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% A parameter which is essentially a correlate of spectral tilt, derived
% following wavelet analysis. This parameter is effective at discriminating
% lax-tense phonation types.
% Octave compatible
% Description
% The peakslope parameter is derived by using wavelet analysis to decompose
% the speech signal (or glottal source signal) into octave bands. A sliding
% window is then used for measuring time-domain maxima in the different
% frequency bands. A regression line is fit to log10 of these peaks, and
% the slope coefficient is used as the peakSlope parameter. For the wavelet
% analysis, different scaled versions of a cosine modulated gaussian pulse
% are convolved with the input signal (as is done in d'Alessandro 2011 and
% Tuan & d'Alessandro 1999).
% Inputs
% s : [samples] [Nx1] input signal
% (speech signal or glottal source)
% fs : [Hz] [1x1] sampling frequency
% Outputs
% PS : [time,slope] [Mx2] outputted peakSlope parameter,
% and time instance [s]
% Example
% Please see the HOWTO_glottalsource.m example file.
% References
% [1] Kane, J., Gobl, C., (2011) ``Identifying regions of non-modal
% phonation using features of the wavelet transform'', Proceedings of
% Interspeech, Florence, Italy, pp. 177-180, 2011.
% Copyright (c) 2011 Trinity College Dublin
% License
% This code is a part of the Voice Analysis Toolkit with the following
% licence:
% The software product (and any modifications thereof) is distributed under
% a dual licence: an open source license for individual, non-commercial
% purposes, and a commercial license. The opensource licence under which
% the product is distributed is GNU GPL v2. For individual users, this
% licence suits their use as these are not distributing proprietary
% modifications, additions to, or derivatives of the product and don't
% require legal protection of a commercial licence. For commercial users,
% where open source does not meet their requirements, we offer commercial
% licensing of the product. A commercial license permits customers to
% modify, add or produce derivative products without the obligation of
% making the subsequent code open source. For more information regarding
% our commercial licence, please contact
% This function is part of the Covarep project:
% Author
% John Kane
function PS = peakslope(s,fs)
%% Initial settings
frameLen_ms = 40; % Frame length chosen to ensure one pulse length down to f0=25 Hz
frameShift_ms = 10; % Frame shift set to 10 ms
frameLen = round(frameLen_ms/1000*fs); % Convert frame length to samples
frameShift = round(frameShift_ms/1000*fs); % Convert frame shift to samples
%% Do wavelet decomposition
i=0:6; % i=0:6 => 8 kHz, 4 kHz, 2 kHz, 1 kHz, 500 Hz, 250 Hz, 125 Hz
y=zeros(length(i),length(s)); % Allocate space for the different frequency bands
for n=1:length(i)
h_i = daless_MW(i,n,fs); % Generate mother wavelet
y(n,:) = do_daless_filt(s,h_i); % Carry out zero-phase filtering
%% Measure peakSlope per frame
finish = start+frameLen-1;
while finish <= length(s)
maxima = max(abs(y(:,start:finish)),[],2)';
maxima = log10(maxima(end:-1:1)); % reverse order to follow frequency order and convert to dB
p=polyfit(t,maxima,1); % do straight line regression fitting
PS(m,2) = p(1); % take slope coefficient from regression line
PS(m,1) = (round((start+finish)/2)-1)/fs;
start = start+frameShift;
finish = start+frameLen-1;
% Changes
% 2012-11-01> John Kane
% A modification to description in the 2011 Interspeech paper (reference
% [1] above) was made. Now before fitting the regression line maxima are
% converted to log10.