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README.md

Table of Contents

Scope

The idea behind this repository is to benchmark different languages implementation of HTTP server.

Hello World

The application i tested is minimal: the HTTP version of the Hello World example.
This approach allows including languages i barely know, since it is pretty easy to find such implementation online.
If you're looking for more complex examples, you will have better luck with the TechEmpower benchmarks.

Disclaimer

Please do take the following numbers with a grain of salt: it is not my intention to promote one language over another basing on micro-benchmarks.
Indeed you should never pick a language just basing on its presumed performance.

Languages

I have filtered the languages by single runtime (i.e. Java on JVM): this way i can focus on a specific stack, keeping it updated to the last available version/APIs. Where possible i just relied on the standard library, but when it is not production-ready (i.e. Ruby, Python) or where the language footprint is deliberately minimal (i.e. Rust).

Ruby

Ruby 2.6.5 is installed via rbenv.
Ruby is a general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language, focused on simplicity and productivity.

Python

Python 3.8.0 is installed via homebrew.
Python is a widely used high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.

JavaScript

Node.js version 13.0.1 is installed by official OSX package.
Node.js is based on the V8 JavaScript engine, optimized by Google and supporting most of the new language's features.

Dart

Dart version 2.6.1 is installed via homebrew.
Dart is a VM based, object-oriented, sound typed language using a C-style syntax that transcompiles optionally into JavaScript.

Elixir

Elixir 1.9.1 is installed via homebrew.
Elixir is a purely functional language that runs on the Erlang VM and is strongly influenced by the Ruby syntax.

Java

Java JDK 13.0.0 is installed by official OSX package.
Java is a VM based, statically typed, general-purpose language that is thread safe, object-oriented and, from version 8, supports functional paradigms.

Crystal

Crystal 0.31.1 is installed via homebrew.
Crystal has a syntax very close to Ruby, but brings some desirable features such as statically typing and ahead of time (AOT) compilation.

Nim

Nim 1.0.2 is installed via homebrew.
Nim is an AOT, Python inspired, statically typed language that comes with an ambitious compiler aimed to produce code in C, C++, JavaScript or ObjectiveC.

GO

GO language version 1.13.4 is installed by official OSX package.
GO is an AOT language that focuses on simplicity and offers a broad standard library with CSP constructs built in.

Rust

Rust language version 1.39.0 is installed by official package.
Rust is an AOT, garbage collector free programming language, preventing segfaults and granting thread safety.

Tools

Wrk

I used wrk as the loading tool.
I measured each application server six times, picking the best lap (but for VM based languages demanding longer warm-up).

wrk -t 4 -c 100 -d30s --timeout 2000 http://0.0.0.0:9292

Platform

These benchmarks are recorded on a MacBook PRO 15 mid 2015 having these specs:

  • macOS Mojave
  • 2.2 GHz Intel Core i7 (4 cores)
  • 16 GB 1600 MHz DDR3

RAM and CPU

I measured RAM and CPU consumption by using macOS Activity Monitor dashboard and recording max consumption peak.
For the languages relying on pre-forking parallelism i reported the average consumption by taking a snapshot during the stress period.

Benchmarks

Results

Language App Server Requests/sec RAM (MB) CPU (%)
Elixir Plug with Cowboy 45477.66 45.3 619.0
Dart Dart HttpServer 48280.33 45.9 539.3
Ruby Puma 56979.27 > 110 > 520
JavaScript Node Cluster 84260.52 > 150 > 300
Rust Hyper 97421.94 4.5 450.0
GO GO ServeMux 109945.72 7.3 441.5
Python Gunicorn with Meinheld 110583.42 > 40 > 380
Java Jetty NIO 116388.13 233.1 436.3
Nim httpbeast 116588.18 24.1 99.7
Crystal Crystal HTTP 120141.48 8.4 282.3

Puma

I tested Ruby by using a plain Rack application served by Puma.

Bootstrap

puma -w 8 -t 2 --preload servers/rack_server.ru

Gunicorn with Meinheld

I tested Python by using Gunicorn spawning Meinheld workers with a plain WSGI compliant server.

Bootstrap

cd servers
gunicorn -w 4 -k meinheld.gmeinheld.MeinheldWorker -b :9292 wsgi_server:app

Node Cluster

I used the cluster module included into Node's standard library.

Bootstrap

node servers/node_server.js

Dart HttpServer

I used the async HTTP server embedded into the Dart standard library and compiled it with dart2native AOT compiler.

Bootstrap

dart2native servers/dart_server.dart -k aot
dartaotruntime servers/dart_server.aot

Plug with Cowboy

I tested Elixir by using Plug library that provides a Cowboy adapter.

Bootstrap

cd servers/plug_server
MIX_ENV=prod mix compile
MIX_ENV=prod mix run --no-halt

Jetty NIO

I tested Java by using Jetty with the non blocking IO (NIO) APIs.

Bootstrap

cd servers/jetty_server
javac -cp jetty-all-uber.jar HelloWorld.java
java -server -cp .:jetty-all-uber.jar HelloWorld

Crystal HTTP

I used Crystal HTTP server standard library, enabling parallelism by using the preview_mt flag.

Bootstrap

crystal build -Dpreview_mt --release servers/crystal_server.cr
./crystal_server

httpbeast

To test Nim i opted for the httpbeast library: an asynchronous server relying on Nim HTTP standard library.

Bootstrap

nim c -d:release --threads:on servers/httpbeast_server.nim
./servers/httpbeast_server

GO ServeMux

I used the HTTP ServeMux GO standard library.

Bootstrap

go run servers/servemux_server.go

Hyper

I tested Rust by using the Hyper, an HTTP implementation based on Tokio.io.

Bootstrap

cd servers/hyper_server
cargo run --release

About

App Servers benchmarked for: Ruby, Python, JavaScript, Dart, Elixir, Java, Crystal, Nim, GO, Rust

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