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Concurrency primitives, safe memory reclamation mechanisms and non-blocking (including lock-free) data structures designed to aid in the research, design and implementation of high performance concurrent systems developed in C99+.

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Continuous Integration

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Compilers tested in the past include gcc, clang, cygwin, icc, mingw32, mingw64 and suncc across all supported architectures. All new architectures are required to pass the integration test and under-go extensive code review.

Continuous integration is currently enabled for the following targets:

  • darwin/clang/x86-64
  • freebsd/clang/x86-64
  • linux/gcc/arm64
  • linux/gcc/x86-64
  • linux/clang/x86-64
  • linux/clang/ppc64le

Compile and Build

  • Step 1. ./configure For additional options try ./configure --help

  • Step 2. In order to compile regressions (requires POSIX threads) use make regressions. In order to compile libck use make all or make.

  • Step 3. In order to install use make install To uninstall use make uninstall.

See http://concurrencykit.org/ for more information.

Supported Architectures

Concurrency Kit supports any architecture using compiler built-ins as a fallback. There is usually a performance degradation associated with this.

Concurrency Kit has specialized assembly for the following architectures:

  • aarch64
  • arm
  • ppc
  • ppc64
  • s390x
  • sparcv9+
  • x86
  • x86_64

Features

Concurrency Primitives

ck_pr

Concurrency primitives as made available by the underlying architecture, includes support for all atomic operations (natively), transactional memory, pipeline control, read-for-ownership and more.

ck_backoff

A simple and efficient (minimal noise) backoff function.

ck_cc

Abstracted compiler builtins when writing efficient concurrent data structures.

Safe Memory Reclamation

ck_epoch

A scalable safe memory reclamation mechanism with support idle threads and various optimizations that make it better than or competitive with many state-of-the-art solutions.

ck_hp

Implements support for hazard pointers, a simple and efficient lock-free safe memory reclamation mechanism.

Data Structures

ck_array

A simple concurrently-readable pointer array structure.

ck_bitmap

An efficient multi-reader and multi-writer concurrent bitmap structure.

ck_ring

Efficient concurrent bounded FIFO data structures with various performance trade-off. This includes specialization for single-reader, many-reader, single-writer and many-writer.

ck_fifo

A reference implementation of the first published lock-free FIFO algorithm, with specialization for single-enqueuer-single-dequeuer and many-enqueuer-single-dequeuer and extensions to allow for node re-use.

ck_hp_fifo

A reference implementation of the above algorithm, implemented with safe memory reclamation using hazard pointers.

ck_hp_stack

A reference implementation of a Treiber stack with support for hazard pointers.

ck_stack

A reference implementation of an efficient lock-free stack, with specialized variants for a variety of memory management strategies and bounded concurrency.

ck_queue

A concurrently readable friendly derivative of the BSD-queue interface. Coupled with a safe memory reclamation mechanism, implement scalable read-side queues with a simple search and replace.

ck_hs

An extremely efficient single-writer-many-reader hash set, that satisfies lock-freedom with bounded concurrency without any usage of atomic operations and allows for recycling of unused or deleted slots. This data structure is recommended for use as a general hash-set if it is possible to compute values from keys. Learn more at https://engineering.backtrace.io/posts/workload-specialization/ and http://concurrencykit.org/articles/ck_hs.html.

ck_ht

A specialization of the ck_hs algorithm allowing for disjunct key-value pairs.

ck_rhs

A variant of ck_hs that utilizes robin-hood hashing to allow for improved performance with higher load factors and high deletion rates.

Synchronization Primitives

ck_ec

An extremely efficient event counter implementation, a better alternative to condition variables.

ck_barrier

A plethora of execution barriers including: centralized barriers, combining barriers, dissemination barriers, MCS barriers, tournament barriers.

ck_brlock

A simple big-reader lock implementation, write-biased reader-writer lock with scalable read-side locking.

ck_bytelock

An implementation of bytelocks, for research purposes, allowing for (in theory), fast read-side acquisition without the use of atomic operations. In reality, memory barriers are required on the fast path.

ck_cohort

A generic lock cohorting interface, allows you to turn any lock into a NUMA-friendly scalable NUMA lock. There is a significant trade-off in fast path acquisition cost. Specialization is included for all relevant lock implementations in Concurrency Kit. Learn more by reading "Lock Cohorting: A General Technique for Designing NUMA Locks".

ck_elide

A generic lock elision framework, allows you to turn any lock implementation into an elision-aware implementation. This requires support for restricted transactional memory by the underlying hardware.

ck_pflock

Phase-fair reader-writer mutex that provides strong fairness guarantees between readers and writers. Learn more by reading "Spin-Based Reader-Writer Synchronization for Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems".

ck_rwcohort

A generic read-write lock cohorting interface, allows you to turn any read-write lock into a NUMA-friendly scalable NUMA lock. There is a significant trade-off in fast path acquisition cost. Specialization is included for all relevant lock implementations in Concurrency Kit. Learn more by reading "Lock Cohorting: A General Technique for Designing NUMA Locks".

ck_rwlock

A simple centralized write-biased read-write lock.

ck_sequence

A sequence counter lock, popularized by the Linux kernel, allows for very fast read and write synchronization for simple data structures where deep copy is permitted.

ck_swlock

A single-writer specialized read-lock that is copy-safe, useful for data structures that must remain small, be copied and contain in-band mutexes.

ck_tflock

Task-fair locks are fair read-write locks, derived from "Scalable reader-writer synchronization for shared-memory multiprocessors".

ck_spinlock

A basic but very fast spinlock implementation.

ck_spinlock_anderson

Scalable and fast anderson spinlocks. This is here for reference, one of the earliest scalable and fair lock implementations.

ck_spinlock_cas

A basic spinlock utilizing compare_and_swap.

ck_spinlock_dec

A basic spinlock, a C adaption of the older optimized Linux kernel spinlock for x86. Primarily here for reference.

ck_spinlock_fas

A basic spinlock utilizing atomic exchange.

ck_spinlock_clh

An efficient implementation of the scalable CLH lock, providing many of the same performance properties of MCS with a better fast-path.

ck_spinlock_hclh

A NUMA-friendly CLH lock.

ck_spinlock_mcs

An implementation of the seminal scalable and fair MCS lock.

ck_spinlock_ticket

An implementation of fair centralized locks.

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Concurrency primitives, safe memory reclamation mechanisms and non-blocking (including lock-free) data structures designed to aid in the research, design and implementation of high performance concurrent systems developed in C99+.

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