple_Size(args);
std::vector<void*>* extractors_and_method = new std::vector<void*>(number_of_arguments_passed+1);
// Try each method in this GenericFunction, in turn
for (size_t candidate=0; candidate<this->methods.size(); candidate++) {
// Nasty temporary hack to allow our user to get on with his
// life. (More than one method matches, and the less preferred
// match happens to be made first because of the order in which
// the methods happen to appear in the dicitonary. So here, we
// search the methods in reverse order. A proper general
// solution will require more thought.)
//OneMethod& this_method = methods[candidate]; // Original
OneMethod& this_method = methods[methods.size()-candidate-1]; // The hack
// Reject any method whose parameter count does not match the
// argument count.
size_t max_number_of_parameters_in_method = this_method.function_member.parameterCount(false);
size_t min_number_of_parameters_in_method = this_method.function_member.parameterCount(true);
if ( max_number_of_parameters_in_method < number_of_arguments_passed ||
min_number_of_parameters_in_method > number_of_arguments_passed ) { continue; }
// Assume method matches, until proof to the contrary is found.
bool this_method_matches = true;
// Try to find a conversion from each argument, to its corresponding parameter type
for (size_t argno=0; argno<number_of_arguments_passed; argno++) {
Extractor* extractor =
find_extractor(PyTuple_GetItem(args, argno),//->ob_type,
if (extractor) {
(*extractors_and_method)[argno] = (void*)extractor;
} else {
this_method_matches = false; // Conversion not possible: reject the whole method as inapplicable.
break; // No point in looking at other arguments.
if (this_method_matches) {
// Cache successful lookup
(*extractors_and_method)[number_of_arguments_passed] = (void*)&this_method;
PyDict_SetItem(this->dispatch_table, args, PyCObject_FromVoidPtr(extractors_and_method,0));
return extractors_and_method;
delete extractors_and_method;
return NULL;
PyObject* GenericFunction::__call__(PyObject* args) {
PyObject* self = NULL;
// In the case of a non-static method, the first argument is
// separated out for special treatment as Python's "self" or C++'s
// "this".
if (!this->is_static) {
self = PyTuple_GetItem(args, 0);
PyObject* newargs = PyTuple_GetSlice(args, 1, 99999);
args = newargs;
// Dispatcher optimization: change the tuple type to one whose
// hash and comparison considers the types of the items stored,
// rather than the items themselves
args->ob_type = &FunkyTuple_Type;
// Find the appropriate method
std::vector<void*>* extractors_and_method = this->dispatch(args);
if (extractors_and_method) {
// Now that we are sure that a call is about to take place,
// reset the extractor buffers to forget any values that are
// hanging around from the previous call to a method. (There
// will be more of these buffers, when complete)
// One extractor for each argument ... plus the method itself
// are stored in extractors_and_method
size_t arg_count = extractors_and_method->size()-1;
// The vector of pointers to C++ arguments which will be passed
// to Reflex's invoke
std::vector<void*> argvec(arg_count);
// The method is stored after the extractors, one extractor for each argument.
OneMethod* the_method = (OneMethod*)(*extractors_and_method)[arg_count];
// Extract the C++ values from the Python arguments
for (size_t i=0; i<arg_count; i++) {
argvec[i] = (*((Extractor*)(*extractors_and_method)[i]))(PyTuple_GetItem(args,i));
seal::reflex::Object returned;
// Invoke the method via Reflex
try {
if (!this->is_static) {
seal::reflex::Object obj = ((ProxyObject*)self)->__Object__;
returned = the_method->function_member.invoke(obj, argvec);
} else {
returned = the_method->function_member.invoke(argvec);
} catch (...) {
PyErr_SetString(PyExc_Exception, "An exception was raised in C++");
return 0;
// Pointers to pointers are not supported in Pyreflex (only one
// level of indirection). The following is based on the assumption
// that more than one lvl of indirection is simply not
// encountered.
// Stub functions promote pointers to the pointed-to values only
// at one level of indirection. In the case of Fields such
// promotion does not occur.
// A consequence of the stub functions' special case for one-lvl
// indirection is that we never see pointers returned from
// function calls (if we assume the absence of multiple
// indirections (T**, T*** etc.), so we do not need to perform the
// dereference that needs to be done in Field::__get__.
if (returned.type().isPointer()) {
// Note that the type is dereferenced while the address is not:
// it already has been dereferenced to the pointed-to value by
// the stub functions.
if (returned.type().isReference()) {
// Aaaaaargh ... could we please, PLEASE, pretty please with
// sugar on top, have the stub functions not make a special
// case out of single pointers ... it makes such a huge mess
// of everything. Please ?
// So, in the case of T*&, the address() really is a T**, and
// the type() is consistent with the address().
returned = seal::reflex::Object(returned.type().toType(), *(void**)returned.address());
} else {
// In the case of T* the address() is a T* (not a T**), so the
// type() is inconsistent with the address().
returned = seal::reflex::Object(returned.type().toType(), returned.address());
PyObject* it = (*(the_method->inserter)) (returned);
return it;
std::string error = "No matching method found in generic function\n";
error += "Arguments types were:\n";
for (int i=0; i<PyTuple_Size(args); i++) {
error += PyString_AsString(PyObject_GetAttrString(PyObject_Type(PyTuple_GetItem(args, i)), "__name__"));
error += " ";
error += "\nCandidates:\n";
for (unsigned int i=0; i<methods.size(); i++) {
error += methods[i] + ": " + methods[i].function_member.type().name(4) + "\n";
PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError, error.c_str());
return NULL;
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