# cplusplus/draft

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 \rSec0[over]{Overloading}% \indextext{overloading|(} %gram: \rSec1[gram.over]{Overloading} %gram: \pnum \indextext{declaration!overloaded}% \indextext{overloaded function|see{overloading}}% \indextext{function, overloaded|see{overloading}}% When two or more different declarations are specified for a single name in the same scope, that name is said to be \grammarterm{overloaded}. By extension, two declarations in the same scope that declare the same name but with different types are called \term{overloaded declarations}. Only function and function template declarations can be overloaded; variable and type declarations cannot be overloaded. \pnum When an overloaded function name is used in a call, which overloaded function declaration is being referenced is determined by comparing the types of the arguments at the point of use with the types of the parameters in the overloaded declarations that are visible at the point of use. This function selection process is called \term{overload resolution} and is defined in~\ref{over.match}. \enterexample \indextext{overloading!example of}% \begin{codeblock} double abs(double); int abs(int); abs(1); // calls \tcode{abs(int);} abs(1.0); // calls \tcode{abs(double);} \end{codeblock} \exitexample \rSec1[over.load]{Overloadable declarations} \indextext{overloading!declarations}% \pnum \indextext{overloading!prohibited}% Not all function declarations can be overloaded. Those that cannot be overloaded are specified here. A program is ill-formed if it contains two such non-overloadable declarations in the same scope. \enternote This restriction applies to explicit declarations in a scope, and between such declarations and declarations made through a \grammarterm{using-declaration}~(\ref{namespace.udecl}). It does not apply to sets of functions fabricated as a result of name lookup (e.g., because of \grammarterm{using-directive}{s}) or overload resolution (e.g., for operator functions). \exitnote \pnum Certain function declarations cannot be overloaded: \begin{itemize} \item \indextext{return~type!overloading~and}% Function declarations that differ only in the return type cannot be overloaded. \item \indextext{\idxcode{static}!overloading~and}% Member function declarations with the same name and the same \grammarterm{parameter-type-list} cannot be overloaded if any of them is a \tcode{static} member function declaration~(\ref{class.static}). Likewise, member function template declarations with the same name, the same \grammarterm{parameter-type-list}, and the same template parameter lists cannot be overloaded if any of them is a \tcode{static} member function template declaration. The types of the implicit object parameters constructed for the member functions for the purpose of overload resolution~(\ref{over.match.funcs}) are not considered when comparing parameter-type-lists for enforcement of this rule. In contrast, if there is no \tcode{static} member function declaration among a set of member function declarations with the same name and the same parameter-type-list, then these member function declarations can be overloaded if they differ in the type of their implicit object parameter. \enterexample the following illustrates this distinction: \begin{codeblock} class X { static void f(); void f(); // ill-formed void f() const; // ill-formed void f() const volatile; // ill-formed void g(); void g() const; // OK: no static \tcode{g} void g() const volatile; // OK: no static \tcode{g} }; \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item Member function declarations with the same name and the same \grammarterm{parameter-type-list} as well as member function template declarations with the same name, the same \grammarterm{parameter-type-list}, and the same template parameter lists cannot be overloaded if any of them, but not all, have a \grammarterm{ref-qualifier}~(\ref{dcl.fct}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} class Y { void h() &; void h() const &; // OK void h() &&; // OK, all declarations have a ref-qualifier void i() &; void i() const; // ill-formed, prior declaration of \tcode{i} // has a ref-qualifier }; \end{codeblock} \exitexample \end{itemize} \pnum \indextext{equivalent~parameter~declarations}% \indextext{equivalent~parameter~declarations!overloading~and}% \enternote As specified in~\ref{dcl.fct}, function declarations that have equivalent parameter declarations declare the same function and therefore cannot be overloaded: \begin{itemize} \item \indextext{\idxcode{typedef}!overloading~and}% Parameter declarations that differ only in the use of equivalent typedef types'' are equivalent. A \tcode{typedef} is not a separate type, but only a synonym for another type~(\ref{dcl.typedef}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} typedef int Int; void f(int i); void f(Int i); // OK: redeclaration of \tcode{f(int)} void f(int i) @\tcode{\{ /* ... */ \}}@ void f(Int i) @\tcode{\{ /* ... */ \}}@ // error: redefinition of \tcode{f(int)} \end{codeblock} \exitexample \indextext{\idxcode{enum}!overloading~and}% Enumerations, on the other hand, are distinct types and can be used to distinguish overloaded function declarations. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} enum E { a }; void f(int i) @\tcode{\{ /* ... */ \}}@ void f(E i) @\tcode{\{ /* ... */ \}}@ \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item \indextext{array!overloading~and pointer~versus}% Parameter declarations that differ only in a pointer \tcode{*} versus an array \tcode{[]} are equivalent. That is, the array declaration is adjusted to become a pointer declaration~(\ref{dcl.fct}). Only the second and subsequent array dimensions are significant in parameter types~(\ref{dcl.array}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} int f(char*); int f(char[]); // same as \tcode{f(char*);} int f(char[7]); // same as \tcode{f(char*);} int f(char[9]); // same as \tcode{f(char*);} int g(char(*)[10]); int g(char[5][10]); // same as \tcode{g(char(*)[10]);} int g(char[7][10]); // same as \tcode{g(char(*)[10]);} int g(char(*)[20]); // different from \tcode{g(char(*)[10]);} \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item Parameter declarations that differ only in that one is a function type and the other is a pointer to the same function type are equivalent. That is, the function type is adjusted to become a pointer to function type~(\ref{dcl.fct}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} void h(int()); void h(int (*)()); // redeclaration of \tcode{h(int())} void h(int x()) { } // definition of \tcode{h(int())} void h(int (*x)()) { } // ill-formed: redefinition of \tcode{h(int())} \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item \indextext{\idxcode{const}!overloading~and}% \indextext{\idxcode{volatile}!overloading~and}% Parameter declarations that differ only in the presence or absence of \tcode{const} and/or \tcode{volatile} are equivalent. That is, the \tcode{const} and \tcode{volatile} type-specifiers for each parameter type are ignored when determining which function is being declared, defined, or called. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} typedef const int cInt; int f (int); int f (const int); // redeclaration of \tcode{f(int)} int f (int) @\tcode{\{ /* ... */ \}}@ // definition of \tcode{f(int)} int f (cInt) @\tcode{\{ /* ... */ \}}@ // error: redefinition of \tcode{f(int)} \end{codeblock} \exitexample Only the \tcode{const} and \tcode{volatile} type-specifiers at the outermost level of the parameter type specification are ignored in this fashion; \tcode{const} and \tcode{volatile} type-specifiers buried within a parameter type specification are significant and can be used to distinguish overloaded function declarations.\footnote{When a parameter type includes a function type, such as in the case of a parameter type that is a pointer to function, the \tcode{const} and \tcode{volatile} type-specifiers at the outermost level of the parameter type specifications for the inner function type are also ignored.} In particular, for any type \tcode{T}, pointer to \tcode{T},'' pointer to \tcode{const} \tcode{T},'' and pointer to \tcode{volatile} \tcode{T}'' are considered distinct parameter types, as are reference to \tcode{T},'' reference to \tcode{const} \tcode{T},'' and reference to \tcode{volatile} \tcode{T}.'' \item \indextext{default~initializers!overloading~and}% Two parameter declarations that differ only in their default arguments are equivalent. \enterexample consider the following: \begin{codeblock} void f (int i, int j); void f (int i, int j = 99); // OK: redeclaration of \tcode{f(int, int)} void f (int i = 88, int j); // OK: redeclaration of \tcode{f(int, int)} void f (); // OK: overloaded declaration of \tcode{f} void prog () { f (1, 2); // OK: call \tcode{f(int, int)} f (1); // OK: call \tcode{f(int, int)} f (); // Error: \tcode{f(int, int)} or \tcode{f()}? } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \exitnote \end{itemize} \rSec1[over.dcl]{Declaration matching}% \indextext{overloading!declaration matching}% \indextext{scope!overloading and}% \indextext{base class!overloading and} \pnum Two function declarations of the same name refer to the same function if they are in the same scope and have equivalent parameter declarations~(\ref{over.load}). A function member of a derived class is \textit{not} in the same scope as a function member of the same name in a base class. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct B { int f(int); }; struct D : B { int f(const char*); }; \end{codeblock} \indextext{name hiding!function}% \indextext{name hiding!overloading versus}% Here \tcode{D::f(const char*)} hides \tcode{B::f(int)} rather than overloading it. \indextext{Ben}% \begin{codeblock} void h(D* pd) { pd->f(1); // error: // \tcode{D::f(const char*)} hides \tcode{B::f(int)} pd->B::f(1); // OK pd->f("Ben"); // OK, calls \tcode{D::f} } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum A locally declared function is not in the same scope as a function in a containing scope. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} void f(const char*); void g() { extern void f(int); f("asdf"); // error: \tcode{f(int)} hides \tcode{f(const char*)} // so there is no \tcode{f(const char*)} in this scope } void caller () { extern void callee(int, int); { extern void callee(int); // hides \tcode{callee(int, int)} callee(88, 99); // error: only \tcode{callee(int)} in scope } } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum \indextext{access control!overloading and}% \indextext{overloading!access control and}% Different versions of an overloaded member function can be given different access rules. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} class buffer { private: char* p; int size; protected: buffer(int s, char* store) { size = s; p = store; } public: buffer(int s) { p = new char[size = s]; } }; \end{codeblock} \exitexample \rSec1[over.match]{Overload resolution}% \indextext{overloading!resolution|(}% \indextext{resolution|see{overloading, resolution}}% \indextext{ambiguity!overloaded function} \pnum Overload resolution is a mechanism for selecting the best function to call given a list of expressions that are to be the arguments of the call and a set of \term{candidate functions} that can be called based on the context of the call. The selection criteria for the best function are the number of arguments, how well the arguments match the parameter-type-list of the candidate function, how well (for non-static member functions) the object matches the implicit object parameter, and certain other properties of the candidate function. \enternote The function selected by overload resolution is not guaranteed to be appropriate for the context. Other restrictions, such as the accessibility of the function, can make its use in the calling context ill-formed. \exitnote \pnum \indextext{overloading!resolution!contexts}% Overload resolution selects the function to call in seven distinct contexts within the language: \begin{itemize} \item invocation of a function named in the function call syntax~(\ref{over.call.func}); \item invocation of a function call operator, a pointer-to-function conversion function, a reference-to-pointer-to-function conversion function, or a reference-to-function conversion function on a class object named in the function call syntax~(\ref{over.call.object}); \item invocation of the operator referenced in an expression~(\ref{over.match.oper}); \item invocation of a constructor for direct-initialization~(\ref{dcl.init}) of a class object~(\ref{over.match.ctor}); \item invocation of a user-defined conversion for copy-initialization~(\ref{dcl.init}) of a class object~(\ref{over.match.copy}); \item invocation of a conversion function for initialization of an object of a nonclass type from an expression of class type~(\ref{over.match.conv}); and \item invocation of a conversion function for conversion to a glvalue or class prvalue to which a reference~(\ref{dcl.init.ref}) will be directly bound~(\ref{over.match.ref}). \end{itemize} Each of these contexts defines the set of candidate functions and the list of arguments in its own unique way. But, once the candidate functions and argument lists have been identified, the selection of the best function is the same in all cases: \begin{itemize} \item First, a subset of the candidate functions (those that have the proper number of arguments and meet certain other conditions) is selected to form a set of \indextext{function!viable}% viable functions~(\ref{over.match.viable}). \item Then the best viable function is selected based on the implicit conversion sequences~(\ref{over.best.ics}) needed to match each argument to the corresponding parameter of each viable function. \end{itemize} \pnum If a best viable function exists and is unique, overload resolution succeeds and produces it as the result. Otherwise overload resolution fails and the invocation is ill-formed. When overload resolution succeeds, and the best viable function is not accessible (Clause~\ref{class.access}) in the context in which it is used, the program is ill-formed. \rSec2[over.match.funcs]{Candidate functions and argument lists}% \indextext{overloading!candidate functions|(}% \indextext{overloading!argument lists|(} \pnum The subclauses of~\ref{over.match.funcs} describe the set of candidate functions and the argument list submitted to overload resolution in each of the seven contexts in which overload resolution is used. The source transformations and constructions defined in these subclauses are only for the purpose of describing the overload resolution process. An implementation is not required to use such transformations and constructions. \pnum \indextext{member function!overload resolution and}% \indextext{function!overload resolution and}% The set of candidate functions can contain both member and non-member functions to be resolved against the same argument list. So that argument and parameter lists are comparable within this heterogeneous set, a member function is considered to have an extra parameter, called the \defn{implicit object parameter}, which represents the object for which the member function has been called. For the purposes of overload resolution, both static and non-static member functions have an implicit object parameter, but constructors do not. \pnum Similarly, when appropriate, the context can construct an argument list that contains an \defn{implied object argument} to denote the object to be operated on. Since arguments and parameters are associated by position within their respective lists, the convention is that the implicit object parameter, if present, is always the first parameter and the implied object argument, if present, is always the first argument. \pnum For non-static member functions, the type of the implicit object parameter is \begin{itemize} \item lvalue reference to \textit{cv} \tcode{X}'' for functions declared without a \grammarterm{ref-qualifier} or with the \tcode{\&} \grammarterm{ref-qualifier} \item rvalue reference to \textit{cv} \tcode{X}'' for functions declared with the \tcode{\&\&} \grammarterm{ref-qualifier} \end{itemize} where \tcode{X} is the class of which the function is a member and \textit{cv} is the cv-qualification on the member function declaration. \enterexample for a \tcode{const} member function of class \tcode{X}, the extra parameter is assumed to have type reference to \tcode{const X}''. \exitexample For conversion functions, the function is considered to be a member of the class of the implied object argument for the purpose of defining the type of the implicit object parameter. For non-conversion functions introduced by a \grammarterm{using-declaration} into a derived class, the function is considered to be a member of the derived class for the purpose of defining the type of the implicit object parameter. For static member functions, the implicit object parameter is considered to match any object (since if the function is selected, the object is discarded). \enternote No actual type is established for the implicit object parameter of a static member function, and no attempt will be made to determine a conversion sequence for that parameter~(\ref{over.match.best}). \exitnote \pnum \indextext{implied object argument!implicit conversion sequences}% During overload resolution, the implied object argument is indistinguishable from other arguments. The implicit object parameter, however, retains its identity since conversions on the corresponding argument shall obey these additional rules: \begin{itemize} \item no temporary object can be introduced to hold the argument for the implicit object parameter; and \item no user-defined conversions can be applied to achieve a type match with it. \end{itemize} \indextext{implied object argument!non-static member function and}% For non-static member functions declared without a \grammarterm{ref-qualifier}, an additional rule applies: \begin{itemize} \item even if the implicit object parameter is not \tcode{const}-qualified, an rvalue can be bound to the parameter as long as in all other respects the argument can be converted to the type of the implicit object parameter. \enternote The fact that such an argument is an rvalue does not affect the ranking of implicit conversion sequences~(\ref{over.ics.rank}). \exitnote \end{itemize} \pnum Because other than in list-initialization only one user-defined conversion is allowed in an implicit conversion sequence, special rules apply when selecting the best user-defined conversion~(\ref{over.match.best}, \ref{over.best.ics}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} class T { public: T(); }; class C : T { public: C(int); }; T a = 1; // ill-formed: \tcode{T(C(1))} not tried \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum In each case where a candidate is a function template, candidate function template specializations are generated using template argument deduction~(\ref{temp.over}, \ref{temp.deduct}). Those candidates are then handled as candidate functions in the usual way.\footnote{The process of argument deduction fully determines the parameter types of the function template specializations, i.e., the parameters of function template specializations contain no template parameter types. Therefore the function template specializations can be treated as normal (non-template) functions for the remainder of overload resolution.} A given name can refer to one or more function templates and also to a set of overloaded non-template functions. In such a case, the candidate functions generated from each function template are combined with the set of non-template candidate functions. \rSec3[over.match.call]{Function call syntax}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!function call syntax|(} \pnum In a function call~(\ref{expr.call}) \begin{ncsimplebnf} postfix-expression \terminal{(} expression-list\opt \terminal{)} \end{ncsimplebnf} if the \grammarterm{postfix-expression} denotes a set of overloaded functions and/or function templates, overload resolution is applied as specified in \ref{over.call.func}. If the \grammarterm{postfix-expression} denotes an object of class type, overload resolution is applied as specified in \ref{over.call.object}. \pnum If the \grammarterm{postfix-expression} denotes the address of a set of overloaded functions and/or function templates, overload resolution is applied using that set as described above. If the function selected by overload resolution is a non-static member function, the program is ill-formed. \enternote The resolution of the address of an overload set in other contexts is described in \ref{over.over}. \exitnote \rSec4[over.call.func]{Call to named function} \pnum Of interest in~\ref{over.call.func} are only those function calls in which the \grammarterm{postfix-expression} ultimately contains a name that denotes one or more functions that might be called. Such a \grammarterm{postfix-expression}, perhaps nested arbitrarily deep in parentheses, has one of the following forms: \begin{ncbnf} postfix-expression:\br postfix-expression \terminal{.} id-expression\br postfix-expression \terminal{->} id-expression\br primary-expression \end{ncbnf} These represent two syntactic subcategories of function calls: qualified function calls and unqualified function calls. \pnum In qualified function calls, the name to be resolved is an \grammarterm{id-expression} and is preceded by an \tcode{->} or \tcode{.} operator. Since the construct \tcode{A->B} is generally equivalent to \tcode{(*A).B}, the rest of Clause~\ref{over} assumes, without loss of generality, that all member function calls have been normalized to the form that uses an object and the \tcode{.} operator. Furthermore, Clause~\ref{over} assumes that the \grammarterm{postfix-expression} that is the left operand of the \tcode{.} operator has type \textit{cv} \tcode{T}'' where \tcode{T} denotes a class\footnote{Note that cv-qualifiers on the type of objects are significant in overload resolution for both glvalue and class prvalue objects.}. Under this assumption, the \grammarterm{id-expression} in the call is looked up as a member function of \tcode{T} following the rules for looking up names in classes~(\ref{class.member.lookup}). The function declarations found by that lookup constitute the set of candidate functions. The argument list is the \grammarterm{expression-list} in the call augmented by the addition of the left operand of the \tcode{.} operator in the normalized member function call as the implied object argument~(\ref{over.match.funcs}). \pnum In unqualified function calls, the name is not qualified by an \tcode{->} or \tcode{.} operator and has the more general form of a \grammarterm{primary-expression}. The name is looked up in the context of the function call following the normal rules for name lookup in function calls~(\ref{basic.lookup}). The function declarations found by that lookup constitute the set of candidate functions. Because of the rules for name lookup, the set of candidate functions consists (1) entirely of non-member functions or (2) entirely of member functions of some class \tcode{T}. In case (1), the argument list is the same as the \grammarterm{expression-list} in the call. In case (2), the argument list is the \grammarterm{expression-list} in the call augmented by the addition of an implied object argument as in a qualified function call. If the keyword \tcode{this}~(\ref{class.this}) is in scope and refers to class \tcode{T}, or a derived class of \tcode{T}, then the implied object argument is \tcode{(*this)}. If the keyword \tcode{this} is not in scope or refers to another class, then a contrived object of type \tcode{T} becomes the implied object argument\footnote{An implied object argument must be contrived to correspond to the implicit object parameter attributed to member functions during overload resolution. It is not used in the call to the selected function. Since the member functions all have the same implicit object parameter, the contrived object will not be the cause to select or reject a function.}. If the argument list is augmented by a contrived object and overload resolution selects one of the non-static member functions of \tcode{T}, the call is ill-formed. \rSec4[over.call.object]{Call to object of class type} \pnum If the \grammarterm{primary-expression} \tcode{E} in the function call syntax evaluates to a class object of type \textit{cv} \tcode{T}'', then the set of candidate functions includes at least the function call operators of \tcode{T}. The function call operators of \tcode{T} are obtained by ordinary lookup of the name \tcode{operator()} in the context of \tcode{(E).operator()}. \pnum In addition, for each non-explicit conversion function declared in \tcode{T} of the form \begin{ncsimplebnf} \terminal{operator} conversion-type-id \terminal{(\,)} cv-qualifier attribute-specifier-seq\opt \terminal{;} \end{ncsimplebnf} where \grammarterm{cv-qualifier} is the same cv-qualification as, or a greater cv-qualification than, \textit{cv}, and where \grammarterm{conversion-type-id} denotes the type pointer to function of (\tcode{P1},...,\tcode{Pn)} returning \tcode{R}'', or the type reference to pointer to function of (\tcode{P1},...,\tcode{Pn)} returning \tcode{R}'', or the type reference to function of (\tcode{P1},...,\tcode{Pn)} returning \tcode{R}'', a \term{surrogate call function} with the unique name \grammarterm{call-function} and having the form \begin{ncbnf} \terminal{R} call-function \terminal{(} conversion-type-id \terminal{F, P1 a1, ... ,Pn an)} \terminal{\{ return F (a1,... ,an); \}} \end{ncbnf} is also considered as a candidate function. Similarly, surrogate call functions are added to the set of candidate functions for each non-explicit conversion function declared in a base class of \tcode{T} provided the function is not hidden within \tcode{T} by another intervening declaration\footnote{Note that this construction can yield candidate call functions that cannot be differentiated one from the other by overload resolution because they have identical declarations or differ only in their return type. The call will be ambiguous if overload resolution cannot select a match to the call that is uniquely better than such undifferentiable functions.}. \pnum If such a surrogate call function is selected by overload resolution, the corresponding conversion function will be called to convert \tcode{E} to the appropriate function pointer or reference, and the function will then be invoked with the arguments of the call. If the conversion function cannot be called (e.g., because of an ambiguity), the program is ill-formed. \pnum The argument list submitted to overload resolution consists of the argument expressions present in the function call syntax preceded by the implied object argument \tcode{(E)}. \enternote When comparing the call against the function call operators, the implied object argument is compared against the implicit object parameter of the function call operator. When comparing the call against a surrogate call function, the implied object argument is compared against the first parameter of the surrogate call function. The conversion function from which the surrogate call function was derived will be used in the conversion sequence for that parameter since it converts the implied object argument to the appropriate function pointer or reference required by that first parameter. \exitnote \enterexample \begin{codeblock} int f1(int); int f2(float); typedef int (*fp1)(int); typedef int (*fp2)(float); struct A { operator fp1() { return f1; } operator fp2() { return f2; } } a; int i = a(1); // calls \tcode{f1} via pointer returned from // conversion function \end{codeblock} \exitexample% \indextext{overloading!resolution!function call syntax|)} \rSec3[over.match.oper]{Operators in expressions}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!operators} \pnum If no operand of an operator in an expression has a type that is a class or an enumeration, the operator is assumed to be a built-in operator and interpreted according to Clause~\ref{expr}. \enternote Because \tcode{.}, \tcode{.*}, and \tcode{::} cannot be overloaded, these operators are always built-in operators interpreted according to Clause~\ref{expr}. \tcode{?:} cannot be overloaded, but the rules in this subclause are used to determine the conversions to be applied to the second and third operands when they have class or enumeration type~(\ref{expr.cond}). \exitnote \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct String { String (const String&); String (const char*); operator const char* (); }; String operator + (const String&, const String&); void f(void) { const char* p= "one" + "two"; // ill-formed because neither // operand has user-defined type int I = 1 + 1; // Always evaluates to \tcode{2} even if // user-defined types exist which // would perform the operation. } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum If either operand has a type that is a class or an enumeration, a user-defined operator function might be declared that implements this operator or a user-defined conversion can be necessary to convert the operand to a type that is appropriate for a built-in operator. In this case, overload resolution is used to determine which operator function or built-in operator is to be invoked to implement the operator. Therefore, the operator notation is first transformed to the equivalent function-call notation as summarized in Table~\ref{tab:over.rel.op.func} (where \tcode{@} denotes one of the operators covered in the specified subclause). \begin{floattable}{Relationship between operator and function call notation}{tab:over.rel.op.func} {l|m|m|m} \topline \hdstyle{Subclause} & \hdstyle{Expression} & \hdstyle{As member function} & \hdstyle{As non-member function} \\ \capsep \ref{over.unary} & @a & (a).operator@ (\,) & operator@ (a) \\ \ref{over.binary} & a@b & (a).operator@ (b) & operator@ (a, b) \\ \ref{over.ass} & a=b & (a).operator= (b) & \\ \ref{over.sub} & a[b] & (a).operator[](b) & \\ \ref{over.ref} & a-> & (a).operator-> (\,) & \\ \ref{over.inc} & a@ & (a).operator@ (0) & operator@ (a, 0) \\ \end{floattable} \pnum For a unary operator \tcode{@} with an operand of a type whose cv-unqualified version is \tcode{T1}, and for a binary operator \tcode{@} with a left operand of a type whose cv-unqualified version is \tcode{T1} and a right operand of a type whose cv-unqualified version is \tcode{T2}, three sets of candidate functions, designated \term{member candidates}, \term{non-member candidates} and \term{built-in candidates}, are constructed as follows: \begin{itemize} \item If \tcode{T1} is a complete class type, the set of member candidates is the result of the qualified lookup of \tcode{T1::operator@}~(\ref{over.call.func}); otherwise, the set of member candidates is empty. \item The set of non-member candidates is the result of the unqualified lookup of \tcode{operator@} in the context of the expression according to the usual rules for name lookup in unqualified function calls~(\ref{basic.lookup.argdep}) except that all member functions are ignored. However, if no operand has a class type, only those non-member functions in the lookup set that have a first parameter of type \tcode{T1} or reference to (possibly cv-qualified) \tcode{T1}'', when \tcode{T1} is an enumeration type, or (if there is a right operand) a second parameter of type \tcode{T2} or reference to (possibly cv-qualified) \tcode{T2}'', when \tcode{T2} is an enumeration type, are candidate functions. \item For the operator \tcode{,}, the unary operator \tcode{\&}, or the operator \tcode{->}, the built-in candidates set is empty. For all other operators, the built-in candidates include all of the candidate operator functions defined in~\ref{over.built} that, compared to the given operator, \begin{itemize} \item have the same operator name, and \item accept the same number of operands, and \item accept operand types to which the given operand or operands can be converted according to \ref{over.best.ics}, and \item do not have the same parameter-type-list as any non-template non-member candidate. \end{itemize} \end{itemize} \pnum For the built-in assignment operators, conversions of the left operand are restricted as follows: \begin{itemize} \item no temporaries are introduced to hold the left operand, and \item no user-defined conversions are applied to the left operand to achieve a type match with the left-most parameter of a built-in candidate. \end{itemize} \pnum For all other operators, no such restrictions apply. \pnum The set of candidate functions for overload resolution is the union of the member candidates, the non-member candidates, and the built-in candidates. The argument list contains all of the operands of the operator. The best function from the set of candidate functions is selected according to~\ref{over.match.viable} and~\ref{over.match.best}.\footnote{If the set of candidate functions is empty, overload resolution is unsuccessful.} \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A { operator int(); }; A operator+(const A&, const A&); void m() { A a, b; a + b; // \tcode{operator+(a,b)} chosen over \tcode{int(a) + int(b)} } \end{codeblock} \exitexample % USA _136/_28 L6899 USA core-756/734/682 over.match.oper \pnum If a built-in candidate is selected by overload resolution, the operands are converted to the types of the corresponding parameters of the selected operation function. Then the operator is treated as the corresponding built-in operator and interpreted according to Clause~\ref{expr}. \pnum The second operand of operator \tcode{->} is ignored in selecting an \tcode{operator->} function, and is not an argument when the \tcode{operator->} function is called. When \tcode{operator->} returns, the operator \tcode{->} is applied to the value returned, with the original second operand.\footnote{If the value returned by the \tcode{operator->} function has class type, this may result in selecting and calling another \tcode{operator->} function. The process repeats until an \tcode{operator->} function returns a value of non-class type.} \pnum If the operator is the operator \tcode{,}, the unary operator \tcode{\&}, or the operator \tcode{->}, and there are no viable functions, then the operator is assumed to be the built-in operator and interpreted according to Clause~\ref{expr}. \pnum \enternote The lookup rules for operators in expressions are different than the lookup rules for operator function names in a function call, as shown in the following example: \begin{codeblock} struct A { }; void operator + (A, A); struct B { void operator + (B); void f (); }; A a; void B::f() { operator+ (a,a); // error: global operator hidden by member a + a; // OK: calls global \tcode{operator+} } \end{codeblock} \exitnote \rSec3[over.match.ctor]{Initialization by constructor}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!initialization} \pnum When objects of class type are direct-initialized~(\ref{dcl.init}), or copy-initialized from an expression of the same or a derived class type~(\ref{dcl.init}), overload resolution selects the constructor. For direct-initialization, the candidate functions are all the constructors of the class of the object being initialized. For copy-initialization, the candidate functions are all the converting constructors~(\ref{class.conv.ctor}) of that class. The argument list is the \grammarterm{expression-list} or \grammarterm{assignment-expression} of the \grammarterm{initializer}. \rSec3[over.match.copy]{Copy-initialization of class by user-defined conversion}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!initialization} \pnum Under the conditions specified in~\ref{dcl.init}, as part of a copy-initialization of an object of class type, a user-defined conversion can be invoked to convert an initializer expression to the type of the object being initialized. Overload resolution is used to select the user-defined conversion to be invoked. Assuming that \textit{cv1} \tcode{T}'' is the type of the object being initialized, with \tcode{T} a class type, the candidate functions are selected as follows: \begin{itemize} \item The converting constructors~(\ref{class.conv.ctor}) of \tcode{T} are candidate functions. \item When the type of the initializer expression is a class type \textit{cv} \tcode{S}'', the non-explicit conversion functions of \tcode{S} and its base classes are considered. When initializing a temporary to be bound to the first parameter of a constructor that takes a reference to possibly \cv-qualified \tcode{T} as its first argument, called with a single argument in the context of direct-initialization, explicit conversion functions are also considered. Those that are not hidden within \tcode{S} and yield a type whose cv-unqualified version is the same type as \tcode{T} or is a derived class thereof are candidate functions. Conversion functions that return reference to \tcode{X}'' return lvalues or xvalues, depending on the type of reference, of type \tcode{X} and are therefore considered to yield \tcode{X} for this process of selecting candidate functions. \end{itemize} \pnum In both cases, the argument list has one argument, which is the initializer expression. \enternote This argument will be compared against the first parameter of the constructors and against the implicit object parameter of the conversion functions. \exitnote \rSec3[over.match.conv]{Initialization by conversion function}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!initialization} \pnum Under the conditions specified in~\ref{dcl.init}, as part of an initialization of an object of nonclass type, a conversion function can be invoked to convert an initializer expression of class type to the type of the object being initialized. Overload resolution is used to select the conversion function to be invoked. Assuming that \textit{cv1} \tcode{T}'' is the type of the object being initialized, and \textit{cv} \tcode{S}'' is the type of the initializer expression, with \tcode{S} a class type, the candidate functions are selected as follows: \begin{itemize} \item The conversion functions of \tcode{S} and its base classes are considered. Those non-explicit conversion functions that are not hidden within \tcode{S} and yield type \tcode{T} or a type that can be converted to type \tcode{T} via a standard conversion sequence~(\ref{over.ics.scs}) are candidate functions. For direct-initialization, those explicit conversion functions that are not hidden within \tcode{S} and yield type \tcode{T} or a type that can be converted to type \tcode{T} with a qualification conversion~(\ref{conv.qual}) are also candidate functions. Conversion functions that return a cv-qualified type are considered to yield the cv-unqualified version of that type for this process of selecting candidate functions. Conversion functions that return reference to \textit{cv2} \tcode{X}'' return lvalues or xvalues, depending on the type of reference, of type \textit{cv2} \tcode{X}'' and are therefore considered to yield \tcode{X} for this process of selecting candidate functions. \end{itemize} \pnum The argument list has one argument, which is the initializer expression. \enternote This argument will be compared against the implicit object parameter of the conversion functions. \exitnote \rSec3[over.match.ref]{Initialization by conversion function for direct reference binding}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!initialization} \pnum Under the conditions specified in~\ref{dcl.init.ref}, a reference can be bound directly to a glvalue or class prvalue that is the result of applying a conversion function to an initializer expression. Overload resolution is used to select the conversion function to be invoked. Assuming that \textit{cv1} \tcode{T}'' is the underlying type of the reference being initialized, and \textit{cv} \tcode{S}'' is the type of the initializer expression, with \tcode{S} a class type, the candidate functions are selected as follows: \begin{itemize} \item The conversion functions of \tcode{S} and its base classes are considered, except that for copy-initialization, only the non-explicit conversion functions are considered. Those that are not hidden within \tcode{S} and yield type lvalue reference to \textit{cv2} \tcode{T2}'' (when \ref{dcl.init.ref} requires an lvalue result) or \nonterminal{cv2} \tcode{T2}'' or rvalue reference to \nonterminal{cv2} \tcode{T2}'' (when \ref{dcl.init.ref} requires an rvalue result), where \textit{cv1} \tcode{T}'' is reference-compatible~(\ref{dcl.init.ref}) with \textit{cv2} \tcode{T2}'', are candidate functions. \end{itemize} \pnum The argument list has one argument, which is the initializer expression. \enternote This argument will be compared against the implicit object parameter of the conversion functions. \exitnote \rSec3[over.match.list]{Initialization by list-initialization}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!initialization} \pnum When objects of non-aggregate class type \tcode{T} are list-initialized~(\ref{dcl.init.list}), overload resolution selects the constructor in two phases: \begin{itemize} \item Initially, the candidate functions are the initializer-list constructors~(\ref{dcl.init.list}) of the class \tcode{T} and the argument list consists of the initializer list as a single argument. \item If no viable initializer-list constructor is found, overload resolution is performed again, where the candidate functions are all the constructors of the class \tcode{T} and the argument list consists of the elements of the initializer list. \end{itemize}% \indextext{overloading!argument lists|)}% \indextext{overloading!candidate functions|)} If the initializer list has no elements and \tcode{T} has a default constructor, the first phase is omitted. In copy-list-initialization, if an \tcode{explicit} constructor is chosen, the initialization is ill-formed. \enternote This differs from other situations (\ref{over.match.ctor},~\ref{over.match.copy}), where only converting constructors are considered for copy-initialization. This restriction only applies if this initialization is part of the final result of overload resolution. \exitnote \rSec2[over.match.viable]{Viable functions}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!viable functions|(} \pnum From the set of candidate functions constructed for a given context~(\ref{over.match.funcs}), a set of viable functions is chosen, from which the best function will be selected by comparing argument conversion sequences for the best fit~(\ref{over.match.best}). The selection of viable functions considers relationships between arguments and function parameters other than the ranking of conversion sequences. \pnum \indextext{ellipsis!overload resolution~and}% \indextext{default~argument!overload resolution~and}% First, to be a viable function, a candidate function shall have enough parameters to agree in number with the arguments in the list. \begin{itemize} \item If there are \textit{m} arguments in the list, all candidate functions having exactly \textit{m} parameters are viable. \item A candidate function having fewer than \textit{m} parameters is viable only if it has an ellipsis in its parameter list~(\ref{dcl.fct}). For the purposes of overload resolution, any argument for which there is no corresponding parameter is considered to match the ellipsis''~(\ref{over.ics.ellipsis}) . \item A candidate function having more than \textit{m} parameters is viable only if the \textit{(m+1)}-st parameter has a default argument~(\ref{dcl.fct.default}).\footnote{According to~\ref{dcl.fct.default}, parameters following the \textit{(m+1)}-st parameter must also have default arguments.} For the purposes of overload resolution, the parameter list is truncated on the right, so that there are exactly \textit{m} parameters. \end{itemize} \pnum Second, for \tcode{F} to be a viable function, there shall exist for each argument an \term{implicit conversion sequence}~(\ref{over.best.ics}) that converts that argument to the corresponding parameter of \tcode{F}. If the parameter has reference type, the implicit conversion sequence includes the operation of binding the reference, and the fact that an lvalue reference to non-\tcode{const} cannot be bound to an rvalue and that an rvalue reference cannot be bound to an lvalue can affect the viability of the function (see~\ref{over.ics.ref}). \rSec2[over.match.best]{Best viable function}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!best viable function|(} \pnum \indextext{conversion!overload resolution~and}% Define ICS\textit{i}(\tcode{F}) as follows: \begin{itemize} \item if \tcode{F} is a static member function, ICS\textit{1}(\tcode{F}) is defined such that ICS\textit{1}(\tcode{F}) is neither better nor worse than ICS\textit{1}(\tcode{G}) for any function \tcode{G}, and, symmetrically, ICS\textit{1}(\tcode{G}) is neither better nor worse than ICS\textit{1}(\tcode{F})\footnote{If a function is a static member function, this definition means that the first argument, the implied object argument, has no effect in the determination of whether the function is better or worse than any other function.}; otherwise, \item let ICS\textit{i}(\tcode{F}) denote the implicit conversion sequence that converts the \textit{i}-th argument in the list to the type of the \textit{i}-th parameter of viable function \tcode{F}. \ref{over.best.ics} defines the implicit conversion sequences and \ref{over.ics.rank} defines what it means for one implicit conversion sequence to be a better conversion sequence or worse conversion sequence than another. \end{itemize} Given these definitions, a viable function \tcode{F1} is defined to be a \term{better} function than another viable function \tcode{F2} if for all arguments \textit{i}, ICS\textit{i}(\tcode{F1}) is not a worse conversion sequence than ICS\textit{i}(\tcode{F2}), and then \begin{itemize} \item for some argument \textit{j}, ICS\textit{j}(\tcode{F1}) is a better conversion sequence than ICS\textit{j}(\tcode{F2}), or, if not that, \item the context is an initialization by user-defined conversion (see~\ref{dcl.init}, \ref{over.match.conv}, and~\ref{over.match.ref}) and the standard conversion sequence from the return type of \tcode{F1} to the destination type (i.e., the type of the entity being initialized) is a better conversion sequence than the standard conversion sequence from the return type of \tcode{F2} to the destination type. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A { A(); operator int(); operator double(); } a; int i = a; // \tcode{a.operator int()} followed by no conversion // is better than \tcode{a.operator double()} followed by // a conversion to \tcode{int} float x = a; // ambiguous: both possibilities require conversions, // and neither is better than the other \end{codeblock} \exitexample or, if not that, \item \tcode{F1} is a non-template function and \tcode{F2} is a function template specialization, or, if not that, \item \tcode{F1} and \tcode{F2} are function template specializations, and the function template for \tcode{F1} is more specialized than the template for \tcode{F2} according to the partial ordering rules described in~\ref{temp.func.order}. \end{itemize} \pnum If there is exactly one viable function that is a better function than all other viable functions, then it is the one selected by overload resolution; otherwise the call is ill-formed\footnote{The algorithm for selecting the best viable function is linear in the number of viable functions. Run a simple tournament to find a function \tcode{W} that is not worse than any opponent it faced. Although another function \tcode{F} that \tcode{W} did not face might be at least as good as \tcode{W}, \tcode{F} cannot be the best function because at some point in the tournament \tcode{F} encountered another function \tcode{G} such that \tcode{F} was not better than \tcode{G}. Hence, \tcode{W} is either the best function or there is no best function. So, make a second pass over the viable functions to verify that \tcode{W} is better than all other functions.}. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} void Fcn(const int*, short); void Fcn(int*, int); int i; short s = 0; void f() { Fcn(&i, s); // is ambiguous because // \tcode{\&i} $\to$ \tcode{int*} is better than \tcode{\&i} $\to$ \tcode{const int*} // but \tcode{s} $\to$ \tcode{short} is also better than \tcode{s} $\to$ \tcode{int} Fcn(&i, 1L); // calls \tcode{Fcn(int*, int)}, because // \tcode{\&i} $\to$ \tcode{int*} is better than \tcode{\&i} $\to$ \tcode{const int*} // and \tcode{1L} $\to$ \tcode{short} and \tcode{1L} $\to$ \tcode{int} are indistinguishable Fcn(&i,'c'); // calls \tcode{Fcn(int*, int)}, because // \tcode{\&i} $\to$ \tcode{int*} is better than \tcode{\&i} $\to$ \tcode{const int*} // and \tcode{c} $\to$ \tcode{int} is better than \tcode{c} $\to$ \tcode{short} } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum If the best viable function resolves to a function for which multiple declarations were found, and if at least two of these declarations --- or the declarations they refer to in the case of \grammarterm{using-declaration}{s} --- specify a default argument that made the function viable, the program is ill-formed. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} namespace A { extern "C" void f(int = 5); } namespace B { extern "C" void f(int = 5); } using A::f; using B::f; void use() { f(3); // OK, default argument was not used for viability f(); // Error: found default argument twice } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \rSec3[over.best.ics]{Implicit conversion sequences}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!implicit conversions and|(} \pnum An \term{implicit conversion sequence} \indextext{sequence!implicit conversion}% is a sequence of conversions used to convert an argument in a function call to the type of the corresponding parameter of the function being called. The sequence of conversions is an implicit conversion as defined in Clause~\ref{conv}, which means it is governed by the rules for initialization of an object or reference by a single expression~(\ref{dcl.init}, \ref{dcl.init.ref}). \pnum Implicit conversion sequences are concerned only with the type, cv-qualification, and value category of the argument and how these are converted to match the corresponding properties of the parameter. Other properties, such as the lifetime, storage class, alignment, or accessibility of the argument and whether or not the argument is a bit-field are ignored. So, although an implicit conversion sequence can be defined for a given argument-parameter pair, the conversion from the argument to the parameter might still be ill-formed in the final analysis. \pnum A well-formed implicit conversion sequence is one of the following forms: \begin{itemize} \item a \term{standard conversion sequence}~(\ref{over.ics.scs}), \item a \grammarterm{user-defined conversion sequence}~(\ref{over.ics.user}), or \item an \term{ellipsis conversion sequence}~(\ref{over.ics.ellipsis}). \end{itemize} \pnum However, when considering the argument of a constructor or user-defined conversion function that is a candidate by~\ref{over.match.ctor} when invoked for the copying/moving of the temporary in the second step of a class copy-initialization, by~\ref{over.match.list} when passing the initializer list as a single argument or when the initializer list has exactly one element and a conversion to some class \tcode{X} or reference to (possibly cv-qualified) \tcode{X} is considered for the first parameter of a constructor of \tcode{X}, or by~\ref{over.match.copy}, \ref{over.match.conv}, or \ref{over.match.ref} in all cases, only standard conversion sequences and ellipsis conversion sequences are considered. \pnum For the case where the parameter type is a reference, see~\ref{over.ics.ref}. \pnum When the parameter type is not a reference, the implicit conversion sequence models a copy-initialization of the parameter from the argument expression. The implicit conversion sequence is the one required to convert the argument expression to a prvalue of the type of the parameter. \enternote When the parameter has a class type, this is a conceptual conversion defined for the purposes of Clause~\ref{over}; the actual initialization is defined in terms of constructors and is not a conversion. \exitnote Any difference in top-level cv-qualification is subsumed by the initialization itself and does not constitute a conversion. \enterexample a parameter of type \tcode{A} can be initialized from an argument of type \tcode{const A}. The implicit conversion sequence for that case is the identity sequence; it contains no conversion'' from \tcode{const A} to \tcode{A}. \exitexample When the parameter has a class type and the argument expression has the same type, the implicit conversion sequence is an identity conversion. When the parameter has a class type and the argument expression has a derived class type, the implicit conversion sequence is a derived-to-base \indextext{conversion!derived-to-base}% Conversion from the derived class to the base class. \enternote There is no such standard conversion; this derived-to-base Conversion exists only in the description of implicit conversion sequences. \exitnote A derived-to-base Conversion has Conversion rank~(\ref{over.ics.scs}). \pnum In all contexts, when converting to the implicit object parameter or when converting to the left operand of an assignment operation only standard conversion sequences that create no temporary object for the result are allowed. \pnum If no conversions are required to match an argument to a parameter type, the implicit conversion sequence is the standard conversion sequence consisting of the identity conversion~(\ref{over.ics.scs}). \pnum If no sequence of conversions can be found to convert an argument to a parameter type or the conversion is otherwise ill-formed, an implicit conversion sequence cannot be formed. \pnum If several different sequences of conversions exist that each convert the argument to the parameter type, the implicit conversion sequence associated with the parameter is defined to be the unique conversion sequence designated the \term{ambiguous conversion sequence}. \indextext{sequence!ambiguous conversion}% For the purpose of ranking implicit conversion sequences as described in~\ref{over.ics.rank}, the ambiguous conversion sequence is treated as a user-defined sequence that is indistinguishable from any other user-defined conversion sequence\footnote{The ambiguous conversion sequence is ranked with user-defined conversion sequences because multiple conversion sequences for an argument can exist only if they involve different user-defined conversions. The ambiguous conversion sequence is indistinguishable from any other user-defined conversion sequence because it represents at least two user-defined conversion sequences, each with a different user-defined conversion, and any other user-defined conversion sequence must be indistinguishable from at least one of them. This rule prevents a function from becoming non-viable because of an ambiguous conversion sequence for one of its parameters. Consider this example, \begin{ttfamily} \begin{tabbing} \hspace{2in}\=\kill% \indent class B;\\ \indent class A \{ A (B\&);\};\\ \indent class B \{ operator A (); \};\\ \indent class C \{ C (B\&); \};\\ \indent void f(A) \{ \}\\ \indent void f(C) \{ \}\\ \indent B b;\\ \indent f(b);\>\textrm{// ambiguous because \tcode{b} $\to$ \tcode{C} via constructor and}\\ \indent \>\textrm{// \tcode{b} $\to$ \tcode{A} via constructor or conversion function.} \end{tabbing} \end{ttfamily} If it were not for this rule, \tcode{f(A)} would be eliminated as a viable function for the call \tcode{f(b)} causing overload resolution to select \tcode{f(C)} as the function to call even though it is not clearly the best choice. On the other hand, if an \tcode{f(B)} were to be declared then \tcode{f(b)} would resolve to that \tcode{f(B)} because the exact match with \tcode{f(B)} is better than any of the sequences required to match \tcode{f(A)}.}. If a function that uses the ambiguous conversion sequence is selected as the best viable function, the call will be ill-formed because the conversion of one of the arguments in the call is ambiguous. \pnum The three forms of implicit conversion sequences mentioned above are defined in the following subclauses. \rSec4[over.ics.scs]{Standard conversion sequences} \pnum Table~\ref{tab:over.conversions} summarizes the conversions defined in Clause~\ref{conv} and partitions them into four disjoint categories: Lvalue Transformation, Qualification Adjustment, Promotion, and Conversion. \enternote These categories are orthogonal with respect to value category, cv-qualification, and data representation: the Lvalue Transformations do not change the cv-qualification or data representation of the type; the Qualification Adjustments do not change the value category or data representation of the type; and the Promotions and Conversions do not change the value category or cv-qualification of the type. \exitnote \pnum \enternote As described in Clause~\ref{conv}, a standard conversion sequence is either the Identity conversion by itself (that is, no conversion) or consists of one to three conversions from the other four categories. At most one conversion from each category is allowed in a single standard conversion sequence. If there are two or more conversions in the sequence, the conversions are applied in the canonical order: \textbf{Lvalue Transformation}, \textbf{Promotion} or \textbf{Conversion}, \textbf{Qualification Adjustment}. \exitnote \pnum \indextext{conversion rank}% Each conversion in Table~\ref{tab:over.conversions} also has an associated rank (Exact Match, Promotion, or Conversion). These are used to rank standard conversion sequences~(\ref{over.ics.rank}). The rank of a conversion sequence is determined by considering the rank of each conversion in the sequence and the rank of any reference binding~(\ref{over.ics.ref}). If any of those has Conversion rank, the sequence has Conversion rank; otherwise, if any of those has Promotion rank, the sequence has Promotion rank; otherwise, the sequence has Exact Match rank. \begin{floattable}{Conversions}{tab:over.conversions}{l|c|c|c} \topline \hdstyle{Conversion} & \hdstyle{Category} & \hdstyle{Rank} & \hdstyle{Subclause} \\ \capsep No conversions required & Identity & & \\ \cline{1-2}\cline{4-4} Lvalue-to-rvalue conversion & & & \ref{conv.lval} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Array-to-pointer conversion & Lvalue Transformation & Exact Match & \ref{conv.array} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Function-to-pointer conversion & & & \ref{conv.func} \\ \cline{1-2}\cline{4-4} Qualification conversions & Qualification Adjustment & & \ref{conv.qual} \\ \hline Integral promotions & & & \ref{conv.prom} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Floating point promotion & \rb{Promotion} & \rb{Promotion} & \ref{conv.fpprom} \\ \hline Integral conversions & & & \ref{conv.integral} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Floating point conversions & & & \ref{conv.double} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Floating-integral conversions & & & \ref{conv.fpint} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Pointer conversions & \rb{Conversion} & \rb{Conversion} & \ref{conv.ptr} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Pointer to member conversions & & & \ref{conv.mem} \\ \cline{1-1}\cline{4-4} Boolean conversions & & & \ref{conv.bool} \\ \end{floattable} \rSec4[over.ics.user]{User-defined conversion sequences} \pnum A user-defined conversion sequence consists of an initial standard conversion sequence followed by a user-defined conversion~(\ref{class.conv}) followed by a second standard conversion sequence. If the user-defined conversion is specified by a constructor~(\ref{class.conv.ctor}), the initial standard conversion sequence converts the source type to the type required by the argument of the constructor. If the user-defined conversion is specified by a conversion function~(\ref{class.conv.fct}), the initial standard conversion sequence converts the source type to the implicit object parameter of the conversion function. \pnum The second standard conversion sequence converts the result of the user-defined conversion to the target type for the sequence. Since an implicit conversion sequence is an initialization, the special rules for initialization by user-defined conversion apply when selecting the best user-defined conversion for a user-defined conversion sequence (see~\ref{over.match.best} and~\ref{over.best.ics}). \pnum If the user-defined conversion is specified by a specialization of a conversion function template, the second standard conversion sequence shall have exact match rank. \pnum A conversion of an expression of class type to the same class type is given Exact Match rank, and a conversion of an expression of class type to a base class of that type is given Conversion rank, in spite of the fact that a constructor (i.e., a user-defined conversion function) is called for those cases. \rSec4[over.ics.ellipsis]{Ellipsis conversion sequences} \pnum \indextext{ellipsis!conversion~sequence}% An ellipsis conversion sequence occurs when an argument in a function call is matched with the ellipsis parameter specification of the function called (see~\ref{expr.call}). \rSec4[over.ics.ref]{Reference binding} \pnum When a parameter of reference type binds directly~(\ref{dcl.init.ref}) to an argument expression, the implicit conversion sequence is the identity conversion, unless the argument expression has a type that is a derived class of the parameter type, in which case the implicit conversion sequence is a derived-to-base Conversion~(\ref{over.best.ics}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A {}; struct B : public A {} b; int f(A&); int f(B&); int i = f(b); // calls \tcode{f(B\&)}, an exact match, rather than // \tcode{f(A\&)}, a conversion \end{codeblock} \exitexample If the parameter binds directly to the result of applying a conversion function to the argument expression, the implicit conversion sequence is a user-defined conversion sequence~(\ref{over.ics.user}), with the second standard conversion sequence either an identity conversion or, if the conversion function returns an entity of a type that is a derived class of the parameter type, a derived-to-base Conversion. \pnum When a parameter of reference type is not bound directly to an argument expression, the conversion sequence is the one required to convert the argument expression to the underlying type of the reference according to~\ref{over.best.ics}. Conceptually, this conversion sequence corresponds to copy-initializing a temporary of the underlying type with the argument expression. Any difference in top-level cv-qualification is subsumed by the initialization itself and does not constitute a conversion. \pnum Except for an implicit object parameter, for which see~\ref{over.match.funcs}, a standard conversion sequence cannot be formed if it requires binding an lvalue reference other than a reference to a non-volatile \tcode{const} type to an rvalue or binding an rvalue reference to an lvalue other than a function lvalue. \enternote This means, for example, that a candidate function cannot be a viable function if it has a non-\tcode{const} lvalue reference parameter (other than the implicit object parameter) and the corresponding argument is a temporary or would require one to be created to initialize the lvalue reference (see~\ref{dcl.init.ref}). \exitnote \pnum Other restrictions on binding a reference to a particular argument that are not based on the types of the reference and the argument do not affect the formation of a standard conversion sequence, however. \enterexample a function with an lvalue reference to \tcode{int}'' parameter can be a viable candidate even if the corresponding argument is an \tcode{int} bit-field. The formation of implicit conversion sequences treats the \tcode{int} bit-field as an \tcode{int} lvalue and finds an exact match with the parameter. If the function is selected by overload resolution, the call will nonetheless be ill-formed because of the prohibition on binding a non-\tcode{const} lvalue reference to a bit-field~(\ref{dcl.init.ref}). \exitexample \pnum The binding of a reference to an expression that is \grammarterm{reference-compatible with added qualification} influences the rank of a standard conversion; see~\ref{over.ics.rank} and~\ref{dcl.init.ref}. \rSec4[over.ics.list]{List-initialization sequence} \pnum When an argument is an initializer list~(\ref{dcl.init.list}), it is not an expression and special rules apply for converting it to a parameter type. \pnum If the parameter type is \tcode{std::initializer_list} or array of \tcode{X}''\footnote{Since there are no parameters of array type, this will only occur as the underlying type of a reference parameter.} and all the elements of the initializer list can be implicitly converted to \tcode{X}, the implicit conversion sequence is the worst conversion necessary to convert an element of the list to \tcode{X}. This conversion can be a user-defined conversion even in the context of a call to an initializer-list constructor. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} void f(std::initializer_list); f( {1,2,3} ); // OK: \tcode{f(initializer_list)} identity conversion f( {'a','b'} ); // OK: \tcode{f(initializer_list)} integral promotion f( {1.0} ); // error: narrowing struct A { A(std::initializer_list); // \#1 A(std::initializer_list>); // \#2 A(std::initializer_list); // \#3 }; A a{ 1.0,2.0 }; // OK, uses \#1 void g(A); g({ "foo", "bar" }); // OK, uses \#3 typedef int IA[3]; void h(const IA&); h({ 1, 2, 3 }); // OK: identity conversion \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum Otherwise, if the parameter is a non-aggregate class \tcode{X} and overload resolution per~\ref{over.match.list} chooses a single best constructor of \tcode{X} to perform the initialization of an object of type \tcode{X} from the argument initializer list, the implicit conversion sequence is a user-defined conversion sequence. If multiple constructors are viable but none is better than the others, the implicit conversion sequence is the ambiguous conversion sequence. User-defined conversions are allowed for conversion of the initializer list elements to the constructor parameter types except as noted in~\ref{over.best.ics}. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A { A(std::initializer_list); }; void f(A); f( {'a', 'b'} ); // OK: \tcode{f(A(std::initializer_list))} user-defined conversion struct B { B(int, double); }; void g(B); g( {'a', 'b'} ); // OK: \tcode{g(B(int,double))} user-defined conversion g( {1.0, 1,0} ); // error: narrowing void f(B); f( {'a', 'b'} ); // error: ambiguous \tcode{f(A)} or \tcode{f(B)} struct C { C(std::string); }; void h(C); h({"foo"}); // OK: \tcode{h(C(std::string("foo")))} struct D { C(A, C); }; void i(D); i({ {1,2}, {"bar"} }); // OK: \tcode{i(D(A(std::initializer_list\{1,2\}),C(std::string("bar"))))} \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum Otherwise, if the parameter has an aggregate type which can be initialized from the initializer list according to the rules for aggregate initialization~(\ref{dcl.init.aggr}), the implicit conversion sequence is a user-defined conversion sequence. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A { int m1; double m2; }; void f(A); f( {'a', 'b'} ); // OK: \tcode{f(A(int,double))} user-defined conversion f( {1.0} ); // error: narrowing \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum Otherwise, if the parameter is a reference, see~\ref{over.ics.ref}. \enternote The rules in this section will apply for initializing the underlying temporary for the reference. \exitnote \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A { int m1; double m2; }; void f(const A&); f( {'a', 'b'} ); // OK: \tcode{f(A(int,double))} user-defined conversion f( {1.0} ); // error: narrowing void g(const double &); g({1}); // same conversion as \tcode{int} to \tcode{double} \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum Otherwise, if the parameter type is not a class: \begin{itemize} \item if the initializer list has one element, the implicit conversion sequence is the one required to convert the element to the parameter type; \enterexample \begin{codeblock} void f(int); f( {'a'} ); // OK: same conversion as \tcode{char} to \tcode{int} f( {1.0} ); // error: narrowing \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item if the initializer list has no elements, the implicit conversion sequence is the identity conversion. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} void f(int); f( { } ); // OK: identity conversion \end{codeblock} \exitexample \end{itemize} \pnum In all cases other than those enumerated above, no conversion is possible. \rSec3[over.ics.rank]{Ranking implicit conversion sequences} \pnum \ref{over.ics.rank} defines a partial ordering of implicit conversion sequences based on the relationships \term{better conversion sequence} and \term{better conversion}. If an implicit conversion sequence S1 is defined by these rules to be a better conversion sequence than S2, then it is also the case that S2 is a \term{worse conversion sequence} than S1. If conversion sequence S1 is neither better than nor worse than conversion sequence S2, S1 and S2 are said to be \term{indistinguishable conversion sequences}. \pnum When comparing the basic forms of implicit conversion sequences (as defined in~\ref{over.best.ics}) \begin{itemize} \item a standard conversion sequence~(\ref{over.ics.scs}) is a better conversion sequence than a user-defined conversion sequence or an ellipsis conversion sequence, and \item a user-defined conversion sequence~(\ref{over.ics.user}) is a better conversion sequence than an ellipsis conversion sequence~(\ref{over.ics.ellipsis}). \end{itemize} \pnum Two implicit conversion sequences of the same form are indistinguishable conversion sequences unless one of the following rules applies: \begin{itemize} \item Standard conversion sequence \tcode{S1} is a better conversion sequence than standard conversion sequence \tcode{S2} if \begin{itemize} \item \indextext{subsequence~rule!overloading}% \tcode{S1} is a proper subsequence of \tcode{S2} (comparing the conversion sequences in the canonical form defined by~\ref{over.ics.scs}, excluding any Lvalue Transformation; the identity conversion sequence is considered to be a subsequence of any non-identity conversion sequence) or, if not that, \item the rank of \tcode{S1} is better than the rank of \tcode{S2}, or \tcode{S1} and \tcode{S2} have the same rank and are distinguishable by the rules in the paragraph below, or, if not that, \item \tcode{S1} and \tcode{S2} differ only in their qualification conversion and yield similar types \tcode{T1} and \tcode{T2}~(\ref{conv.qual}), respectively, and the cv-qualification signature of type \tcode{T1} is a proper subset of the cv-qualification signature of type \tcode{T2}. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} int f(const int *); int f(int *); int i; int j = f(&i); // calls \tcode{f(int*)} \end{codeblock} \exitexample or, if not that, \item \tcode{S1} and \tcode{S2} are reference bindings~(\ref{dcl.init.ref}) and neither refers to an implicit object parameter of a non-static member function declared without a \grammarterm{ref-qualifier}, and \tcode{S1} binds an rvalue reference to an rvalue and \tcode{S2} binds an lvalue reference. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} int i; int f1(); int&& f2(); int g(const int&); int g(const int&&); int j = g(i); // calls \tcode{g(const int\&)} int k = g(f1()); // calls \tcode{g(const int\&\&)} int l = g(f2()); // calls \tcode{g(const int\&\&)} struct A { A& operator<<(int); void p() &; void p() &&; }; A& operator<<(A&&, char); A() << 1; // calls \tcode{A::operator\shl(int)} A() << 'c'; // calls \tcode{operator\shl(A\&\&, char)} A a; a << 1; // calls \tcode{A::operator\shl(int)} a << 'c'; // calls \tcode{A::operator\shl(int)} A().p(); // calls \tcode{A::p()\&\&} a.p(); // calls \tcode{A::p()\&} \end{codeblock} \exitexample or, if not that, \item \tcode{S1} and \tcode{S2} are reference bindings~(\ref{dcl.init.ref}) and \tcode{S1} binds an lvalue reference to a function lvalue and \tcode{S2} binds an rvalue reference to a function lvalue. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} int f(void(&)()); // \#1 int f(void(&&)()); // \#2 void g(); int i1 = f(g); // calls \#1 \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item \tcode{S1} and \tcode{S2} are reference bindings~(\ref{dcl.init.ref}), and the types to which the references refer are the same type except for top-level cv-qualifiers, and the type to which the reference initialized by \tcode{S2} refers is more cv-qualified than the type to which the reference initialized by \tcode{S1} refers. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} int f(const int &); int f(int &); int g(const int &); int g(int); int i; int j = f(i); // calls \tcode{f(int \&)} int k = g(i); // ambiguous struct X { void f() const; void f(); }; void g(const X& a, X b) { a.f(); // calls \tcode{X::f() const} b.f(); // calls \tcode{X::f()} } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \end{itemize} \item User-defined conversion sequence \tcode{U1} is a better conversion sequence than another user-defined conversion sequence \tcode{U2} if they contain the same user-defined conversion function or constructor or aggregate initialization and the second standard conversion sequence of \tcode{U1} is better than the second standard conversion sequence of \tcode{U2}. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A { operator short(); } a; int f(int); int f(float); int i = f(a); // calls \tcode{f(int)}, because \tcode{short} $\to$ \tcode{int} is // better than \tcode{short} $\to$ \tcode{float}. \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item List-initialization sequence \tcode{L1} is a better conversion sequence than list-initialization sequence \tcode{L2} if \tcode{L1} converts to \tcode{std::initializer_list} for some \tcode{X} and \tcode{L2} does not. \end{itemize} \pnum Standard conversion sequences are ordered by their ranks: an Exact Match is a better conversion than a Promotion, which is a better conversion than a Conversion. Two conversion sequences with the same rank are indistinguishable unless one of the following rules applies: \begin{itemize} \item A conversion that does not convert a pointer, a pointer to member, or \tcode{std::nullptr_t} to \tcode{bool} is better than one that does. \item If class \tcode{B} is derived directly or indirectly from class \tcode{A}, conversion of \tcode{B*} to \tcode{A*} is better than conversion of \tcode{B*} to \tcode{void*}, and conversion of \tcode{A*} to \tcode{void*} is better than conversion of \tcode{B*} to \tcode{void*}. \item If class \tcode{B} is derived directly or indirectly from class \tcode{A} and class \tcode{C} is derived directly or indirectly from \tcode{B}, \begin{itemize} \item conversion of \tcode{C*} to \tcode{B*} is better than conversion of \tcode{C*} to \tcode{A*}, \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct A {}; struct B : public A {}; struct C : public B {}; C *pc; int f(A *); int f(B *); int i = f(pc); // calls \tcode{f(B*)} \end{codeblock} \exitexample \item binding of an expression of type \tcode{C} to a reference of type \tcode{B\&} is better than binding an expression of type \tcode{C} to a reference of type \tcode{A\&}, \item conversion of \tcode{A::*} to \tcode{B::*} is better than conversion of \tcode{A::*} to \tcode{C::*}, \item conversion of \tcode{C} to \tcode{B} is better than conversion of \tcode{C} to \tcode{A}, \item conversion of \tcode{B*} to \tcode{A*} is better than conversion of \tcode{C*} to \tcode{A*}, \item binding of an expression of type \tcode{B} to a reference of type \tcode{A\&} is better than binding an expression of type \tcode{C} to a reference of type \tcode{A\&}, \item conversion of \tcode{B::*} to \tcode{C::*} is better than conversion of \tcode{A::*} to \tcode{C::*}, and \item conversion of \tcode{B} to \tcode{A} is better than conversion of \tcode{C} to \tcode{A}. \end{itemize} \enternote Compared conversion sequences will have different source types only in the context of comparing the second standard conversion sequence of an initialization by user-defined conversion (see~\ref{over.match.best}); in all other contexts, the source types will be the same and the target types will be different. \exitnote \end{itemize}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!implicit conversions and|)}% \indextext{overloading!resolution|)} \rSec1[over.over]{Address of overloaded function}% \indextext{overloading!address of overloaded function}% \indextext{overloadedfunction!address~of} \pnum A use of an overloaded function name without arguments is resolved in certain contexts to a function, a pointer to function or a pointer to member function for a specific function from the overload set. A function template name is considered to name a set of overloaded functions in such contexts. The function selected is the one whose type is identical to the function type of the target type required in the context. \enternote That is, the class of which the function is a member is ignored when matching a pointer-to-member-function type. \exitnote The target can be \begin{itemize} \item an object or reference being initialized~(\ref{dcl.init}, \ref{dcl.init.ref}), \item the left side of an assignment~(\ref{expr.ass}), \item a parameter of a function~(\ref{expr.call}), \item a parameter of a user-defined operator~(\ref{over.oper}), \item the return value of a function, operator function, or conversion~(\ref{stmt.return}), \item an explicit type conversion~(\ref{expr.type.conv}, \ref{expr.static.cast}, \ref{expr.cast}), or \item a non-type \grammarterm{template-parameter}~(\ref{temp.arg.nontype}). \end{itemize} The overloaded function name can be preceded by the \tcode{\&} operator. An overloaded function name shall not be used without arguments in contexts other than those listed. \enternote Any redundant set of parentheses surrounding the overloaded function name is ignored~(\ref{expr.prim}). \exitnote \pnum If the name is a function template, template argument deduction is done~(\ref{temp.deduct.funcaddr}), and if the argument deduction succeeds, the resulting template argument list is used to generate a single function template specialization, which is added to the set of overloaded functions considered. \enternote As described in~\ref{temp.arg.explicit}, if deduction fails and the function template name is followed by an explicit template argument list, the \grammarterm{template-id} is then examined to see whether it identifies a single function template specialization. If it does, the \grammarterm{template-id} is considered to be an lvalue for that function template specialization. The target type is not used in that determination. \exitnote \pnum Non-member functions and static member functions match targets of type pointer-to-function'' or reference-to-function.'' Nonstatic member functions match targets of type pointer-to-member-function''. If a non-static member function is selected, the reference to the overloaded function name is required to have the form of a pointer to member as described in~\ref{expr.unary.op}. \pnum If more than one function is selected, any function template specializations in the set are eliminated if the set also contains a non-template function, and any given function template specialization \tcode{F1} is eliminated if the set contains a second function template specialization whose function template is more specialized than the function template of \tcode{F1} according to the partial ordering rules of~\ref{temp.func.order}. After such eliminations, if any, there shall remain exactly one selected function. \pnum \enterexample \begin{codeblock} int f(double); int f(int); int (*pfd)(double) = &f; // selects \tcode{f(double)} int (*pfi)(int) = &f; // selects \tcode{f(int)} int (*pfe)(...) = &f; // error: type mismatch int (&rfi)(int) = f; // selects \tcode{f(int)} int (&rfd)(double) = f; // selects \tcode{f(double)} void g() { (int (*)(int))&f; // cast expression as selector } \end{codeblock} The initialization of \tcode{pfe} is ill-formed because no \tcode{f()} with type \tcode{int(...)} has been declared, and not because of any ambiguity. For another example, \begin{codeblock} struct X { int f(int); static int f(long); }; int (X::*p1)(int) = &X::f; // OK int (*p2)(int) = &X::f; // error: mismatch int (*p3)(long) = &X::f; // OK int (X::*p4)(long) = &X::f; // error: mismatch int (X::*p5)(int) = &(X::f); // error: wrong syntax for // pointer to member int (*p6)(long) = &(X::f); // OK \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum \enternote If \tcode{f()} and \tcode{g()} are both overloaded functions, the cross product of possibilities must be considered to resolve \tcode{f(\&g)}, or the equivalent expression \tcode{f(g)}. \exitnote \pnum \indextext{conversion!overload resolution and pointer}% \enternote There are no standard conversions (Clause~\ref{conv}) of one pointer-to-function type into another. In particular, even if \tcode{B} is a public base of \tcode{D}, we have \begin{codeblock} D* f(); B* (*p1)() = &f; // error void g(D*); void (*p2)(B*) = &g; // error \end{codeblock} \exitnote \rSec1[over.oper]{Overloaded operators}% \indextext{overloading!operator|(}% \indextext{overloaded operator|see{overloading, operator}}% \indextext{operator overloading|see{overloading, operator}} \pnum \indextext{operator!overloaded}% \indextext{function!operator}% A function declaration having one of the following \grammarterm{operator-function-id}{s} as its name declares an \term{operator function}. A function template declaration having one of the following \grammarterm{operator-function-id}{s} as its name declares an \term{operator function template}. A specialization of an operator function template is also an operator function. An operator function is said to \term{implement} the operator named in its \grammarterm{operator-function-id}. \begin{bnf} \nontermdef{operator-function-id}\br \terminal{operator} operator \end{bnf} \begin{bnfkeywordtab} \nontermdef{operator} \textnormal{one of}\br \>new\>delete\>new[]\>delete[]\br \>+\>-\>*\>/\>\%\>\^{}\>\&\>|\>$\sim$\br \>!\>=\><\>>\>+=\>-=\>*=\>/=\>\%=\br \>\^{}=\>\&=\>|=\>\shl\>\shr\>\shr=\>\shl=\>={=}\>!=\br \><=\>>=\>\&\&\>|{|}\>++\>-{-}\>,\>->*\>->\br \>(\,)\>[\,] \end{bnfkeywordtab} \enternote The last two operators are function call~(\ref{expr.call}) and subscripting~(\ref{expr.sub}). The operators \tcode{new[]}, \tcode{delete[]}, \tcode{()}, and \tcode{[]} are formed from more than one token. \exitnote \indextext{operator!subscripting}% \indextext{operator!function~call}% \pnum Both the unary and binary forms of \begin{codeblock} + - * & \end{codeblock} can be overloaded. \pnum \indextext{restriction!operator~overloading}% The following operators cannot be overloaded: \begin{codeblock} . .* :: ?: \end{codeblock} nor can the preprocessing symbols \tcode{\#} and \tcode{\#\#} (Clause~\ref{cpp}). \pnum \indextext{call!operator~function}% Operator functions are usually not called directly; instead they are invoked to evaluate the operators they implement~(\ref{over.unary} -- \ref{over.inc}). They can be explicitly called, however, using the \grammarterm{operator-function-id} as the name of the function in the function call syntax~(\ref{expr.call}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} complex z = a.operator+(b); // \tcode{complex z = a+b;} void* p = operator new(sizeof(int)*n); \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum The allocation and deallocation functions, \tcode{operator} \tcode{new}, \tcode{operator} \tcode{new[]}, \tcode{operator} \tcode{delete} and \tcode{operator} \tcode{de\-lete\brk[]}, are described completely in~\ref{basic.stc.dynamic}. The attributes and restrictions found in the rest of this subclause do not apply to them unless explicitly stated in~\ref{basic.stc.dynamic}. \pnum \indextext{restriction!overloading}% An operator function shall either be a non-static member function or be a non-member function and have at least one parameter whose type is a class, a reference to a class, an enumeration, or a reference to an enumeration. It is not possible to change the precedence, grouping, or number of operands of operators. The meaning of the operators \tcode{=}, (unary) \tcode{\&}, and \tcode{,} (comma), predefined for each type, can be changed for specific class and enumeration types by defining operator functions that implement these operators. \indextext{overloaded~operator!inheritance~of}% Operator functions are inherited in the same manner as other base class functions. \pnum \indextext{operator}% The identities among certain predefined operators applied to basic types (for example, \tcode{++a} $\equiv$ \tcode{a+=1}) need not hold for operator functions. Some predefined operators, such as \tcode{+=}, require an operand to be an lvalue when applied to basic types; this is not required by operator functions. \pnum \indextext{argument!overloaded~operator~and default}% An operator function cannot have default arguments~(\ref{dcl.fct.default}), except where explicitly stated below. Operator functions cannot have more or fewer parameters than the number required for the corresponding operator, as described in the rest of this subclause. \pnum Operators not mentioned explicitly in subclauses~\ref{over.ass} through~\ref{over.inc} act as ordinary unary and binary operators obeying the rules of ~\ref{over.unary} or~\ref{over.binary}.% \indextext{overloading!resolution!best viable function|)}% \indextext{overloading!resolution!viable functions|)} \rSec2[over.unary]{Unary operators}% \indextext{unary operator!overloaded}% \indextext{overloading!unary operator} \pnum A prefix unary operator shall be implemented by a non-static member function~(\ref{class.mfct}) with no parameters or a non-member function with one parameter. \indextext{unary~operator!interpretation~of}% Thus, for any prefix unary operator \tcode{@}, \tcode{@x} can be interpreted as either \tcode{x.op\-er\-a\-tor@()} or \tcode{operator@(x)}. If both forms of the operator function have been declared, the rules in~\ref{over.match.oper} determine which, if any, interpretation is used. See~\ref{over.inc} for an explanation of the postfix unary operators \tcode{++} and \tcode{\dcr}. \pnum The unary and binary forms of the same operator are considered to have the same name. \enternote Consequently, a unary operator can hide a binary operator from an enclosing scope, and vice versa. \exitnote \rSec2[over.binary]{Binary operators}% \indextext{binary operator!overloaded}% \indextext{overloading!binary operator} \pnum A binary operator shall be implemented either by a non-static member function~(\ref{class.mfct}) with one parameter or by a non-member function with two parameters. \indextext{binary~operator!interpretation~of}% Thus, for any binary operator \tcode{@}, \tcode{x@y} can be interpreted as either \tcode{x.op\-er\-a\-tor\-@(y)} or \tcode{operator@(x,y)}. If both forms of the operator function have been declared, the rules in~\ref{over.match.oper} determine which, if any, interpretation is used. \rSec2[over.ass]{Assignment} \indextext{assignment operator!overloaded}% \indextext{overloading!assignment operator} \pnum An assignment operator shall be implemented by a non-static member function with exactly one parameter. Because a copy assignment operator \tcode{operator=} is implicitly declared for a class if not declared by the user~(\ref{class.copy}), a base class assignment operator is always hidden by the copy assignment operator of the derived class. \pnum Any assignment operator, even the copy and move assignment operators, can be virtual. \enternote For a derived class \tcode{D} with a base class \tcode{B} for which a virtual copy/move assignment has been declared, the copy/move assignment operator in \tcode{D} does not override \tcode{B}'s virtual copy/move assignment operator. \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct B { virtual int operator= (int); virtual B& operator= (const B&); }; struct D : B { virtual int operator= (int); virtual D& operator= (const B&); }; D dobj1; D dobj2; B* bptr = &dobj1; void f() { bptr->operator=(99); // calls \tcode{D::operator=(int)} *bptr = 99; // ditto bptr->operator=(dobj2); // calls \tcode{D::operator=(const B\&)} *bptr = dobj2; // ditto dobj1 = dobj2; // calls implicitly-declared // \tcode{D::operator=(const D\&)} } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \exitnote \rSec2[over.call]{Function call}% \indextext{function~call~operator!overloaded}% \indextext{overloading!function call operator} \pnum \tcode{operator()} shall be a non-static member function with an arbitrary number of parameters. It can have default arguments. It implements the function call syntax \begin{ncsimplebnf} postfix-expression \terminal{(} expression-list\opt \terminal{)} \end{ncsimplebnf} where the \grammarterm{postfix-expression} evaluates to a class object and the possibly empty \grammarterm{expression-list} matches the parameter list of an \tcode{operator()} member function of the class. Thus, a call \tcode{x(arg1,...)} is interpreted as \tcode{x.op\-er\-a\-tor()(arg1, ...)} for a class object \tcode{x} of type \tcode{T} if \tcode{T::operator()(T1,} \tcode{T2,} \tcode{T3)} exists and if the operator is selected as the best match function by the overload resolution mechanism~(\ref{over.match.best}). \rSec2[over.sub]{Subscripting}% \indextext{subscripting operator!overloaded}% \indextext{overloading!subscripting operator} \pnum \tcode{operator[]} shall be a non-static member function with exactly one parameter. It implements the subscripting syntax \begin{ncsimplebnf} postfix-expression \terminal{[} expression \terminal{]} \end{ncsimplebnf} or \begin{ncsimplebnf} postfix-expression \terminal{[} braced-init-list \terminal{]} \end{ncsimplebnf} Thus, a subscripting expression \tcode{x[y]} is interpreted as \tcode{x.operator[](y)} for a class object \tcode{x} of type \tcode{T} if \tcode{T::op\-er\-a\-tor[]\-(T1)} exists and if the operator is selected as the best match function by the overload resolution mechanism~(\ref{over.match.best}). \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct X { Z operator[](std::initializer_list); }; X x; x[{1,2,3}] = 7; // OK: meaning \tcode{x.operator[](\{1,2,3\})} int a[10]; a[{1,2,3}] = 7; // error: built-in subscript operator \end{codeblock} \exitexample \rSec2[over.ref]{Class member access} \indextext{member access operator!overloaded}% \indextext{overloading!member access operator} \pnum \tcode{operator->} shall be a non-static member function taking no parameters. It implements the class member access syntax that uses \tcode{->}. \begin{ncsimplebnf} postfix-expression \terminal{->} \terminal{template\opt} id-expression\\ postfix-expression \terminal{->} pseudo-destructor-name \end{ncsimplebnf} An expression \tcode{x->m} is interpreted as \tcode{(x.operator->())->m} for a class object \tcode{x} of type \tcode{T} if \tcode{T::operator->()} exists and if the operator is selected as the best match function by the overload resolution mechanism~(\ref{over.match}). \rSec2[over.inc]{Increment and decrement} \indextext{increment operator!overloaded|see{overloading, increment operator}}% \indextext{decrement operator!overloaded|see{overloading, decrement operator}}% \indextext{prefix~++ and~-{-} overloading@prefix \tcode{++}~and~\tcode{\dcr}!overloading}% \indextext{postfix~++~and~-{-} overloading@postfix \tcode{++}~and~\tcode{\dcr}!overloading}% \pnum The user-defined function called \tcode{operator++} implements the prefix and postfix \tcode{++} operator. If this function is a member function with no parameters, or a non-member function with one parameter of class or enumeration type, it defines the prefix increment operator \tcode{++} for objects of that type. If the function is a member function with one parameter (which shall be of type \tcode{int}) or a non-member function with two parameters (the second of which shall be of type \tcode{int}), it defines the postfix increment operator \tcode{++} for objects of that type. When the postfix increment is called as a result of using the \tcode{++} operator, the \tcode{int} argument will have value zero.\footnote{Calling \tcode{operator++} explicitly, as in expressions like \tcode{a.operator++(2)}, has no special properties: The argument to \tcode{operator++} is \tcode{2}.} \enterexample \begin{codeblock} struct X { X& operator++(); // prefix \tcode{++a} X operator++(int); // postfix \tcode{a++} }; struct Y { }; Y& operator++(Y&); // prefix \tcode{++b} Y operator++(Y&, int); // postfix \tcode{b++} void f(X a, Y b) { ++a; // \tcode{a.operator++();} a++; // \tcode{a.operator++(0);} ++b; // \tcode{operator++(b);} b++; // \tcode{operator++(b, 0);} a.operator++(); // explicit call: like \tcode{++a;} a.operator++(0); // explicit call: like \tcode{a++;} operator++(b); // explicit call: like \tcode{++b;} operator++(b, 0); // explicit call: like \tcode{b++;} } \end{codeblock} \exitexample \pnum The prefix and postfix decrement operators \tcode{-{-}} are handled analogously. \rSec2[over.literal]{User-defined literals}% \indextext{user-defined literal!overloaded}% \indextext{overloading!user-defined literal} \begin{bnf} \nontermdef{literal-operator-id}\br \terminal{operator} \terminal{""} identifier \end{bnf} \pnum The \grammarterm{identifier} in a \grammarterm{literal-operator-id} is called a \term{literal suffix identifier}. \enternote some literal suffix identifiers are reserved for future standardization; see~\ref{usrlit.suffix}. \exitnote \pnum A declaration whose \grammarterm{declarator-id} is a \grammarterm{literal-operator-id} shall be a declaration of a namespace-scope function or function template (it could be a friend function~(\ref{class.friend})), an explicit instantiation or specialization of a function template, or a \grammarterm{using-declaration}~(\ref{namespace.udecl}). A function declared with a \grammarterm{literal-operator-id} is a \term{literal operator}. A function template declared with a \grammarterm{literal-operator-id} is a \term{literal operator template}. \pnum The declaration of a literal operator shall have a \grammarterm{parameter-declaration-clause} equivalent to one of the following: \begin{codeblock} const char* unsigned long long int long double char wchar_t char16_t char32_t const char*, std::size_t const wchar_t*, std::size_t const char16_t*, std::size_t const char32_t*, std::size_t \end{codeblock} \pnum A \term{raw literal operator} is a literal operator with a single parameter whose type is \tcode{const char*}. \pnum The declaration of a literal operator template shall have an empty \grammarterm{parameter-declaration-clause} and its \grammarterm{template-parameter-list} shall have a single \grammarterm{template-parameter} that is a non-type template parameter pack (\ref{temp.variadic}) with element type \tcode{char}. \pnum Literal operators and literal operator templates shall not have C language linkage. \pnum \enternote Literal operators and literal operator templates are usually invoked implicitly through user-defined literals~(\ref{lex.ext}). However, except for the constraints described above, they are ordinary namespace-scope functions and function templates. In particular, they are looked up like ordinary functions and function templates and they follow the same overload resolution rules. Also, they can be declared \tcode{inline} or \tcode{constexpr}, they may have internal or external linkage, they can be called explicitly, their addresses can be taken, etc. \exitnote \pnum \enterexample \begin{codeblock} void operator "" _km(long double); // OK string operator "" _i18n(const char*, std::size_t); // OK template int operator "" \u03C0(); // OK: UCN for lowercase pi float operator ""E(const char*); // error: \tcode{""E} (with no intervening space) // is a single token float operator " " B(const char*); // error: non-adjacent quotes string operator "" 5X(const char*, std::size_t); // error: invalid literal suffix identifier double operator "" _miles(double); // error: invalid \grammarterm{parameter-declaration-clause} template int operator "" j(const char*); // error: invalid \grammarterm{parameter-declaration-clause} \end{codeblock} \exitexample% \indextext{overloading!operator|)} \rSec1[over.built]{Built-in operators}% \indextext{overloading!built-in operators and} \pnum The candidate operator functions that represent the built-in operators defined in Clause~\ref{expr} are specified in this subclause. These candidate functions participate in the operator overload resolution process as described in~\ref{over.match.oper} and are used for no other purpose. \enternote Because built-in operators take only operands with non-class type, and operator overload resolution occurs only when an operand expression originally has class or enumeration type, operator overload resolution can resolve to a built-in operator only when an operand has a class type that has a user-defined conversion to a non-class type appropriate for the operator, or when an operand has an enumeration type that can be converted to a type appropriate for the operator. Also note that some of the candidate operator functions given in this subclause are more permissive than the built-in operators themselves. As described in~\ref{over.match.oper}, after a built-in operator is selected by overload resolution the expression is subject to the requirements for the built-in operator given in Clause~\ref{expr}, and therefore to any additional semantic constraints given there. If there is a user-written candidate with the same name and parameter types as a built-in candidate operator function, the built-in operator function is hidden and is not included in the set of candidate functions. \exitnote \pnum In this subclause, the term \term{promoted integral type} is used to refer to those integral types which are preserved by integral promotion (including e.g. \tcode{int} and \tcode{long} but excluding e.g. \tcode{char}). Similarly, the term \term{promoted arithmetic type} refers to floating types plus promoted integral types. \enternote In all cases where a promoted integral type or promoted arithmetic type is required, an operand of enumeration type will be acceptable by way of the integral promotions. \exitnote \pnum For every pair (\textit{T}, \textit{VQ}), where \textit{T} is an arithmetic type, and \textit{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{VQ T}@& operator++(@\textit{VQ T}@&); @\textit{T}@ operator++(@\textit{VQ T}@&, int); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pair (\textit{T}, \textit{VQ}), where \textit{T} is an arithmetic type other than \textit{bool}, and \textit{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{VQ T}@& operator--(@\textit{VQ T}@&); @\textit{T}@ operator--(@\textit{VQ T}@&, int); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pair (\textit{T}, \textit{VQ}), where \textit{T} is a cv-qualified or cv-unqualified object type, and \textit{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{T}@*@\textit{VQ}@& operator++(@\textit{T}@*@\textit{VQ}@&); @\textit{T}@*@\textit{VQ}@& operator--(@\textit{T}@*@\textit{VQ}@&); @\textit{T}@* operator++(@\textit{T}@*@\textit{VQ}@&, int); @\textit{T}@* operator--(@\textit{T}@*@\textit{VQ}@&, int); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every cv-qualified or cv-unqualified object type \textit{T}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{T}@& operator*(@\textit{T}@*); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every function type \textit{T} that does not have cv-qualifiers or a \grammarterm{ref-qualifier}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{T}@& operator*(@\textit{T}@*); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every type \textit{T} there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{T}@* operator+(@\textit{T}@*); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every promoted arithmetic type \textit{T}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{T}@ operator+(@\textit{T}@); @\textit{T}@ operator-(@\textit{T}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every promoted integral type \textit{T}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{T}@ operator@$\sim$@(@\textit{T}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every quintuple (\textit{C1}, \textit{C2}, \textit{T}, \textit{CV1}, \textit{CV2}), where \textit{C2} is a class type, \textit{C1} is the same type as C2 or is a derived class of C2, \textit{T} is an object type or a function type, and \textit{CV1} and \textit{CV2} are \grammarterm{cv-qualifier-seq}{s}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{CV12 T}@& operator->*(@\textit{CV1 C1}@*, @\textit{CV2 T C2}@::*); \end{codeblock} where \textit{CV12} is the union of \textit{CV1} and \textit{CV2}. \pnum For every pair of promoted arithmetic types \textit{L} and \textit{R}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{LR}@ operator*(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); @\textit{LR}@ operator/(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); @\textit{LR}@ operator+(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); @\textit{LR}@ operator-(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); bool operator<(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); bool operator>(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); bool operator<=(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); bool operator>=(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); bool operator==(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); bool operator!=(@\textit{L}@, @\textit{R}@); \end{codeblock} where \textit{LR} is the result of the usual arithmetic conversions between types \textit{L} and \textit{R}. \pnum For every cv-qualified or cv-unqualified object type \textit{T} there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\textit{T}@* operator+(@\textit{T}@*, std::ptrdiff_t); @\textit{T}@& operator[](@\textit{T}@*, std::ptrdiff_t); @\textit{T}@* operator-(@\textit{T}@*, std::ptrdiff_t); @\textit{T}@* operator+(std::ptrdiff_t, @\textit{T}@*); @\textit{T}@& operator[](std::ptrdiff_t, @\textit{T}@*); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every \textit{T}, where \textit{T} is a pointer to object type, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} std::ptrdiff_t operator-(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every \term{T}, where \term{T} is an enumeration type, a pointer type, or \tcode{std::nullptr_t}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} bool operator<(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); bool operator>(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); bool operator<=(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); bool operator>=(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); bool operator==(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); bool operator!=(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pointer to member type \term{T} there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} bool operator==(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); bool operator!=(@\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pair of promoted integral types \term{L} and \term{R}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{LR}@ operator%(@\term{L}@, @\term{R}@); @\term{LR}@ operator&(@\term{L}@, @\term{R}@); @\term{LR}@ operator^(@\term{L}@, @\term{R}@); @\term{LR}@ operator|(@\term{L}@, @\term{R}@); @\term{L}@ operator<<(@\term{L}@, @\term{R}@); @\term{L}@ operator>>(@\term{L}@, @\term{R}@); \end{codeblock} where \term{LR} is the result of the usual arithmetic conversions between types \term{L} and \term{R}. \pnum For every triple (\term{L}, \term{VQ}, \term{R}), where \term{L} is an arithmetic type, \term{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, and \term{R} is a promoted arithmetic type, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{VQ L}@& operator=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator*=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator/=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator+=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator-=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pair (\term{T}, \term{VQ}), where \term{T} is any type and \term{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{T}@*@\term{VQ}@& operator=(@\term{T}@*@\term{VQ}@&, @\term{T}@*); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pair (\term{T}, \term{VQ}), where \term{T} is an enumeration or pointer to member type and \term{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{VQ} \term{T}@& operator=(@\term{VQ} \term{T}@&, @\term{T}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pair (\term{T}, \term{VQ}), where \term{T} is a cv-qualified or cv-unqualified object type and \term{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{T}@*@\term{VQ}@& operator+=(@\term{T}@*@\term{VQ}@&, std::ptrdiff_t); @\term{T}@*@\term{VQ}@& operator-=(@\term{T}@*@\term{VQ}@&, std::ptrdiff_t); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every triple (\term{L}, \term{VQ}, \term{R}), where \term{L} is an integral type, \term{VQ} is either \tcode{volatile} or empty, and \term{R} is a promoted integral type, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{VQ L}@& operator%=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator<<=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator>>=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator&=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator^=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); @\term{VQ L}@& operator|=(@\term{VQ L}@&, @\term{R}@); \end{codeblock} \pnum There also exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} bool operator!(bool); bool operator&&(bool, bool); bool operator||(bool, bool); \end{codeblock} \pnum For every pair of promoted arithmetic types \term{L} and \term{R}, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{LR}@ operator?:(bool, @\term{L}@, @\term{R}@); \end{codeblock} where \term{LR} is the result of the usual arithmetic conversions between types \term{L} and \term{R}. \enternote As with all these descriptions of candidate functions, this declaration serves only to describe the built-in operator for purposes of overload resolution. The operator \tcode{?:}'' cannot be overloaded. \exitnote \pnum For every type \term{T}, where \term{T} is a pointer, pointer-to-member, or scoped enumeration type, there exist candidate operator functions of the form \begin{codeblock} @\term{T}@ operator?:(bool, @\term{T}@, @\term{T}@); \end{codeblock}% \indextext{overloading|)}
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