Skip to content


Repository files navigation

Exact Real Arithmetic

This development describes algorithms for exact computation of real numbers, including algorithms for addition, multiplication, multiplicative inverse, and square roots. The whole development is parameterized by a given basis B. Each real number 'x' is represented by a function 'fx' from Z to Z, where 'fx n' represents the integral part of 'x * B ^ n'. This representation is described by the predicate encadrement.

The algorithms are taken from the PhD. Thesis of Valérie Ménissier-Morain. A condensend presentation is available in article of the Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming (Vol. 64, Issue 1, July 2005): Arbitrary precision real arithmetic: design and algorithms.

The initial development by J. Créci, Maintenance was long ensured by H. Herbelin.


In the current state of the development, many basic functions are taken as abstract parameters and their properties described as axioms. One of these axioms is clearly inconsistent with the definition of real numbers. Proofs should be fixed before this contribution can be trusted for re-use in any other development.

Plans for fixing are as follows:

  • Make the whole development into a functor, taking all the functions so far treated as parameters as an argument module.

  • Develop an extra module to provide an instanciation of all the functions, thus showing that all axioms can be verified starting from the axioms of real numbers and removing the cause of inconsistency.

  • Fix the place where erroneous axioms are being used.

In the meantime.

There exist other implementations of exact real arithmetic. Interested users should look at the work of Russell O'Connor, Robbert Krebbers, and Bas Spitters, where the proofs rely on the CoRN presentation of constructive reals.