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Generated from $Fink: install.xml,v 1.9 2001/09/04 12:15:12 chrisp Exp $

 Fink 0.2.6 Installation

These are the installation instructions for the "source" distribution of
Fink 0.2.6. This document does not apply to the "binary" distribution. There
are insttructions for both first time installation and upgrading from a
previous version. Fast track instructions for the impatient are at the top.

 The Fast Track

This section is for the impatient who don't want to take the time to learn
their way around the command line world and don't care that they don't know
what they're actually doing.

If you're looking for the real instructions, skip to the next section. (You
can still use this section as an example.)

 First Time Installation Fast Track
Start out by copying the "fink-0.2.6-full.tar.gz" file to your home folder.
Then, open and follow the session below. Computer output is in
"normal face" , your input is in "_bold_face_" (or otherwise highlighted).
The actual input prompts from the shell may vary, and some chunks of the
output have been omitted ( "..." ).

   [frodo:~] testuser% _tar_xzf_fink-0.2.6-full.tar.gz_
   [frodo:~] testuser% _cd_fink-0.2.6-full_
   [frodo:~/fink-0.2.6-full] testuser% _./bootstrap.sh_/sw_
   Welcome to Fink.
   Choose a method: [1] _1_
   sudo /Users/testuser/fink-0.2.6-full/ .sudo '/sw'
   OK, I'll ask you some questions and update the configuration file in
   In what additional directory should Fink look for downloaded tarballs? [] _(press_return)_
   Always print verbose messages? [y/N] _(press_return)_
   Proxy/Firewall settings
   Enter the URL of the HTTP proxy to use, or 'none' for no proxy. The URL
   should start with http:// and may contain username, password or port
   specifications. [none] _(press_return)_
   Enter the URL of the proxy to use for FTP, or 'none' for no proxy. The URL
   should start with http:// and may contain username, password or port
   specifications. [none] _(press_return)_
   Use passive mode FTP transfers (to get through a firewall)? [Y/n] _y_
   Mirror selection
   Choose a continent:
   Writing updated configuration to '/sw/etc/fink.conf'...
   Bootstrapping a base system via /sw/bootstrap.
   You should now have a working Fink installation in '/sw'.
   Run 'source /sw/bin/init.csh ; rehash' to set up this Terminal's environment
   to use Fink. To make the software installed by Fink available in all of your
   shells, add 'source /sw/bin/init.csh' to the init script '.cshrc' in your
   home directory. Enjoy.
   [frodo:~/fink-0.2.6-full] testuser% _cd_
   [frodo:~] testuser% _rm_-r_fink-0.2.6-full_
   [frodo:~] testuser% _pico_.cshrc_

The last command launches you into a text file editor. Type "source
/sw/bin/init.csh" , press return, press control-O, press return, press
control-X. You're now back at the prompt:

   [frodo:~] testuser% _source_.cshrc_
   [frodo:~] testuser% _rehash_
   [frodo:~] testuser%

If you have several windows open, close the other ones. That's
it, you now have a base system installed.

You can now install additional packages with the "fink" command, like this:

   [frodo:~] testuser% _fink_install_xfree86-server_gimp_
   sudo /sw/bin/fink 'install' 'xfree86-server' 'gimp'
   Reading package info...
   Information about 147 packages read.
   The following 14 additional packages will be installed:
    audiofile dlcompat esound giflib glib gnome-libs gtk+ imlib libjpeg libpng
    libtiff orbit xfree86-base zlib
   Do you want to continue? [Y/n] _y_

If these instructions don't work for you, well, you'll have to take the time
to read through the rest of this document and the online FAQ
[]. You can also ask on the fink-users
mailing list [], but expect
to be pointed back at the documentation when your problem actually is

 Update Fast Track
Start out by copying the "fink-0.2.6-full.tar.gz" file to your home folder.
Then, open and follow the session below. Computer output is in
"normal face" , your input is in "_bold_face_" (or otherwise highlighted).
The actual input prompts from the shell may vary, and some chunks of the
output have been omitted ( "..." ).

   [frodo:~] testuser% _tar_xzf_fink-0.2.6-full.tar.gz_
   [frodo:~] testuser% _cd_fink-0.2.6-full_
   [frodo:~/fink-0.2.6-full] testuser% _./inject.pl_/sw_
   sudo ./ /sw
   Copying package descriptions
   Your Fink installation in '/sw' was updated with new fink packages.
   [frodo:~/fink-0.2.6-full] testuser% _cd_pkginfo_
   [frodo:~/fink-0.2.6-full/pkginfo] testuser% _./inject.pl_/sw_
   sudo ./ /sw
   Your Fink installation in '/sw' was updated with new package description
   files. Use appropriate fink commands to update the packages, e.g. 'fink
   [frodo:~/fink-0.2.6-full/pkginfo] testuser% _cd_
   [frodo:~] testuser% _rm_-r_fink-0.2.6-full_
   [frodo:~] testuser% _fink_update-all_

 First Time Installation

You need:

 * An installed Mac OS X system, version 10.0 or later. (There may still be
   some stray linker-related problems with 10.1.) Darwin 1.3.1 should also
   work, but this has not been tested. Earlier versions of both will _not_

 * Development tools. On Mac OS X, install the Developer.pkg package from
   the Developer Tools CD. On Darwin, the tools should be present in the
   default install.

 * Many other things that come with Mac OS X and the Developer Tools. This
   includes perl 5.6 and either wget or curl.

 * Internet access. All source code is downloaded from mirror sites.

 * Patience. Compiling several big packages takes time. I'm talking hours or
   even days here.

 Choosing A Directory
Before you install, you must decide where Fink's directory hierarchy will
live. The recommended place is /sw, and all examples in this document will
use that. Any other directory should be fine as well, as long as you don't
use existing directories like /usr/local or /usr. The bootstrap script tries
to catch these.

If you intend to use the binary distribution (through apt-get / dselect),
you must install to /sw. Unfortunately, binary packages are not relocatable.

The directory that you choose must not contain any spaces or similar. Both
Unix itself and the bulk of Unix software were written under this
assumption. Using symlinks to trick the bootstrap script simply won't work.

A special note about /usr/local: While it is possible to install Fink in
/usr/local (and the bootstrap script will let you do that after a
confirmation), it is a bad idea. Many third party software packages install
into /usr/local. This can cause severe problems for Fink, including
overwriting files, dpkg refusing to install packages and strange build
errors. Also, the /usr/local hierarchy is in the default search path for the
shell and the compiler. That means that it is much more difficult to get
back to a working system when things break. You have been warned.

First, you need to unpack the fink-0.2.6-full.tar.gz tarball. It is
recommended that you do this from the command line - StuffIt Expander has a
tendency to screw up text files. So, go to the directory where you put the
tarball, and run this command:

   tar xzf fink-0.2.6-full.tar.gz

You now have a directory named fink-0.2.6-full. Change to it with "cd
fink-0.2.6-full" .

The actual installation is performed by the perl script It is
accompanied by a small shell script,, which checks some basic
requirements and then hands over control to the perl script. So, to start
installation, go to the fink-0.2.6-full directory and run this command:


After running some tests, the script will ask you what method should be used
to gain root privileges. The most useful choice is 'sudo'. On a default
install of Mac OS X, sudo is already enabled for the user account created
during installation. The script will immediately use the method you choose
to become root. This is required for the installation.

Next, the script will ask you for the installation path. See 'Choosing A
Directory' above for hints about this. The script will create the directory
and set it up for the bootstrap that will be done later.

Next up is Fink configuration. This consists mainly of setting proxies and
selecting mirror sites for downloading. The process should be
self-explaining. If you don't know what to say, you can just press Return
and Fink will use a reasonable default value.

Finally, the script has enough information to conduct the bootstrap process.
That means it will now download, build and install some essential packages.
Don't worry if you see some packages being compiled twice. This is required
because to build a binary package of the package manager, you first must
have the package manager available.

 Getting X11 Sorted Out
Fink uses virtual packages to declare dependencies on X11. As there are
several X11 implementations available for Mac OS X (XFree86, Tenon Xtools,
eXodus) and several ways to install them (manually or via Fink), there are
several actual packages - one for each setup. Fink is quite bad at guessing
what you have, so it's best to get this sorted out right at the beginning.
Here is a list of the available packages and installation methods:

 * xfree86-base: This package is the real thing. It will fetch the XFree86
   source, compile it and install it into /usr/X11R6. For maximum
   flexibility, this package does not contain the actual XDarwin server. To
   get it, you can install the xfree86-server package. Or you can install it
   manually, for example using an "XDarwin" test release from the XonX
   project or one of the "rootless" servers circulating the net.

 * system-xfree86: This package expects that you installed XFree86 manually,
   either from source or from the official binary distribution. It will just
   check that the installation is useful and then act as a dependency
   placeholder. Note that XFree86 4.0.2 or 4.0.3 will not pass the test. You
   need a version that builds shared libraries. Usually that will be 4.1.0,
   but CVS versions not older than a few months will also work.

 * system-xtools: Install this package if you have Tenon's Xtools product
   installed. Like system-xfree86, this will just do a sanity check and
   leave the actual files alone.

For more information on installing and running X11, refer to the online X11
on Darwin and Mac OS X document [].

 Upgrading From Fink 0.2.x

If you already have Fink 0.2.x installed, you can update your installation
to 0.2.6 with this package.

Actually, there are two pieces that are updated independently: the package
manager and the package descriptions. It is recommended to update the
package manager first.

 Updating The Package Manager
To update the package manager, run the script in the
fink-0.2.6-full directory, like this:


It will try to locate your Fink installation automatically. If it can't find
it, you can pass the path as a parameter, like this:

   ./ /sw

The script copies the package descriptions into the appropriate directory,
creates tarballs in /sw/src and then runs fink to install the new versions
of the fink and base-files packages. (Yes, that means that fink updates
itself. ":-)" )

 Updating The Package Descriptions
If you downloaded the fink-0.2.6-full tarball, the package descriptions are
in the subdirectory pkginfo. To install them, run the script in
that directory:

   cd pkginfo

This script works just like the one for the package manager.

You can also grab the package descriptions as a separate tarball,
packages-0.2.6. If you did that, just unpack it and run the script

 Getting X11 Sorted Out
The first thing you should do after updating the package descriptions is
getting the X11 dependencies settled (unless you already did that after
upgrading to 0.2.3). Refer to the "Getting X11 Sorted Out" section under
"First Time Installation" above.

 Updating Packages
The above updating steps will not update the actual packages, they only
provide you with the means to do so. The easiest way to get the new packages
is to use the 'update-all' command:

   fink update-all

This will bring all installed packages to the latest version. If you don't
want to do this (it may take some time), you can update individual packages
with the 'update' command. But note that some package require specific
versions of the packages they depend upon. Fink currently has no way to
enforce this, so you may run into problems.

 Other Notes
IMPORTANT! When you update from Fink 0.2.0 or a CVS version before 0.2.1,
the first thing you should do after running the scripts is this:

   fink update dpkg

There was a bug in dpkg that could lead to partially extracted packages. If
you had unusual trouble with installed packages, especially missing
symlinks, use 'fink reinstall' on them to re-install the .deb package files.

 Upgrading From Fink 0.1.x

There is no direct upgrade path from Fink 0.1.x to Fink 0.2.x, because they
use different methods for underlying package management (stow vs. dpkg). The
only way to upgrade is to do a complete reinstall. The procedure is as

 * Save any changes you have made to configuration files etc.

 * Save a list of packages you had installed. Hint: Try "ls
   /sw/var/fink-stamp" .

 * If you have the source tarballs still lying around in /sw/src and don't
   want to download them again, move them to another directory.

 * Wipe out the /sw directory, i.e. "cd / ; rm -rf /sw" . Do this as root if

 * Follow the procedures for a first time installation above.

 * When you're asked for an 'additional directory for downloaded tarballs',
   enter the directory you moved the tarballs to.

 * Reinstall the packages you need.

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