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Awesome N64 Development

A curated list of Nintendo 64 development resources including toolchains, documentation, emulators, example code, and more

Contents

Community

Documentation

  • Ultra64 - An absolute wealth of documentation including official development manuals, as well as SDK downloads and reference material
  • Nintendo 64 Architecture - An overview of the console architecture
  • N64brew Wiki - The N64brew community wiki
  • N64dev - Useful N64 hacking links
  • NEC VR4300i CPU Manual @ N64dev - The manual for the NEC VR4300i CPU used by the Nintendo 64
  • Console Protocols - Nintendo 64 hardware info, memory map, PIF boot stage reference, and JoyBus I/O documentation
  • dragonminded N64DEV - libdragon usage, Windows and Linux toolchains, and RCP documentation
  • N64 ROM Formats - A short N64 ROM format quick reference sheet
  • N64 ROM Formats Explained - Details the three commonly encountered Nintendo 64 ROM formats (use Big Endian/.z64)
  • Accessory Reference - Guide on how to communicate with the Transfer Pak and Rumble Pak
  • Hack64 - A variety of documentation on RCP data structures, compression, assembly, and more
  • 64dd.org - Nintendo 64DD documentation, emulators, homebrew, and tools
  • 64dd wiki - Documentation on 64DD hardware, disks, and related cartridges
  • 64dd-schematics - Schematics for the Nintendo 64 Disk Drive (N64DD)
  • cen64#58 - A cen64 issue comment summarizing the boot process
  • Microcode from Source - How to compile microcode from source
  • N64 Cartridge Info - Cartridge pinout
  • RSP - Detailed RSP documentation in the r64emu emulator repository

Videos

Toolchains

  • Official Nintendo 64 SDKs - Official Nintendo 64 Software Development Kits for Windows and SGI IRIX
  • n64sdkmod - A libultra SDK for the modern era, supported on Debian-based Linux distros
  • N64 SDK Easy Install CD - An ISO image made by AlphaTango and CrashOveride to simplify installation of the official SDK. Works on Windows 98-XP.
  • n64chain - A development toolchain based on GCC that does not depend on any proprietary Nintendo library
  • modern-n64sdk - Describes how to get a modern build of GCC cross-compiling on a modern OS (Linux, Windows, macOS)
  • portable-n64-toolchain - A Dockerized toolchain based on modern-n64sdk
  • libdragon-docker - Dockerized toolchain based on libdragon
  • homebrew-n64-dev - macOS gcc and binutils Homebrew formulae for Nintendo 64 development
  • mips64-gcc-toolchain - Windows and Linux scripts to automate building of a modern MIPS64 GCC toolchain for Nintendo 64 cross compilation
  • glankk/n64 - A collection of files and tools used to compile and test code for the Nintendo 64
  • n64devkit-everdrive - A development environment for containerized homebrew development using the EverDrive 64 X7 and libdragon

Assemblers

  • ARM9/bass - A fork of bass which has been updated with Nintendo 64 MIPS/RSP/RDP output
  • armips - An assembler for various ARM and MIPS platforms
  • Screwaround64 - An interactive assembler for Nintendo 64
  • lips - A MIPS R4300i assembler written in Lua
  • naken_asm - An assembler for a variety of CPUs including standard MIPS III (Nintendo 64 CPU) and RSP

Emulators

Actively Maintained

  • cen64 - A cycle-accurate An emulator for Windows, Linux, and Mac. While currently not fast enough to play games at full speed, it aims for perfect emulation by emulating the hardware inside of the console down to the register-transfer level. Widely used to test ROMs in lieu of or before using real hardware.
  • Project64 (GitHub) (with Debugger) - An open source high-level emulator for Windows and Android. It does not accurately emulate console low-level details, but rather focus on compatibility with commercial games. It cannot be used to develop homebrew software with SDKs different from libultra.
  • Sixtyforce - A closed-source emulator for Mac
  • mupen64plus (GitHub) - A more recently updated fork of mupen64 for Linux, Mac OSX, FreeBSD, and Windows
  • Mupen64+ Reverser Edition - A fork of the Mupen64+ emulator tailored for reverse engineering
  • ModLoader64 (GitHub) - A wrapper for mupen64plus that enables modding through plugins written in Typescript
  • Ares - A low-level, accurate multi-system emulator with good support for N64. Available in sources and binary distributions for Windows, Mac and Linux. It includes a CPU and RSP recompiler, and emulates RDP with Vulkan (via parallel-RDP).
  • Dillonb's N64 - A low-level, accurate N64 emulator for Windows and Linux. It includes a CPU recompiler, and emulates RDP with Vulkan (via parallel-RDP).

Works In Progress

  • cor64 - An in-progress emulator written in C#

Unmaintained

  • 1964 - An open-source emulator for Windows
  • mupen64 - An open-source, multi-platform emulator
  • Wii64 - A port of mupen64 for Nintendo Wii and Gamecube
  • Mupen64-360 - A port of Wii64 (and thus mupen64) to the Xbox 360. No longer maintained
  • Project Unreality - An early emulator for Windows
  • Nemu64 - A closed-source emulator for Windows
  • UltraHLE - An early emulator for Windows. Though closed-source, the source leaked in 2002.
  • Not64 - A fork of Wii64
  • Surreal64 and Surreal64 CE - An emulator for the original Xbox which includes ports of 1964, Project64, and UHLE
  • TrueReality - An open-source emulator
  • r64emu - A N64 low-level emulator written in Rust

Development Hardware

  • 64drive - A flash cartridge with USB support targeted at developers. Currently unavailable.
  • EverDrive 64 X7 - A flash cartridge with USB support for development
  • Brutzelkarte - An open-source (hardware and software) FPGA-based flash cartridge
  • El Barato 64 - An in-progress open source development cartridge
  • SummerCart64 - A collection of hardware, firmware, and software designs for an FPGA-based flash cartridge
  • UltraHDMI (periodically in stock at Game-Tech) - A board that can be installed into the console to capture the digital output of the RCP and send it out a Mini HDMI connector to a modern TV. Convenient for connecting a real console to a nearby monitor while viewing the best possible output signal.
  • UltraSave - A device that works with the 64drive to transfer saves from real cartridges
  • GameShark 3.0+ - A method of running homebrew via a GameShark
  • sm64gameshark - How to transfer GameShark codes from USB to parallel, and how to identify GameShark cartridges with functional parallel ports
  • gs_libusb - GameShark Pro utilities using libusb over a USB parallel port adapter
  • Replacement Carts - A set of EagleCAD files for manufacturing your own N64 carts
  • ED64 Plus - A Chinese clone of the Everdrive 64 at a much cheaper price point. It also has a disconnected USB port with a missing FT245R chip that can be reattached for theoretical added functionality.

Tools and Libraries

Development Cartridge Loaders

  • g64drive - Linux/Mac tool for operating a 64drive development cartridge
  • ed64 - Tools to develop on an EverDrive 64 cartridge
  • loader64 - A USB uploader for EverDrive 64
  • UNFLoader - A universal flashcart ROM uploader (64drive, EverDrive 64 V3, and EverDrive 64 X7) and debug library

Asset Conversion and Viewing

3D

  • 64Drive Viewer - Preview textures, images, sounds, and 3D models on hardware with a 64drive over USB
  • Blen64 - Blender scripts to export meshes to draw lists as header files
  • Blender64 - A Python tool to export Blender 3D models to F3DEX2 microcode display lists
  • blend2niff - A Blender add-on to export to NIFF2 (Nintendo Intermediate File Format 2)
  • Sausage64 - A Blender plugin to export "sausage link" style character models with animations
  • Fast64 - A Blender plugin to export display lists, geolayouts, and animations to Super Mario 64
  • objn64 - Wavefront .obj model converter that generates optimized displaylists for compilation with libultra
  • Obj2N64DL - Another Wavefront .obj to displaylist converter
  • Max_To_N64 - Scripts to export models from 3DS Max to C
  • N64_3DRenderingTest - A basic model viewer using NuSystem

2D

  • n64texconv - A Python tool to convert PNG to RGBA(16/32), CI(4/8), and I(A)(4/8)
  • png2n64 - A Python 3 script to convert PNG images to 16 bit RBGA
  • png2c - A C++ command line tool to convert PNG images to libultra-compatible texture header files
  • GML-N64TextureConverter - Converts standard image formats to Nintendo 64 compatible C header files
  • n64CIconverter - Converts standard image formats to Nintendo 64's Color Index (CI) format
  • N64GFXCookie - Nintendo 64 CI8 format graphics viewer/editor
  • n64rawgfx - A tool to export and import uncompressed/raw graphics from ROMs
  • Texture64 - A texture ripper and editor with support for multiple formats
  • ImageMerge - Converts two 8-bit images into 2-bit images and packs them into 1 image to save space in a ROM
  • Spritemapper - Arranges a directory of equally-sized images into a sprite map and compresses it
  • xo-tt64 - Converts input images to .c files of the same name
  • mkspriten64 - Windows equivalent to the SGI program mksprite. Converts .png to a .h header and .c source file.
  • mksprite2 - A Python 3 script to create sprite and background objects for use with S2DEX microcode

Audio Playback and Editing

  • N64-Tools - A tool to extract and import audio from many games that make use of the MIDI format
  • libmad-n64 - libmad with MIPS patches, for MPEG audio playback
  • seq64 - A full-featured editor for sequenced music in first-party games
  • N64-SoundTester - A ROM that allows you to test out N64 Sound Tools sample banks and tune them directly on your console or emulator, avoiding lengthy turnaround times
  • ultra_mpeg - An MPEG-1/2 decoder library
  • ANMP - A multi-channel loopable video game music player, with support for various Nintendo 64 audio formats
  • midicvt - An open source replacement for midicvt to create MIDI files compatible with libultra
  • sfz2n64 - Converts SFZ files to a format the Nintendo 64 can use as part of instrument banks

Debugging

  • Project64 EmuScripts - Scripts for debugging under Project64 emulation
  • n64rd - Remote debugger for GameShark 3.2 hardware over a parallel interface
  • ed64log - A tool and example code to implement development logging from a homebrew ROM running on an EverDrive 64
  • webserial-ed64log - An ed64log client using Web Serial API
  • ed64-gdb - A GDB stub for debugging with an EverDrive 64 V3
  • gdbstub-ed64 - Another EverDrive 64 GDB stub
  • N64-GDB-stub - A GDB stub that works with a modified version of the cen64 emulator

ROM Manipulation

  • spicy - An open-source replacement of the official SDK's mild.exe (referenced by $(MAKEROM) in many Makefiles). Packs object files into an N64-compatible ROM.
  • makeromOpen - Another open-source makerom replacement (work in progress)
  • makemask - An open-source replacement of the official SDK's makemask.exe. Adds a mask to a compiled ROM which pads the file to fill the entire cartridge space, adds a CIC version, and adds informational headers to the file. Typically run immediately after mild.exe. More on this tool at N64Squid.
  • Tool N64 - A tool to display ROM information and perform byte reordering
  • Real N64 CRC Tool v2 - A tool to check, calculate, and set ROM checksums and extract the bootcode of ROM files
  • rom64 - A tool to identify and parse ROM header information
  • romjudge - A utility to judge an N64 ROM for correctness
  • leotools - Work with 64DD disk images and the files contained therein
  • n64splat - A ROM splitting tool to assist with decompilation and modding projects
  • seq64/n64checksum - Source for a tool to calculate and set ROM checksums
  • Info64 - A tool to display and set ROM header information and checksums
  • N64ShellPreview - A Windows Shell Extension to display ROM information in Explorer's preview pane
  • ipl3hasher - GPU-accelerated hash collision finder for the IPL3 boot code
  • boot_stub - A replacement for the CIC-6102 IPL3 boot code

Development Libraries

  • libdragon - An open-source library for Nintendo 64 development
  • libn64 - An open-source library for Nintendo 64 development, part of n64chain
  • pseultra - A collection of tools used to develop software for the Nintendo 64 that are distinct from the official SDK
  • libreultra - A decompilation of the Nintendo 64 standard SDK library, libultra
  • ultralib - A reverse engineering of libultra
  • framework64 - An asset pipeline and C library to simplify game creation (uses n64sdkmod)
  • n64ut - An in-progress set of modern Nintendo 64 libraries
  • libhfx - An in-progress open source library for 3D graphics
  • S2DEX Text Engine - A text engine powered by the S2DEX microcode

Reverse Engineering

Projects

Game Decompilation

Pre-comp

Other

  • f3dex2 - Matching and (partially) documented disassemblies of the F3DEX2/F3DZEX RSP microcode families
  • n64-kicad - A set of KiCad files detailing the Nintendo 64 hardware
  • N64 Uncompiled Source Code - Uncompiled source code and related material discovered in various ROM images
  • nus-cpu - A condensed, modular re-creation of the Nintendo 64 motherboard
  • shogihax - Details a remote code execution exploit of the Nintendo 64 via the Morita Shogi 64 cartridge and its dialup modem
  • Ultra FP64 - A work in progress FPGA Nintendo 64
  • UltraCIC - A clone of the CIC copy protection chip
  • UltraCIC_C - Another CIC implementation (same name, but a separate implementation)
  • UltraCIC-II - Code to recreate CIC chips on an ATTiny25/45
  • UltraCIC-III - Code for a replacement CIC chip on an ATTiny25/45/85
  • UltraPIF - A replacement for the PIF chip that enables a region-free console

Guides and Reference

Tools and Disassemblers

  • N64LoaderWV - Nintendo 64 ROM loader for the Ghidra reverse engineering tool
  • RI Probe - A ROM that dumps RDRAM values onscreen for debugging and exploring
  • n64sym - Scans a RAM dump for symbols from a given library or object file
  • Online Disassembler - A lightweight, online service for when you don't have the time, resources, or requirements to use a heavier-weight alternative
  • Compiler Explorer - Explore how your C, C++, Rust, or other compiled language code ends up looking after compilation
  • mips_to_c - An open-source MIPS decompiler, useful for understanding and reimplementing N64 games' behavior in C
  • GEDecompressor - Decompressor for a wide variety of compression formats used across various titles
  • asm-differ - A diff script for MIPS assembly
  • decomp-permuter - A tool to randomly permute C files to better match a target binary
  • openocd_n64 - An OpenOCD configuration for the Nintendo 64 CPU

Programming

Assembly

  • PeterLemon/N64 - Nintendo 64 bare metal MIPS assembly programming reference
  • Fraser N64 - YouTube channel featuring Nintendo 64 assembly programming
  • N64 Assembly Language Tutorial - Fraser's detailed Nintendo 64 assembly programming guide
  • N64-ASM-Tutorial - The support files for N64 Assembly Language Tutorial
  • N64 ASM Tutorials - Nintendo 64 assembly language programming tutorials by Mike Huber (mirrored by Jaeden Amero)
  • n64-assembly - A Visual Studio Code extension that provides language support and theme for the Nintendo 64 assembly language
  • n64-asm-timing - Nintendo 64 CPU instruction timing
  • n64ops - R4300i, RCP, and RSP opcode details
  • neon64v2 - An original Nintendo Entertainment System emulator, written in assembly
  • cubeworld - The beginnings of an experimental game, written in assembly

C

Guides

Example Code

  • ultra64demos - Original SGI Nintendo 64 technical demos
  • n64-sdk-demo - jsdf's detailed example with heavily-commented source showing basic usage of the official SDK and the NuSystem library
  • N64brew Game Jam 2020 - N64brew Game Jam 2020 submissions
  • N64brew Game Jam 2021 - N64brew Game Jam 2021 submissions
  • brick64 - A homebrew 3D brick-breaker game using the official SDK
  • goose64 - jsdf's Untitled Goose Game "demake"
  • helloworld - Hello World example using NuSystem and S2DEX microcode
  • Controller-Pak-Manager - A ROM that presents graphical user interface to manage Controller Pak data
  • old-castle - A homebrew game based on a NuSystem sample from the official SDK
  • n64-gameoflife jsdf's implementation of the classic Conway's Game of Life
  • shibamatch - A Shiba Inu-themed memory match game
  • ochim - An up to 4 player action puzzle game
  • UltraEd - An in-progress level editor and game engine
  • n64zlibbench - A zlib benchmark with result display
  • chip8-n64 - A CHIP-8 emulator, using libdragon
  • gb64 - A Nintendo Game Boy emulator that runs on real hardware
  • mvs64 - A NeoGeo emulator
  • n64-gba - A proof of concept Game Boy Advance emulator (only runs ARMWrestler, a CPU exercise ROM)
  • paniclab64 - A homebrew game inspired by Panic Lab from Gigamic
  • platformer64 - An in-progress adventure platformer
  • aw64 - (C++) A Nintendo 64 port of the bytecode interpreter from Another World/Out of This World
  • Memory64-N64 - A Simon style memory game with Rumble Pak support, using libdragon
  • FlappyBird-N64 - A demake of Flappy Bird using libdragon
  • n64triangle - RDP triangle demo, using libdragon
  • non_nusys_demo - A complex demo built without relying on Nintendo's NuSystem library
  • Penguins Luv Melons - A homebrew game built with libdragon
  • 64doom - A source port of the original DOOM
  • cmake-demo-rom - Demonstrates building toolchains and a ROM using CMake and libdragon
  • n64_controller_test - A simple homebrew ROM built with libdragon to perform some basic controller tests
  • controllertest - Another controller test ROM, also built with libdragon
  • rsp-ruination - A torture test that uses an emulated RSP on the CPU to validate functionality of the actual RSP
  • ultra64-templates - Game templates/starting points for use with n64sdkmod

Rust

  • nust64 - Rust crate for compiling a Rust project into an n64 ROM
  • n64-systemtest - A collection of hardware tests written in Rust
  • cargo-n64 - A cargo subcommand to build Nintendo 64 ROMs in Rust
  • cargo-n64/examples - Rust examples using cargo-n64
  • n64toolchain - Rust Implementation of a Nintendo 64 ROM toolchain
  • rs64-rt - Minimal Rust startup / runtime for Nintendo 64
  • rs64-periph - Fairly raw N64 MMIO definitions
  • rs64-rom - Rust library for manipulating ROMs
  • libdragon-bindings - Rust bindings and interface for libdragon
  • rs64romtool - Tool for manipulating ROMs (depends on rs64-rom)
  • rrt0 - A simple cross-platform runtime / startup for Rust on embedded devices
  • n64rom-rs - A library and toolkit for working with ROMs
  • loka-n64 - Nintendo 64 tools (including extract_boot_code, useful for cargo-n64) and a work in progress game
  • n64-slides-apr - Source code for April 2019 Rust Meetup slides as a Nintendo 64 ROM
  • gameshark-rs - Rust library and tools for working with GameShark codes