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CWLProv PROV profile

CWLProv uses PROV to describe provenance traces from workflow executions. Such PROV files SHOULD be stored under the metadata/provenance/ folder.

See the BagIt profile for details on the CWLProv folder structure, and the Research Object profile on how to declare the typing of the PROV files.

A provenance trace MAY be present in multiple serialization format as detailed below, in which case their filenames SHOULD have the same basename (ignoring extensions), and their content SHOULD have corresponding structures and MUST use the same identifiers for workflow activities and data entities.

Formats

Provenance files for the top workflow run MUST be present with a file name starting with primary. CWLProv bags MUST at include primary.cwlprov.provn conforming to this document, but MAY include other PROV formats.

Conventionally provenance files that follow the PROV structures of this documents MAY be named *.cwlprov.*; formally this SHOULD be declared using conformsTo in the RO manifest set to the PROV format as well as the CWLProv permalink:

        {
            "uri": "provenance/primary.cwlprov.provn",
            "conformsTo": [
                "http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/",
                "https://w3id.org/cwl/prov/0.4.0"
        },

It is RECOMMENDED to use the following conformsTo and mediatype values for their corresponding formats:

Format conformsTo mediatype extension
PROV-N http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-n-20130430/ text/provenance-notation; charset="UTF-8" .provn
PROV-XML http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-prov-xml-20130430/ application/xml .xml
PROV-O as RDF Turtle http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/ text/turtle; charset="UTF-8" .ttl
PROV-O as RDF N-Triples http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/ application/n-triples .nt
PROV-O as JSON-LD http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/ application/ld+json .jsonld
PROV-JSON http://www.w3.org/Submission/2013/SUBM-prov-json-20130424/ application/json .json

It is NOT RECOMMENDED to use RDF/XML (application/rdf+xml) or OWL/XML (application/owl+xml) for PROV-O files.

Other provenance files (e.g. nested workflows, tool logs) MAY be included under metadata/provenance/ using arbitrary filenames, for instance workflow-af755b11-0537-4321-bf82-eadf4f6792ef.cwlprov.provn. These files SHOULD use PROV but MAY use system-specific formats, either which SHOULD be indicated with conformsTo and mediatype.

The revsort-run-1 example includes these provenance serializations:

For brevity the below extracts use the PROV-N syntax. Note that UUIDs and hash values might differ from the example PROV file.

TODO: Rewrite below to spec-style language

CWLPROV namespaces

Note that the identifiers must be expanded with the defined prefix-es when comparing across serializations. These set which vocabularies ("namespaces") are used by the CWLProv statements:

    prefix data <urn:hash:sha1:>
    prefix input <arcp://uuid,0e6cb79e-fe70-4807-888c-3a61b9bf232a/workflow/primary-job.json#>
    prefix cwlprov <https://w3id.org/cwl/prov#>
    prefix wfprov <http://purl.org/wf4ever/wfprov#>
    prefix sha256 <nih:sha-256;>
    prefix schema <http://schema.org/>
    prefix wfdesc <http://purl.org/wf4ever/wfdesc#>
    prefix orcid <https://orcid.org/>
    prefix researchobject <arcp://uuid,0e6cb79e-fe70-4807-888c-3a61b9bf232a/>
    prefix id <urn:uuid:>
    prefix wf <arcp://uuid,0e6cb79e-fe70-4807-888c-3a61b9bf232a/workflow/packed.cwl#>
    prefix foaf <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>

The PROV trace SHOULD use the arcp base URIs corresponding to the Research Object @base or BagIt External-Identifier to refer to files within the bag.

The arcp base URI SHOULD be based on the UUID of the master workflow run activity identifier, if present.

Account who launched cwltool

If cwltool --enable-user-provenance was used, the local machine acccount (e.g. Windows or UNIX user name) who executed that command can be tracked:

agent(id:855c6823-bbe7-48a5-be37-b0f07f20c495, [foaf:accountName="stain", prov:type='foaf:OnlineAccount', prov:label="stain"])

It is assumed that the account was under the control of the named person (in PROV terms actedOnBehalfOf):

    agent(id:433df002-2584-462a-80b0-cf90b97e6e07, [prov:label="Stian Soiland-Reyes", 
          prov:type='prov:Person', foaf:account='id:8815e39c-9711-4105-bf52-dbc016c8028f'])
    actedOnBehalfOf(id:8815e39c-9711-4105-bf52-dbc016c8028f, id:433df002-2584-462a-80b0-cf90b97e6e07, -)

However we do not have an identifier for neither the account or the person, so every cwltool run will yield new UUIDs.

With --enable-user-provenance it is possible to associate the account with a hostname:

agent(id:855c6823-bbe7-48a5-be37-b0f07f20c495, [cwlprov:hostname="biggie", prov:type='foaf:OnlineAccount', prov:location="biggie"])

Note that the hostname is often non-global or variable (e.g. on cloud instances or virtual machines), and thus may be unreliable when considering cwltool executions on multiple hosts.

If the --orcid parameter or ORCID shell variable is included, then the person associated with the local machine account is uniquely identified, no matter where the workflow was executed:

agent(orcid:0000-0002-1825-0097, [prov:type='prov:Person', prov:label="Stian Soiland-Reyes", 
   foaf:account='id:855c6823-bbe7-48a5-be37-b0f07f20c495'])

actedOnBehalfOf(id:855c6823-bbe7-48a5-be37-b0f07f20c495', orcid:0000-0002-1825-0097, -)

The running of cwltool itself makes it the workflow engine. It is the machine account who launched the cwltool (not necessarily the person behind it):

agent(id:7c9d9e88-666b-4977-85f4-c02da08a942d, [prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent', prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowEngine', prov:label="cwltool 1.0.20180416145054"])
wasStartedBy(id:855c6823-bbe7-48a5-be37-b0f07f20c495, -, id:9c3d4d1f-473d-468f-a6f2-1ef4de571a7f, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.428090)

Starting a workflow

The main job of the cwltool execution is to run a workflow, here the activity for workflow/packed.cwl#main:

activity(id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.428165, -, [prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main"])
wasStartedBy(id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, -, id:7c9d9e88-666b-4977-85f4-c02da08a942d, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.428285)

Now what is that workflow again? Well a tiny bit of prospective provenance is included:

entity(wf:main, [prov:type='prov:Plan', prov:type='wfdesc:Workflow', prov:label="Prospective provenance"])
entity(wf:main, [prov:label="Prospective provenance", wfdesc:hasSubProcess='wf:main/step0'])
entity(wf:main/step0, [prov:type='wfdesc:Process', prov:type='prov:Plan'])

But we can also expand the wf identifiers to find that we are talking about arcp://uuid,0e6cb79e-fe70-4807-888c-3a61b9bf232a/workflow/packed.cwl# - that is the main workflow in the file workflow/packed.cwl of the Research Object.

Running workflow steps

A workflow will contain some steps, each execution of these are again nested activities:

activity(id:6c7c04ea-dcc8-40d2-92a4-7705f7286756, -, -, [prov:type='wfprov:ProcessRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main"])
wasStartedBy(id:6c7c04ea-dcc8-40d2-92a4-7705f7286756, -, id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.430883)
activity(id:a583b025-9a16-49ce-8515-f3249eb2aacf, -, -, [prov:type='wfprov:ProcessRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main/step0"])
wasAssociatedWith(id:a583b025-9a16-49ce-8515-f3249eb2aacf, -, wf:main/step0)

Again we see the link back to the workflow plan, the workflow execution of #main/step0 in this case. Note that depending on scattering etc there might be multiple activities for a single step in the workflow definition.

Data inputs (usage)

This activities uses some data at the input message:

activity(id:a583b025-9a16-49ce-8515-f3249eb2aacf, -, -, [prov:type='wfprov:ProcessRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main/step0"])
used(id:a583b025-9a16-49ce-8515-f3249eb2aacf, data:53870991af88a6d678cbeed3255bb65993c52925, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.433743, [prov:role='wf:main/step0/message'])

Data files within a workflow execution are identified using urn:hash:sha1: URIs derived from their sha1 checksum (checksum algorithm and prefix subject to change):

entity(data:53870991af88a6d678cbeed3255bb65993c52925, [prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', prov:value="Hei7"])

Small values (typically those provided on the command line may be present as prov:value. The corresponding data/ file within the Research Object has a content-addressable filename based on the checksum; CWLProv consumers SHOULD look up this from the corresponding metadata/manifest.json aggregation:

    "aggregates": [
        {
            "uri": "urn:hash:sha1:53870991af88a6d678cbeed3255bb65993c52925",
            "bundledAs": {
                "uri": "arcp://uuid,0e6cb79e-fe70-4807-888c-3a61b9bf232a/data/53/53870991af88a6d678cbeed3255bb65993c52925",
                "folder": "/data/53/",
                "filename": "53870991af88a6d678cbeed3255bb65993c52925"
            }
        },

Data outputs (generation)

Similarly, a step typically generates some data, here response:

activity(id:a583b025-9a16-49ce-8515-f3249eb2aacf, -, -, [prov:type='wfprov:ProcessRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main/step0"])
wasGeneratedBy(data:53870991af88a6d678cbeed3255bb65993c52925, id:a583b025-9a16-49ce-8515-f3249eb2aacf, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.438236, [prov:role='wf:main/step0/response'])

In the hello world example this is interesting because it is the same data output as-is, but typically the outputs will each have different checksums (and thus different identifiers).

The step is ended:

wasEndedBy(id:a583b025-9a16-49ce-8515-f3249eb2aacf, -, id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.438482)

In this case the step output is also a workflow output response, so the data is also generated by the workflow activity:

activity(id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.428165, -, [prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main"])  
wasGeneratedBy(data:53870991af88a6d678cbeed3255bb65993c52925, id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.439323, [prov:role='wf:main/response'])

Ending the workflow

Finally the overall workflow #main also ends:

activity(id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.428165, -, [prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main"])
agent(id:7c9d9e88-666b-4977-85f4-c02da08a942d, [prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent', prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowEngine', prov:label="cwltool 1.0.20180416145054"])
wasEndedBy(id:67f38794-d24a-435f-bd4a-0242a56a581b, -, id:7c9d9e88-666b-4977-85f4-c02da08a942d, 2018-04-16T18:27:09.445785)

Note that the end of the outer cwltool activity is not recorded, as cwltool is still running at the point of writing out this provenance.

Nested workflows

If a particular step is a nested workflow, then the inner provenance of the nested workflow runs SHOULD be included in a separate CWLProv provenance file.

In the parent workflow trace, the fact that more details of the step is expanded in a different PROV file SHOULD be declared with the prov:has_provenance attribute:

prefix id <urn:uuid:>
prefix provenance <arcp://uuid,73eab018-7b36-4f84-a845-aca8073bd46c/metadata/provenance/>

agent(id:a606d227-bf10-4479-8d11-823bb932bbac, 
    [prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowEngine', prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent', 
     prov:label="cwltool 1.0.20180817162414"])

activity(id:73eab018-7b36-4f84-a845-aca8073bd46c, 2018-08-21T15:20:35.059920, -, 
    [prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main"])
wasStartedBy(id:73eab018-7b36-4f84-a845-aca8073bd46c, -, id:a606d227-bf10-4479-8d11-823bb932bbac, 2018-08-21T15:20:35.060038)

activity(id:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9, -, -, 
     [prov:type='wfprov:ProcessRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main/compile"])
wasStartedBy(id:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9, -, id:73eab018-7b36-4f84-a845-aca8073bd46c, 2018-08-21T15:20:35.163189)

activity(id:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9, -, -, 
     [prov:has_provenance='provenance:workflow_compile.e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9.cwlprov.provn',
      prov:has_provenance='provenance:workflow_compile.e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9.cwlprov.ttl'
])

Traces of nested workflow SHOULD be stored under metadata/provenance (or a subdirectory there of), and that their conformsTo and mediatype SHOULD conform to the CWLProv formats. It is RECOMMENDED that the file name is derived from the activity in the parent workflow. In the example above the main workflow urn:uuid:73eab018-7b36-4f84-a845-aca8073bd46c (started by the engine) has started the activity urn:uuid:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9 of step compile, which has a provenance trace in metadata/provenance/workflow_compile.e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9.cwlprov.provn and …947a9.cwlprov.ttl.

The attribute prov:has_provenance SHOULD also be used for any kind of provenance files in other formats (e.g. log file), even for non-workflow steps. CWLProv consumers SHOULD check the conformsTo attribute in the Research Object manifest rather than attempting to decompose the filename.

The RO manifest SHOULD include an annotation with motivation http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#has_provenance to indicate which provenance files further describe the step activity, for instance:

{
    "about": "urn:uuid:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9",
    "content": [
        "provenance/workflow_20compile.e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9.cwlprov.provn",
        "provenance/workflow_20compile.e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9.cwlprov.ttl",
    ],
    "oa:motivatedBy": {
        "@id": "http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#has_provenance"
    }
}

It is RECOMMENDED to generate separate provenance trace files for each nested workflow execution, e.g. as part of scatter operation or a workflow reused in different steps.

For nested workflows, the identifier for the step activity (here urn:uuid:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9) SHOULD re-appear in the data of nested CWLProv files as a wfprov:WorkflowRun activity, e.g.:

prefix id <urn:uuid:>
agent(id:a606d227-bf10-4479-8d11-823bb932bbac, 
    [prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowEngine', prov:type='prov:SoftwareAgent', 
     prov:label="cwltool 1.0.20180817162414"])

activity(id:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9, 2018-08-21T15:20:35.089187, -, 
    [prov:type='wfprov:WorkflowRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#compile.cwl"])
wasStartedBy(id:e79fc8dc-6e40-4236-b22c-41fee22947a9, -, id:a606d227-bf10-4479-8d11-823bb932bbac, 2018-08-21T15:20:35.089303)

The nested workflow provenance trace follows the same CWLProv pattern as the primary workflow trace. Note in the example above that from the perspective of the nested workflow provenance, e79fc8dc… is a wfprov:WorkflowRun that wasStartedBy the engine a606d227…, not a wfprov:ProcessRun started by the parent workflow activity 73eab018… as depicted in the primary provenance trace.

It is NOT REQUIRED that the nested workflow activity wasStartedBy by the same engine as the primary workflow, for instance the nested workflow might have been executed on a different node.

The nested workflow trace SHOULD declare its relevant prospective provenance prov:Plan entities, even if this would duplicate parts of the prospective provenance in the parent workflow provenance.

Nested workflows may have steps that themselves are nested workflows, which SHOULD be logged in separate CWLProv provenance file, linked with prov:has_provenance attribute from the intermediate provenance file.

Provenance links to paths within the CWLProv Bag MUST use the same base URI (e.g. arcp://uuid,73eab018-7b36-4f84-a845-aca8073bd46c/) as in the primary workflow provenance and research object manifest.

Files

If a step uses or generates a file with a particular filename, then this SHOULD be indicated as a specialization of the c content-based entity:

prefix id <urn:uuid:>
prefix data <urn:hash::sha1:>

entity(data:03cfd743661f07975fa2f1220c5194cbaff48451, [prov:type='wfprov:Artifact'])
specializationOf(id:01f2a6f5-425c-44f4-8b4b-74b7885d216a, data:03cfd743661f07975fa2f1220c5194cbaff48451)

The specializing entity SHOULD be of type wf4ever:File and SHOULD declare the filename (as seen by the CWL tool) without a path using the attribute cwlprov:basename corresponding to CWL's basename attribute:

prefix cwlprov <https://w3id.org/cwl/prov#>
prefix wf4ever <http://purl.org/wf4ever/wf4ever#>
entity(id:01f2a6f5-425c-44f4-8b4b-74b7885d216a, 
  [prov:type='wf4ever:File', prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', 
   cwlprov:basename="f.txt", cwlprov:nameroot="f", cwlprov:nameext=".txt"])

Additional attributes cwlprov:nameroot and cwlprov:nameext MAY be included as shown above, corresponding to nameroot and nameext fields in a CWL File.

It is RECOMMENDED that such file entities, if declared, are referenced from the corresponding used and wasGeneratedBy instead of by their content-based entity:

activity(id:284408d9-9f21-4c63-b1c0-fbed7d0e3180, -, -, 
    [prov:type='wfprov:ProcessRun', prov:label="Run of workflow/packed.cwl#main/step1"])
wasGeneratedBy(id:01f2a6f5-425c-44f4-8b4b-74b7885d216a, 
    id:284408d9-9f21-4c63-b1c0-fbed7d0e3180, 2018-08-22T13:55:13.034450,
    [prov:role='wf:main/step1/file1'])

CWLProv consumers should note that the same content (by checksum) may appear as different file entities for different steps. In the case of no direct wasGeneratedByuse derivations in a provenance trace, consumers could consider a common specializationOf entity as a hint of indirect provenance derivations (e.g. unpacked from an archive or up/downloaded through a database).

Secondary files

A CWL File may have secondaryFiles, additional files or directories that are associated with the primary file.

In CWLProv any secondary files SHOULD be declared as a cwlprov:SecondaryFile kind of derivation from the primary file entity.

entity(id:01f2a6f5-425c-44f4-8b4b-74b7885d216a, 
    [prov:type='wf4ever:File', prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', 
    cwlprov:basename="f.txt", cwlprov:nameroot="f", cwlprov:nameext=".txt"])

wasDerivedFrom(id:f233d70d-614c-4dbc-95b9-e7a10536d866, 
    id:01f2a6f5-425c-44f4-8b4b-74b7885d216a, -, -, -, [prov:type='cwlprov:SecondaryFile'])
entity(id:f233d70d-614c-4dbc-95b9-e7a10536d866, 
    [prov:type='wf4ever:File', prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', 
    cwlprov:basename="f.txt.idx", cwlprov:nameroot="f.txt", cwlprov:nameext=".idx"])

When the SecondaryFile relation is used, both the primary and secondary file MUST have cwlprov:basename declared. It is common, but not required, that part of a secondary file's filename (here nameroot) correspond with (part of) the primary file's basename field.

The secondary file SHOULD have a specialization of its own content-based entity:

specializationOf(id:f233d70d-614c-4dbc-95b9-e7a10536d866, data:a3db5c13ff90a36963278c6a39e4ee3c22e2a436)

Note that the two content-based entities are not directly related in the provenance trace, as different manifestations as files may have different secondary files and different basename patterns.

Note that secondary files are not normally seen directly used or wasGeneratedBy by activities dealing with their primary files, however this can often be reasonably assumed.

Referencing secondary files from job files

The CWLProv relations specializationOf, wasDerivedFrom with wf4ever:File entities as above can be combined with the bundledAs reference in the Research Object metadata/manifest.json and the BagIt manifest checksums to recreate a CWL class:File representation.

For example from the above:

{
    "file1": {
        "class": "File",
        "location": "data/01/01f2a6f5-425c-44f4-8b4b-74b7885d216a",
        "checksum": "sha1$01f2a6f5-425c-44f4-8b4b-74b7885d216a"
        "basename": "f.txt",
        "nameroot": "f",
        "nameext": ".txt",
        "secondaryFiles": [
            {
                "class": "File",
                "location": "data/a3/a3db5c13ff90a36963278c6a39e4ee3c22e2a436",
                "checksum": "sha1$a3db5c13ff90a36963278c6a39e4ee3c22e2a436",
                "basename": "f.txt.idx",
                "nameroot": "f.txt",
                "nameext": ".idx"
            }
        ],
    }
}

Note how above data/a3/a3db…436 can be a secondary file for data/01/01f2…16a even if the actual files do not have any extensions and are not in the same directory.

Directories

A CWL Directory represent a collection of named files or directories.

In CWLProv a directory is represented as a PROV Dictionary of type ro:Folder using the relative filenames as keys to CWL Files.

entity(id:77154164-d82c-4266-82a6-78f2f6d0218c, 
  [prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', prov:type='prov:Collection', 
   prov:type='prov:Dictionary', prov:type='ro:Folder',
   cwlprov:basename="dir",
   prov:hadDictionaryMember='id:a8a6f9fb-5c51-40bb-96bb-20aa3322d294', 
   prov:hadDictionaryMember='id:0a867366-b749-43d9-a40b-565d8cf62975', 
   prov:hadDictionaryMember='id:28f0d087-308b-4c91-bb02-7548ccc59673'])

entity(id:a8a6f9fb-5c51-40bb-96bb-20aa3322d294, 
  [prov:type='prov:KeyEntityPair', prov:pairKey="a.txt", 
   prov:pairEntity='id:c9962818-63f5-4f26-9020-f59799000602'])
entity(id:c9962818-63f5-4f26-9020-f59799000602, 
  [prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', prov:type='wf4ever:File', cwlprov:basename="a.txt"])  
specializationOf(id:c9962818-63f5-4f26-9020-f59799000602, data:0a4d55a8d778e5022fab701977c5d840bbc486d0)

entity(id:0a867366-b749-43d9-a40b-565d8cf62975, 
  [prov:type='prov:KeyEntityPair', prov:pairKey="b", 
   prov:pairEntity='id:8afd9368-b1f5-4dd6-baf5-940e81164c92'])
entity(id:8afd9368-b1f5-4dd6-baf5-940e81164c92, 
  [prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', prov:type='wf4ever:File', cwlprov:basename="b"])
# …

Note that a directory may contain subdirectories, described in the same way:

entity(id:28f0d087-308b-4c91-bb02-7548ccc59673,   
  [prov:type='prov:KeyEntityPair', prov:pairKey="c", 
   prov:pairEntity='id:8a6db3a0-89e5-48b7-b7d0-63960dfa2e55'])

entity(id:8a6db3a0-89e5-48b7-b7d0-63960dfa2e55, 
  [prov:type='wfprov:Artifact', prov:type='prov:Collection',
   prov:type='prov:Dictionary', prov:type='ro:Folder',
   cwlprov:basename="c",
   prov:hadDictionaryMember='id:d5467842-7cb2-4f3f-8d71-fbd0760ca0a3'])

entity(id:d5467842-7cb2-4f3f-8d71-fbd0760ca0a3, 
  [prov:type='prov:KeyEntityPair', prov:pairKey="d.txt", 
   prov:pairEntity='id:098e70a3-5078-440d-98ab-4fb8b674384e'])
# …

Graphically we can imagine this as:

./                    entity 77154164-d82c-4266-82a6-78f2f6d0218c
  a.txt               entity c9962818-63f5-4f26-9020-f59799000602
    "Hello World"   checksum 0a4d55a8d778e5022fab701977c5d840bbc486d0
  b                   entity 8afd9368-b1f5-4dd6-baf5-940e81164c92
    …                      …
  c/                  entity 8a6db3a0-89e5-48b7-b7d0-63960dfa2e55
    d.txt             entity 098e70a3-5078-440d-98ab-4fb8b674384e
      …                    …

Note that the prov:KeyEntityPair are entities to indicate the binding of a file or directory in a parent directory, and as an intermediary their UUID will only show up as part of describing the directory.

CWLProv clients describing directories SHOULD also provide the collection membership of the directory content:

hadMember(id:77154164-d82c-4266-82a6-78f2f6d0218c, id:c9962818-63f5-4f26-9020-f59799000602)
hadMember(id:77154164-d82c-4266-82a6-78f2f6d0218c, id:8afd9368-b1f5-4dd6-baf5-940e81164c92)
hadMember(id:77154164-d82c-4266-82a6-78f2f6d0218c, id:8a6db3a0-89e5-48b7-b7d0-63960dfa2e55)

hadMember(id:8a6db3a0-89e5-48b7-b7d0-63960dfa2e55, id:098e70a3-5078-440d-98ab-4fb8b674384e)

With the short-cut hadMember the filenames are not indicated. Note that although cwlprov:basename of the members might match the prov:pairKey, only the pair key is authorative as a file might be member of multiple directories under different names.

Recreating a CWL directory listing

It is possible to recreate a CWL directory listing using the CWLProv relations above, combined with the bundledAs reference in the Research Object metadata/manifest.json and the BagIt manifest checksums to recreate a CWL class:File representation.

From the example above:

{
    "dir": {
        "class": "Directory",
        "basename": "dir",
        "listing": [
            {
                "class": "File",
                "basename": "a.txt",
                "location": "../data/0a/0a4d55a8d778e5022fab701977c5d840bbc486d0",
                "checksum": "sha1$0a4d55a8d778e5022fab701977c5d840bbc486d0"
            },
            {
                "class": "File",
                "basename": "b",
                "location": "../data/86/86f7e437faa5a7fce15d1ddcb9eaeaea377667b8",
                "checksum": "sha1$86f7e437faa5a7fce15d1ddcb9eaeaea377667b8"
            },
            {
                "class": "Directory",
                "basename": "c",
                "listing": [
                    {
                        "class": "File",
                        "basename": "d.txt",
                        "location": "../data/35/35693c2208d9f20c04eb452737b9bfe32be747ce",
                        "checksum": "sha1$35693c2208d9f20c04eb452737b9bfe32be747ce"
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
}

Note that using the such listings files can be provided as a directory structure even though the actual files are organized in a different hierarchy within the CWLProv bag, effectively allowing the same value to be present in multiple directories without duplication.