Candidate scrutiny information for Pakistan's 2018 elections
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README.md

Pakistan 2018 General Elections Candidate Scrutiny Forms

This repository hosts open source R code used to scan, consolidate, tidy, and clean candidate scrutiny forms released by the Election Commission of Pakistan for prospective candidates for Pakistan's 2018 national and provincial assembly elections. The scrutiny forms consist of data released on tax payments from the Federal Board of Revenue (FBR), corruption cases from the the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), and oustanding loans from the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP).

The final output after cleaning is also included as pk_candidate_scrutiny_data_2018.csv, or in wide format (collapsing three reported tax-year rows per candidate into a single row) as pk_candidate_scrutiny_data_2018_wide.csv.

If you use this data, please consider using the following citation when it is appropriate:

Cookman, Colin; Sonnet, Luke, 2018, "2018 Pakistan General Election Candidate Scrutiny Forms",
https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/PX8JKY, Harvard Dataverse, V1, UNF:6:T12VRIN5/4mgmHYXmTB+4g==

You can find citation tools such as a .bib file on this databases dataverse page here.

Please note that this code is still a work in progress and data outputs hosted here may be incomplete. For questions, suggestions, or to contribute, please leave an issue here or contact the contributors, Luke Sonnet and Colin Cookman.

Data

The raw files used as a data source are approximately 10.3 GB in size and too large to host in this Github repository; the data subfolder provides information on alternative mirror hosts that can be used to obtain these original raw pdfs. We also draw on data posted by the FBR about the tax records of parliamentarians in 2016, available on the FBR's page here and in the data subfolder of this repository.

Code replication

Once the data are downloaded to data/2018 Candidate Scrutiny Forms following the instructions in the data subfolder, then you can:

  • Run 00_scrape_scrutiny_forms.R to read from PDFs and create intermediary data
  • Run 01_clean_scrutiny_data.R to clean up and standardize the scraped data

You can also regenerate the cleaned incumbent parliamentarian data, used in 01_clean_scrutiny_data.R, by running data/00_scrape_parl_tax_2016.R

Scope and possible gaps in data

Pakistani election law does not impose residency requirements for candidacy filings and allows individual candidates to contest multiple seats simultaneously, within and across assemblies and provinces. As of the initial data release the ECP provided information for 19397 candidacy filings and 15907 unique candidates (as identified by accompanying Computerized National ID Card records). Note that in some cases individual records reported by the FBR, NAB, and SBP may not be consistent across multiple constituency filings.

Candidacy filing counts based on available data

province assembly direct_seats womens_seats minority_seats
Balochistan National Assembly 374 40 NA
Balochistan Provincial Assembly 1302 13 24
KPK National Assembly 1076 90 NA
KPK Provincial Assembly 1959 177 59
National National Assembly NA NA 215
Punjab National Assembly 2428 172 NA
Punjab Provincial Assembly 6234 668 141
Sindh National Assembly 1181 178 NA
Sindh Provincial Assembly 2916 94 56

(A constituency-level summary count of candidacy filing reports can be found here in the data folder.)

The ECP had previously reported on June 18 2018 (Wayback Ref) that 21482 nomination papers had been filed. While we cannot account for the discrepancy or identify missing candidates at this stage, based on the ECP's earlier aggregate figures the following number of candidacy filings may be missing from the current dataset (or not accounted for in the earlier ECP statement in cases where more records were available):

ECP reported filings (Difference with available data)

province assembly direct_seats womens_seats minority_seats
Balochistan National Assembly 435 (-61) 36 (+4) NA
Balochistan Provincial Assembly 1400 (-98) 116 (-103) 56 (-32)
KPK National Assembly 992 (+84) 88 (+2) NA
KPK Provincial Assembly 1920 (+39) 262 (-85) 73 (-14)
National National Assembly NA NA 154 (+61)
Punjab National Assembly 2700 (-272) 236 (-64) NA
Punjab Provincial Assembly 6747 (-513) 664 (+4) 232 (-91)
Sindh National Assembly 1346 (-165) 76 (+102) NA
Sindh Provincial Assembly 3626 (-710) 213 (-119) 110 (-54)

A final list of candidates following the process of scrutiny, disqualification, appeal, and withdrawal is currently scheduled for release by the ECP on June 30 2018 which may allow for some retroactive analysis to identify missing filing data.

As a possible focus for future investigation, the filing_sequence_gaps.csv file in the data subfolder identifies candidate numbers missing in the available candidate number sequence as released by the ECP.

Caveats

This dataset is being presented to encourage broader open data sharing among the community of analysts on Pakistan. We make no guarantees as to and cannot verify the accuracy of, or account for any discrepancies in, the underlying data.

pk_candidate_scrutiny_data_2018.csv variable key

There are currently three rows in this dataset for every candidate-constituency. Each row is then a candidate-constituency-tax_year.

candidate_code: Candidacy filing code generated from constituency and candidate number (not unique to single individuals)

province: Province location (note that former FATA constituencies are included in KPK, and Islamabad constituencies in Punjab)

assembly: National or provincial assembly

constituency_number: Constituency number for directly elected seats or womens / minorities reserved list

candidate_number: ECP-assigned candidacy filing number

candidate_CNICP_ECP: ECP-reported Computerized National ID Card, unique to single individuals

multi_candidate: Flags individuals that are contesting multiple constituencies

candidate_NTN: Candidate National Tax Number as reported by Federal Board of Revenue

candidate_NTN_issue: Date of NTN issue as reported by Federal Board of Revenue

candidate_RTO: Location of NTN-issuing Regional Tax Office as reported by Federal Board of Revenue

candidate_MNIC_NAB: Candidate Manual National ID Card as reported by the NAB

candidate_MNIC_SBP: Candidate Manual National ID Card as reported by the SBP

tax_year: Tax-year observation (2015, 2016, or 2017)

candidate_tax_type: Candidate filed, did not file, or was unregistered

candidate_tax-paid: Tax paid by candidate as reported by FBR

candidate_tax_paid_num: Tax paid converted to numeric values for calculation; if multiple numbers were found in the field, they are summed together. Missing only if there was no data for that row or they were listed as Non-Filers or were Unregistered. None of these NAs are the result of a missing form for a particular candidate.

candidate_tax_receipts: "Receipts under final tax regime" as reported by FBR

candidate_tax_receipts_num: Tax receipts converted to numeric values for calculation; if multiple numbers were found in the field, they are summed together. Missing only if there was no data for that row or they were listed as Non-Filers or were Unregistered. None of these NAs are the result of a missing form for a particular candidate.

candidate_tax_income: Taxable income as reported by FBR

candidate_tax_income_num: Taxable income converted to numeric values for calculation; if multiple numbers were found in the field, they are summed together. Missing only if there was no data for that row or they were listed as Non-Filers or were Unregistered. None of these NAs are the result of a missing form for a particular candidate.

candidate_tax_remarks: Additional remarks as reported by FBR

candidate_NAB_guilty: Binary variable if NAB reported any conviction, plea bargain, or other pending case against candidate

candidate_NAB_conviction: Binary variable if NAB reported any conviction against candidate

candidate_NAB_plea: Binary variable if NAB reported any plea bargain on the part of candidate

candidate_NAB_accused: Binary variable if NAB reported candidate accused or otherwise facing pending cases

candidate_NAB_remarks: NAB remarks if any

candidate_personal_loan: SBP remarks on candidate personal loans, if any reported

candidate_business_loan: SBP remarks on candidate business loans, if any reported

parl_inc_tax_2016: An indicator for whether this CNIC is linked to a parliamentarian in 2016 when the FBR released incumbents tax payment amounts in the 2016 Incumbent Parliamentarian report

parl_inc_name: Candidate name when a parliamentarian as reported by the FBR in the 2016 Incumbent Parliamentarian report

parl_inc_chamber: Candidate chamber when a parliamentarian as reported by the FBR in the 2016 Incumbent Parliamentarian report

parl_inc_province: Candidate province when a parliamentarian as reported by the FBR in the 2016 Incumbent Parliamentarian report, incomplete for MNAs

parl_inc_type: Candidate seat type when a parliamentarian as reported by the FBR in the 2016 Incumbent Parliamentarian report, incomplete for MNAs

parl_tax_paid_2016: Amount paid by candidate in 2016 when they were a parliamentarian, as reported by the FBR in the 2016 Incumbent Parliamentarian report

parl_aop_tax_paid_2016: Amount paid by AOPs the candidate was a part of in 2016 when they were a parliamentarian, as reported by the FBR in the 2016 Incumbent Parliamentarian report

candidate_name_FBR: Candidate name as reported by FBR in Urdu unicode

candidate_name_NAB: Candidate name as reported by NAB in Urdu unicode

candidate_name_SBP: Candidate name as reported by SBP in Roman Urdu (note: SBP forms did not report name information consistently)

urdu_name_match: Check on whether FBR and NAB Urdu names match (several cases indicate mismatch, apparently due to typos or nonstandardized name spellings)

MNIC_match: Check on whether NAB and SBP MNIC identifications match

target: Directory path for folder with candidate data

wide version of the data

We also release a wide version of the data as pk_candidate_scrutiny_data_2018_wide.csv. All that changes is the data is no longer candidate-constituency-tax_year, but is rather just candidate-constituency level. All of the candidate_tax_* variables scraped from the FBR PDFs become candidate_tax_*_YYYY variables.