Convert strings into .NET expressions
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StringToExpression allows you to create methods that take strings and outputs .NET expressions. It is highly configurable allowing you to define your own language with your own syntax.

Two languages are provided out of the box, an ArithmeticLanguage for performing algebra and an ODataFilterLanguage for parsing OData filter expressions.

NuGet version


A basic arithmetic language is provided. It can be used as is, or extended with customer function by extending ArithmeticLanguage

var language = new ArithmeticLanguage();
Expression<Func<decimal>> expressionFunction = language.Parse("(4 - 2) * 5 + 9 / 3");
Func<decimal> function = expressionFunction.compile();

Assert.Equal(13, function());

OData filter

OData filtering is a nice way to pass generic filtering requirements into a WebAPI, although parsing the the filter expression can be cumbersome. StringToExpression can be used as a lightweight parser

public async Task<IHttpActionResult> GetDoohickies([FromUri(Name = "$filter")] string filter = "name eq 'discount' and rating gt 18")
  var language = new ODataFilterLanguage()
  Expression<Func<Doohicky, bool>> predicate = language.Parse<Doohickey>(filter);
  //can either pass this expression into either IQueryable or IEnumerable where clauses
  return await DataContext.Doohickies.Where(predicte).ToListAsync();

StringToExpression has the advantage of being configurable; if the OData parser doesnt support methods you want, (or it supports methods you dont want) it is very easy to extend ODataFilterLanguage and modify the configuration

Custom languages

Languages are defined by a set of GrammerDefintions. These define both how the string is broken up into tokens as well as the behaviour of each token. There are many subclasses of GrammerDefinition that makes implementing standard language features very easy.

An example of a very simple arithmetic language is as follows

ListDelimiterDefinition delimeter;
BracketOpenDefinition openBracket, sqrt;
language = new Language(new [] {
    new OperandDefinition(
        regex: @"\-?\d+(\.\d+)?",
        expressionBuilder: x => Expression.Constant(decimal.Parse(x))),
    new BinaryOperatorDefinition(
        regex: @"\+",
        orderOfPrecedence: 2,
        expressionBuilder: (left,right) => Expression.Add(left, right)),
    new BinaryOperatorDefinition(
        regex: @"\-",
        orderOfPrecedence: 2,
        expressionBuilder: (left,right) => Expression.Subtract(left, right)),
    new BinaryOperatorDefinition(
        regex: @"\*",
        orderOfPrecedence: 1, //multiply should be done before add/subtract
        expressionBuilder: (left,right) => Expression.Multiply(left, right)),
    new BinaryOperatorDefinition(
        regex: @"\/",
        orderOfPrecedence: 1, //division should be done before add/subtract
        expressionBuilder: (left,right) => Expression.Divide(left, right)),
    sqrt = new FunctionCallDefinition(
        regex: @"sqrt\(",
        argumentTypes: new[] {typeof(double) },
        expressionBuilder: (parameters) => {
            return Expression.Call(
                arguments: new [] { parameters[0] });
    openBracket = new BracketOpenDefinition(
        name: "OPEN_BRACKET",
        regex: @"\("),
    delimeter = new ListDelimiterDefinition(
        name: "COMMA",
        regex: ","),
    new BracketCloseDefinition(
        name: "CLOSE_BRACKET",
        regex: @"\)",
        bracketOpenDefinitions: new[] { openBracket, sqrt },
        listDelimeterDefinition: delimeter)
    new GrammerDefinition(name: "WHITESPACE", regex: @"\s+", ignore: true) //we dont want to process whitespace

Some of the out of the box grammer defintions are detailed below

Name Description Properties
GrammerDefintion Base class for all defintions. Does not perform any functionality during the parsing
  • name - A name for this rule
  • regex - the regular expression that will match for this token
OperandDefinition Defines the smallest atomic piece in your language, used to represent items like numbers or strings
  • expressionBuilder - a function that when given the string matched from the regex it produces a .NET expression (usually a ConstantExpression)
BinaryOperatorDefintion An operation that takes parameters from the left and right of it. Often represents arithmetic operaitons (+, -, *, /) or equality checks (==, !=, < >) or boolean logic (and, or)
  • orderOfPrecedence - determines when this function should run, lower numbers get run before higher numbers (allowing defining BEDMAS rules)
  • expressionBuilder - function that takes in two Expression (the left and right of the operator), and outputs a new expression combining them.
UnaryOperator An operation that takes a single parameter, used for operations such as not
  • orderOfPrecedence - determines when this function should run, lower numbers get run before higher numbers
  • parameterPosition - whether the operand is to the left or right of the operator
BracketOpenDefinition Defines an open bracket, functionally does not do much unless paried with a BracketCloseDefinition
ListDelimeterDefinition The seperator to use to denote lists within bracktes (a , in most languages) functionally does not do much unless paired with a BracketCloseDefinition
BracketCloseDefinition The expression between the brackets is evaluated first
  • bracketOpenDefinitions - list of definitions that would be treated as a start to the bracketing
  • listDelimeterDefinition - definition of the ListDelimeterDefinition
FunctionCallDefinition Defines a function that takes in a list of operands. Also acts as a bracket BracketOpenDefinition definition
  • argumentTypes - list of types that define the types expected and the number of arguments expected
  • expressionBuilder - takes an array of expressions and output a single expression

If your language is more complicated than the provided GrammerDefinitions you are able to define your own by extending GrammerDefintion. You best read the Nuts and bolts section to determine the best way to implement your definition.

Error handling

All parsing exceptions extend ParseException. A ParseException will contain both a readable message and a StringSegment that represents what token(s) in the original input string caused the error.

The StringSegment allows pinpointing of issues such as where operands are missing, which function has too many parameters or where the unexpected character is. It provides a useful feedback for wherever you are getting your original strings from.

Nuts and bolts

Under the hood StringToExpression implements a shunting-yard alogrithm.

The internal parsing state contains a Stack<Operand> and a Stack<Operator> that are built up during the parsing

  • Operand - Represent a .NET expression. This may be a simple ConstantExpression, or the root of a complicated Tree of BinaryExpressions
  • Operator - Is a function that can be run. Generally these functions when run will consume one or more operands and produce one operand. Such that run operators reduces the number of operands on the stack.

The parsing is done in roughly three steps

  1. Tokenize - The string is parsed through a tokenizer which uses the regular expressions defined in the GrammerDefinitions to break the strings into Tokens. A Token knows the GrammerDefinition that created it and the string value it represents.

  2. Apply GrammerDefinitions - All GrammerDefinition has an void Apply(Token token, ParseState state) method. We first read all the Tokens in sequentially and run each GrammerDefinition Apply method. The apply method can make any modifications to the state it wants, this can range from something simple like pushing an Operand on to the stack, to something more complicated like executing operands.

  3. Execute Operators -Once all the tokens are Applied we will start poping Operators off the stack and executing them. When an Operator executes its generally expected that it will consume one or more Operands and create one Operand. This way by the time we apply all the operators we should only have a single Operand on the stack, that is our result.

To customize you can make your own GrammerDefinition and implment the Apply method to meet your purposes.