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README.md

Midifile: C++ MIDI file parsing library

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Midifile is a library of C++ classes for reading/writing Standard MIDI files. The library consists of 6 classes:

MidiFile The main interface for dealing with MIDI files. The MidiFile class appears as a two dimensional array of MidiEvents: the first dimension is a list of tracks, and the second dimension is a list of MidiEvents.
MidiEventList A data structure that manages the list of MidiEvents for a MIDI file track.
MidiEvent The primary storage unit for MidiMessages in a MidiFile. The class consists of a tick timestamp (delta or absolute) and a vector of MIDI message bytes (or Standard MIDI File meta messages).
MidiMessage The base class for MidiEvents. This is a STL vector of unsigned bytes representing a MIDI (or meta) message.
Binasc A helper class for MidiFile that allows reading/writing of MIDI files in an ASCII format describing the bytes of the binary Standard MIDI Files.
Options A optional convenience class used for parsing command-line options in the example programs. This class can be removed from the library since it is not needed for using the MidiFile class.

Here is a schematic of how the classes are used together:

Class organization

The MidiFile class contains a vector of tracks stored in MidiEventList objects. The MidiEventList is itself a vector of MidiEvents, which stores each MIDI event in the track. MidiEvents contain a timestamp and a MidiMessage which is a vector of unsigned char values, storing the raw bytes of a MIDI message (or meta-message).

Documentation is under construction at http://midifile.sapp.org. Essential examples for reading and writing MIDI files are given below.

Downloading

You can download as a ZIP file from the Github page for the midifile library, or if you use git, then download with this command:

git clone https://github.com/craigsapp/midifile

This will create the midifile directory with the source code for the library.

Compiling with GCC

The library can be compiled with the command:

make library

This will create the file lib/libmidifile.a which can be used to link to programs that use the library. Example programs can be compiled with the command:

make programs

This will compile all example programs in the src-programs directory. Compiled example programs will be stored in the bin directory. To compile both the library and the example programs all in one step, type:

make

To compile only a single program, such as createmidifile, type:

make createmidifile

You can also place your own programs in src-programs, such as myprogram.cpp and to compile type:

make myprogram

The compiled program will be bin/myprogram.

Using in your own project

The easiest way to use the midifile library in your own project is to copy the header files in the include directory and the source-code files in the src-library directory into your own project. You do not need to copy Options.h or Options.cpp since the MidiFile class is not dependent on them. The verovio and midiroll projects on Github both use this method to use the midifile library. Alternatively, you can fork the midifile repository and build a compiled library file of the source code that can be copied with the include directory contents into your project.

MIDI file reading examples

The following program lists all MidiEvents in a MIDI file. The program iterates over each track, printing a list of all MIDI events in the track. For each event, the absolute tick timestamp for the performance time of the MIDI message is given, followed by the message itself as a list of hex bytes.

You can run the MidiFile::doTimeAnalysis() function to convert the absolute tick timestamps into seconds, according to any tempo meta-messages in the file (using a default tempo of 120 quarter notes per minute if there are no tempo meta-messages). The absolute starting time of the event is shown in the second column of the program's output.

The MidiFile::linkNotePairs() function can be used to match note-ons and note-offs. When this is done, you can access the duration of the note with MidiEvent::getDurationInSeconds() for note-on messages. The note durations are shown in the third column of the program's output.

Note that the midifile library classes are in the smf namespace, so using namespace smf; or smf:: prefixes are needed to access the classes.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>

using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.process(argc, argv);
   MidiFile midifile;
   if (options.getArgCount() == 0) midifile.read(cin);
   else midifile.read(options.getArg(1));
   midifile.doTimeAnalysis();
   midifile.linkNotePairs();

   int tracks = midifile.getTrackCount();
   cout << "TPQ: " << midifile.getTicksPerQuarterNote() << endl;
   if (tracks > 1) cout << "TRACKS: " << tracks << endl;
   for (int track=0; track<tracks; track++) {
      if (tracks > 1) cout << "\nTrack " << track << endl;
      cout << "Tick\tSeconds\tDur\tMessage" << endl;
      for (int event=0; event<midifile[track].size(); event++) {
         cout << dec << midifile[track][event].tick;
         cout << '\t' << dec << midifile[track][event].seconds;
         cout << '\t';
         if (midifile[track][event].isNoteOn())
            cout << midifile[track][event].getDurationInSeconds();
         cout << '\t' << hex;
         for (int i=0; i<midifile[track][event].size(); i++)
            cout << (int)midifile[track][event][i] << ' ';
         cout << endl;
      }
   }

   return 0;
}

The above example program will read the first filename it finds on the command-line, or it will read from standard input if no arguments are found. Both binary standard MIDI files and ASCII representations of MIDI Files can be input into the program. For example, save the following text into a file called twinkle.txt to use as input data. This content represents the hex bytes for a standard MIDI file, which will automatically be parsed by the MidiFile class.

4d 54 68 64 00 00 00 06 00 01 00 03 00 78 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 00 04 00 ff 2f
00 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 00 76 00 90 48 40 78 80 48 40 00 90 48 40 78 80 48 40
00 90 4f 40 78 80 4f 40 00 90 4f 40 78 80 4f 40 00 90 51 40 78 80 51 40 00
90 51 40 78 80 51 40 00 90 4f 40 81 70 80 4f 40 00 90 4d 40 78 80 4d 40 00
90 4d 40 78 80 4d 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90
4a 40 78 80 4a 40 00 90 4a 40 78 80 4a 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 ff
2f 00 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 00 7d 00 90 30 40 78 80 30 40 00 90 3c 40 78 80 3c
40 00 90 40 40 78 80 40 40 00 90 3c 40 78 80 3c 40 00 90 41 40 78 80 41 40
00 90 3c 40 78 80 3c 40 00 90 40 40 78 80 40 40 00 90 3c 40 78 80 3c 40 00
90 3e 40 78 80 3e 40 00 90 3b 40 78 80 3b 40 00 90 3c 40 78 80 3c 40 00 90
39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 35 40 78 80 35 40 00 90 37 40 78 80 37 40 00 90 30
40 81 70 80 30 40 00 ff 2f 00

Below is the output from the example program given the above input data. The TPQ value is the ticks-per-quarter-note value from the MIDI header. In this example, each quarter note has a duration of 120 MIDI file ticks. The above MIDI file contains three tracks, with the first track (the expression track, having no content other than the end-of-track meta message, ff 2f 00 in hex bytes. The second track starts with a MIDI note-on message 90 48 40 (in hex) which will start playing MIDI note 72 (C pitch one octave above middle C) with a medium loudness (40 hex = 64 in decimal notation).

TPQ: 120
TRACKS: 3

Track 0
Tick	Seconds	Dur	Message
0	0		ff 2f 0

Track 1
Tick	Seconds	Dur	Message
0	0	0.5	90 48 40
120	0.5		80 48 40
120	0.5	0.5	90 48 40
240	1		80 48 40
240	1	0.5	90 4f 40
360	1.5		80 4f 40
360	1.5	0.5	90 4f 40
480	2		80 4f 40
480	2	0.5	90 51 40
600	2.5		80 51 40
600	2.5	0.5	90 51 40
720	3		80 51 40
720	3	1	90 4f 40
960	4		80 4f 40
960	4	0.5	90 4d 40
1080	4.5		80 4d 40
1080	4.5	0.5	90 4d 40
1200	5		80 4d 40
1200	5	0.5	90 4c 40
1320	5.5		80 4c 40
1320	5.5	0.5	90 4c 40
1440	6		80 4c 40
1440	6	0.5	90 4a 40
1560	6.5		80 4a 40
1560	6.5	0.5	90 4a 40
1680	7		80 4a 40
1680	7	1	90 48 40
1920	8		80 48 40
1920	8		ff 2f 0

Track 2
Tick	Seconds	Dur	Message
0	0	0.5	90 30 40
120	0.5		80 30 40
120	0.5	0.5	90 3c 40
240	1		80 3c 40
240	1	0.5	90 40 40
360	1.5		80 40 40
360	1.5	0.5	90 3c 40
480	2		80 3c 40
480	2	0.5	90 41 40
600	2.5		80 41 40
600	2.5	0.5	90 3c 40
720	3		80 3c 40
720	3	0.5	90 40 40
840	3.5		80 40 40
840	3.5	0.5	90 3c 40
960	4		80 3c 40
960	4	0.5	90 3e 40
1080	4.5		80 3e 40
1080	4.5	0.5	90 3b 40
1200	5		80 3b 40
1200	5	0.5	90 3c 40
1320	5.5		80 3c 40
1320	5.5	0.5	90 39 40
1440	6		80 39 40
1440	6	0.5	90 35 40
1560	6.5		80 35 40
1560	6.5	0.5	90 37 40
1680	7		80 37 40
1680	7	1	90 30 40
1920	8		80 30 40
1920	8		ff 2f 0

The default behavior of the MidiFile class is to store the absolute tick times of MIDI events, available in MidiEvent::tick, which is the tick time from the start of the file to the current event. In standard MIDI files, tick are stored as delta values, where the tick indicates the duration to wait since the previous message in a track. To access the delta tick values, you can either (1) subtrack the current tick time from the previous tick time in the list, or call MidiFile::makeDeltaTime() to convert the absolute tick values into delta tick values.

The MidiFile::joinTracks() function can be used to convert multi-track data into a single time sequence. The joinTrack() operation can be reversed by calling the MidiFile::splitTracks() function. Here is a sample of program that joins the MidiEvents into a single track so that the data can be processed in a single loop:

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>

using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.process(argc, argv);
   MidiFile midifile;
   if (options.getArgCount() > 0) midifile.read(options.getArg(1));
   else midifile.read(cin);
   cout << "TPQ: " << midifile.getTicksPerQuarterNote() << endl;
   cout << "TRACKS: " << midifile.getTrackCount() << endl;
   midifile.joinTracks();
   // midifile.getTrackCount() will now return "1", but original
   // track assignments can be seen in .track field of MidiEvent.
   cout << "TICK    DELTA   TRACK   MIDI MESSAGE\n";
   cout << "____________________________________\n";
   MidiEvent* mev;
   int deltatick;
   for (int event=0; event < midifile[0].size(); event++) {
      mev = &midifile[0][event];
      if (event == 0) deltatick = mev->tick;
      else deltatick = mev->tick - midifile[0][event-1].tick;
      cout << dec << mev->tick;
      cout << '\t' << deltatick;
      cout << '\t' << mev->track;
      cout << '\t' << hex;
      for (int i=0; i < mev->size(); i++)
         cout << (int)(*mev)[i] << ' ';
      cout << endl;
   }
   return 0;
}

Below is the new single-track output. The first column is the absolute tick timestamp of the message; the second column is the delta tick value; the third column is the original track value; and the last column contains the MIDI message (in hex bytes).

TPQ: 120
TRACKS: 3
TICK    DELTA   TRACK   MIDI MESSAGE
____________________________________
0	0	1	90 48 40
0	0	2	90 30 40
0	0	0	ff 2f 0
120	120	1	80 48 40
120	0	2	80 30 40
120	0	2	90 3c 40
120	0	1	90 48 40
240	120	2	80 3c 40
240	0	1	80 48 40
240	0	2	90 40 40
240	0	1	90 4f 40
360	120	2	80 40 40
360	0	1	80 4f 40
360	0	1	90 4f 40
360	0	2	90 3c 40
480	120	2	80 3c 40
480	0	1	80 4f 40
480	0	2	90 41 40
480	0	1	90 51 40
600	120	2	80 41 40
600	0	1	80 51 40
600	0	1	90 51 40
600	0	2	90 3c 40
720	120	1	80 51 40
720	0	2	80 3c 40
720	0	2	90 40 40
720	0	1	90 4f 40
840	120	2	80 40 40
840	0	2	90 3c 40
960	120	2	80 3c 40
960	0	1	80 4f 40
960	0	2	90 3e 40
960	0	1	90 4d 40
1080	120	1	80 4d 40
1080	0	2	80 3e 40
1080	0	2	90 3b 40
1080	0	1	90 4d 40
1200	120	1	80 4d 40
1200	0	2	80 3b 40
1200	0	2	90 3c 40
1200	0	1	90 4c 40
1320	120	1	80 4c 40
1320	0	2	80 3c 40
1320	0	1	90 4c 40
1320	0	2	90 39 40
1440	120	1	80 4c 40
1440	0	2	80 39 40
1440	0	1	90 4a 40
1440	0	2	90 35 40
1560	120	1	80 4a 40
1560	0	2	80 35 40
1560	0	2	90 37 40
1560	0	1	90 4a 40
1680	120	1	80 4a 40
1680	0	2	80 37 40
1680	0	2	90 30 40
1680	0	1	90 48 40
1920	240	1	80 48 40
1920	0	2	80 30 40
1920	0	1	ff 2f 0
1920	0	2	ff 2f 0

MIDI file writing example

Below is an example program to create a MIDI file. This program will generate a random sequence of notes and append them to the end of the track. By default a MidiFile object contains a single track and will be written as a type-0 MIDI file unless more tracks are added. After adding notes to the track, it must be sorted into time sequence before being written to a file.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <random>
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.define("n|note-count=i:10", "How many notes to randomly play");
   options.define("o|output-file=s",   "Output filename (stdout if none)");
   options.define("i|instrument=i:0",  "General MIDI instrument number");
   options.define("x|hex=b",           "Hex byte-code output");
   options.process(argc, argv);

   random_device rd;
   mt19937 mt(rd());
   uniform_int_distribution<int> starttime(0, 100);
   uniform_int_distribution<int> duration(1, 8);
   uniform_int_distribution<int> pitch(36, 84);
   uniform_int_distribution<int> velocity(40, 100);

   MidiFile midifile;
   int track   = 0;
   int channel = 0;
   int instr   = options.getInteger("instrument");
   midifile.addTimbre(track, 0, channel, instr);

   int tpq     = midifile.getTPQ();
   int count   = options.getInteger("note-count");
   for (int i=0; i<count; i++) {
      int starttick = int(starttime(mt) / 4.0 * tpq);
      int key       = pitch(mt);
      int endtick   = starttick + int(duration(mt) / 4.0 * tpq);
      midifile.addNoteOn (track, starttick, channel, key, velocity(mt));
      midifile.addNoteOff(track, endtick,   channel, key);
   }
   midifile.sortTracks();  // Need to sort tracks since added events are
                           // appended to track in random tick order.
   string filename = options.getString("output-file");
   if (filename.empty()) {
      if (options.getBoolean("hex")) midifile.writeHex(cout);
      else cout << midifile;
   } else
      midifile.write(filename);

   return 0;
}

If no output file is specified, the MIDI file contents will be printed in the Binasc format to standard output, which can be read back into a MidiFile object and converted into a Standard MIDI file (see the read/write example further down the page for how to do that):

"MThd"			; MIDI header chunk marker
4'6			; bytes to follow in header chunk
2'0			; file format: Type-0 (single track)
2'1			; number of tracks
2'120			; ticks per quarter note

;;; TRACK 0 ----------------------------------
"MTrk"			; MIDI track chunk marker
4'89			; bytes to follow in track chunk
v30	90 '74 '72	; note-on D5
v150	90 '68 '88	; note-on G#4
v0	90 '79 '83	; note-on G5
v60	90 '74 '0	; note-off D5
v150	90 '79 '0	; note-off G5
v30	90 '68 '0	; note-off G#4
v990	90 '60 '100	; note-on C4
v90	90 '60 '0	; note-off C4
v630	90 '83 '69	; note-on B5
v60	90 '83 '0	; note-off B5
v30	90 '56 '51	; note-on G#3
v90	90 '56 '0	; note-off G#3
v390	90 '78 '46	; note-on F#5
v30	90 '60 '78	; note-on C4
v90	90 '78 '0	; note-off F#5
v0	90 '70 '56	; note-on A#4
v60	90 '76 '100	; note-on E5
v90	90 '60 '0	; note-off C4
v30	90 '76 '0	; note-off E5
v60	90 '70 '0	; note-off A#4
v0	ff 2f v0	; end-of-track

Here is the MIDI data visualized with the example program mid2svg:

10 random nots

The -x option can be used to output the data as hex byte-codes, the -n option controls the number of notes, and -i # specifies the instrument number to be used:

myprogram -n 100 -x -i 24

produces the hex byte-code MIDI file:

4d 54 68 64 00 00 00 06 00 00 00 01 00 78 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 03 27 00 c0 18
1e 90 4d 2f 1e 90 31 5e 00 90 40 42 1e 90 47 55 1e 90 47 00 00 90 31 00 00
90 32 62 1e 90 43 2d 1e 90 43 00 00 90 3f 5f 1e 90 32 00 1e 90 4d 00 00 90
47 38 1e 90 51 33 1e 90 40 00 00 90 31 31 00 90 35 3a 1e 90 24 41 00 90 4d
4f 00 90 4e 32 1e 90 31 00 00 90 51 00 1e 90 4e 00 00 90 48 51 1e 90 3f 00
00 90 24 00 1e 90 47 00 1e 90 35 00 00 90 2c 61 1e 90 4d 63 3c 90 4d 00 00
90 48 00 00 90 33 30 1e 90 2c 00 00 90 4d 00 00 90 40 5f 00 90 45 5f 00 90
3e 58 00 90 3f 45 00 90 24 4a 1e 90 33 00 00 90 3c 3c 1e 90 32 38 1e 90 39
40 1e 90 53 43 1e 90 40 00 00 90 3f 00 00 90 3e 00 00 90 45 00 00 90 4d 62
1e 90 24 00 00 90 32 00 00 90 30 42 00 90 2d 28 1e 90 3c 00 00 90 4d 00 00
90 53 00 00 90 2a 45 3c 90 36 51 1e 90 39 00 00 90 2a 00 00 90 36 4b 3c 90
36 00 00 90 3e 5c 1e 90 2d 00 1e 90 30 00 00 90 3e 00 3c 90 41 48 00 90 37
3f 00 90 36 3a 00 90 41 51 00 90 46 38 3c 90 36 00 1e 90 36 00 00 90 46 00
00 90 36 58 1e 90 41 00 00 90 32 44 00 90 47 2a 1e 90 37 00 00 90 45 2b 1e
90 41 53 00 90 3e 2d 1e 90 3e 00 00 90 33 28 00 90 29 4b 1e 90 41 00 00 90
41 00 1e 90 29 00 00 90 49 51 1e 90 47 00 00 90 35 49 00 90 49 43 1e 90 35
00 00 90 45 00 00 90 36 00 00 90 27 5c 1e 90 32 00 1e 90 49 00 00 90 28 4d
1e 90 49 00 00 90 33 00 00 90 2e 44 1e 90 29 2b 3c 90 27 00 00 90 24 3e 00
90 28 53 00 90 52 51 1e 90 4d 4f 00 90 26 5c 1e 90 28 00 00 90 29 00 00 90
27 32 1e 90 28 00 00 90 2e 00 00 90 4d 00 1e 90 2f 28 1e 90 4a 5a 00 90 47
43 1e 90 4a 00 00 90 52 00 00 90 24 00 00 90 34 2f 1e 90 2f 00 00 90 3c 5e
00 90 28 4f 00 90 32 2d 1e 90 26 00 00 90 3c 00 00 90 27 00 00 90 53 63 1e
90 47 00 1e 90 32 00 00 90 44 5d 00 90 32 40 1e 90 28 00 00 90 46 46 1e 90
34 00 1e 90 2a 3e 1e 90 53 00 00 90 3a 3f 00 90 53 31 1e 90 28 5f 1e 90 28
00 00 90 46 00 00 90 53 00 00 90 2a 00 1e 90 32 00 00 90 3a 00 00 90 44 00
3c 90 33 4d 1e 90 53 57 00 90 54 30 1e 90 38 45 1e 90 2f 46 1e 90 2f 00 00
90 33 00 1e 90 3a 61 00 90 38 40 1e 90 54 00 00 90 27 37 1e 90 3a 00 00 90
53 00 00 90 32 29 1e 90 38 00 00 90 40 2b 00 90 36 41 1e 90 38 00 00 90 34
46 1e 90 27 00 5a 90 36 00 00 90 32 00 00 90 40 00 00 90 48 4a 5a 90 34 00
00 90 48 00 1e 90 29 62 00 90 3e 4d 1e 90 39 3e 00 90 4a 2d 00 90 40 2d 3c
90 39 00 00 90 4a 00 00 90 25 58 1e 90 29 00 00 90 41 37 00 90 45 4c 00 90
4d 64 1e 90 41 00 00 90 3e 00 1e 90 4d 00 3c 90 40 00 00 90 25 00 00 90 39
4a 3c 90 32 43 1e 90 45 4a 1e 90 45 00 3c 90 45 00 3c 90 32 00 00 90 39 00
00 ff 2f 00

Visualization with bin/mid2svg -s 6 -a 12 -v:

100 random notes

Read/Write example

Here is an example minimal program that converts the above hex byte-codes into a standard MIDI file:

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   if (argc != 3) return 1;
   MidiFile midifile;
   midifile.read(argv[1]);
   if (midifile.status()) midifile.write(argv[2]);
   else cerr << "Problem reading MIDI file " << argv[1] << endl;
}

The MidiFile::read() function will automatically identify if the input is a binary standard MIDI file, a hex byte-code representation, or a generalized binasc syntax file (which includes byte-codes). The MidiFile::status() function can be checked after reading a MIDI file to determine if the file was read without problems.

Code snippets

How to process multiple input files and get duration of MIDI files

This example uses the MidiFile::getFileDurationInSeconds() to calculate the duration of a MIDI file. Also, this example shows how to process multiple input files when using the Options class.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.process(argc, argv);
   MidiFile midifile;
   if (options.getArgCount() == 0) {
      midifile.read(cin);
      cout << midifile.getFileDurationInSeconds() << " seconds" << endl;
   } else {
      int count = options.getArgCount();
      for (int i=0; i<count; i++) {
         string filename = options.getArg(i+1);
         if (count > 1) cout << filename << "\t";
         midifile.read(filename);
         cout << midifile.getFileDurationInSeconds() << " seconds" << endl;
      }
   }
   return 0;
}

How to extract text meta-messages from a MIDI file.

The MidiMessage::isText() function will return true if the message is a text meta-message. The following program merges all tracks into a single list and does one loop checking for text meta-messages, printing them out when found. The MidiMessage::getMetaContent() function extracts the text string of the message from the raw MIDI file bytes.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   MidiFile midifile;
   if (argc == 1) midifile.read(cin);
   else midifile.read(argv[1]);
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Problem reading MIDI file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   midifile.joinTracks();
   for (int i=0; i<midifile[0].getEventCount(); i++) {
      if (midifile[0][i].isText()) {
         string content = midifile[0][i].getMetaContent();
         cout << content << endl;
      }
   }

   return 0;
}

Extracting lyrics would work the same by using .isLyricText() instead of .isText(), and a track-name meta-message is identified by .isTrackName().

How to convert a Type-1 MIDI file into a Type-0 MIDI file

Here is a demonstration of converting a multi-track MIDI file into a single-track MIDI file:

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   if (argc != 3) {
      cerr << "Usage: " << argv[0] << " input output" << endl;
      return 1;
   }
   MidiFile midifile;
   midifile.read(argv[1]);
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Problem reading MIDI file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   midifile.joinTracks();
   midifile.write(argv[2]);

   return 0;
}

The .joinTracks() function merges all tracks into a single track. And if a MidiFile object has only one track when it is being written, it will be written as a type-0 (single-track) MIDI file.

How to check for a drum track in a MIDI file

In General MIDI files, the drum track is on the 10th channel, which is represented by the integer 9. The following example searches through the MIDI events in each track until it finds a note on channel 9:

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   MidiFile midifile;
   if (argc == 1) midifile.read(cin);
   else midifile.read(argv[1]);
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Problem reading MIDI file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   bool found = false;
   for (int i=0; i<midifile.getTrackCount(); i++) {
      for (int j=0; j<midifile[i].getEventCount(); j++) {
         if (midifile[i][j].isNote()) {
            int channel = midifile[i][j].getChannelNibble();
            if (channel == 9) {
               found = true;
               break;
            }
         }
      }
      if (found == true) break;
   }
   if (found) cout << "Has a percussion part." << endl;
   else cout << "Does not have a percussion part." << endl;

   return 0;
}

How to delete percussion notes in a MIDI file

For some music-analysis applications, it is useful to remove percussion notes from a MIDI file. Here is an example of how that can be done with the midifile library.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   if (argc != 3) {
      cerr << "Usage: " << argv[0] << " input output" << endl;
      return 1;
   }
   MidiFile midifile;
   midifile.read(argv[1]);
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Problem reading MIDI file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   for (int i=0; i<midifile.getTrackCount(); i++) {
      for (int j=0; j<midifile[i].getEventCount(); j++) {
         if (midifile[i][j].isNote()) {
            int channel = midifile[i][j].getChannelNibble();
            if (channel == 9) {
               midifile[i][j].clear();
            }
         }
      }
   }

   midifile.removeEmpties();  // optional
   midifile.write(argv[2]);
   return 0;
}

To delete a MIDI message, clear its vector base class. This will leave an empty MidiEvent in the track, but the MidiFile::write() function will ignore any empty MidiMessages. The MidiFile::removeEmpties() function can be called to explicitly remove any empty MidiEvents from the track.

How to transpose pitches in a MIDI file

This example shows how to transpose notes in a MIDI file. Care should be taken to avoid transposing channel 10 in General MIDI, since this is reserved for the drum track (and most MIDI files use the General MIDI convention).

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.define("t|transpose=i:0", "Semitones to transpose by");
   options.process(argc, argv);

   MidiFile midifile;
   if (options.getArgCount() == 0) midifile.read(cin);
   else midifile.read(options.getArg(1));
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Could not read MIDI file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   int transpose = options.getInteger("transpose");
   for (int i=0; i<midifile.getTrackCount(); i++) {
      for (int j=0; j<midifile[i].getEventCount(); j++) {
         if (!midifile[i][j].isNote()) continue;
         if (midifile[i][j].getChannel() == 9) continue;
         int newkey = transpose + midifile[i][j].getP1();
         midifile[i][j].setP1(newkey);
      }
   }

   if (options.getArgCount() < 2) cout << midifile;
   else midifile.write(options.getArg(2));
   return 0;
}

How to list instrument numbers used in a MIDI file

The following example lists all of the instrument numbers used in a MIDI file. It does not analyze the drum track.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <set>
#include <utility>
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.process(argc, argv);
   MidiFile midifile;
   if (options.getArgCount() == 0) midifile.read(cin);
   else midifile.read(options.getArg(1));
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Could not read MIDI file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   pair<int, int> trackinst;
   set<pair<int, int>> iset;
   for (int i=0; i<midifile.getTrackCount(); i++) {
      for (int j=0; j<midifile[i].getEventCount(); j++) {
         if (midifile[i][j].isTimbre()) {
            trackinst.first = i;
            trackinst.second = midifile[i][j].getP1();
            iset.insert(trackinst);
         }
      }
   }
   for (auto it : iset)
      cout << "Track:" << it.first << "\tInstrument:" << it.second << endl;
   return 0;
}

How to emulate temperaments in a MIDI file

If you want to simulate temperaments in a Standard MIDI file without a synthesizer that specifically knows about temperaments, then this example is useful. Each pitch-class is placed into a separate track and MIDI channel. A pitch-bend message is then added to the start of each track in each channel to control the temperament. Care is taken to avoid MIDI channel 10, which is reserved for percussion timbres in General MIDI.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   if (argc != 3) {
      cerr << "Usage: " << argv[0] << " input output" << endl;
      return 1;
   }
   MidiFile midifile;
   midifile.read(argv[1]);
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Problem reading MIDI file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   midifile.joinTracks();
   for (int i=0; i<midifile[0].getEventCount(); i++) {
      midifile[0][i].seq = 2;
      if (!midifile[0][i].isNote()) {
         midifile[0][i].track = 0;
         continue;
      }
      int pc = midifile[0][i].getP1() % 12;
      int channel = midifile[0][i].getChannelNibble();
      if (channel != 9) {
         midifile[0][i].track = pc + 1;
         if (pc >= 9) pc++;
         midifile[0][i].setChannelNibble(pc);
      } else midifile[0][i].track = 13;
   }
   midifile.splitTracks();

   double maxbend = 200.0;  // typical pitch-bend depth in cents on synthesizers
   // pythagorean tuning deviations from equal temperament in cents.
   vector<double> pythagorean = {-3.91, 9.78, 0.00, -9.78, 3.91, -5.87, 7.82,
         -1.96, -11.73, 1.96, -7.82, 5.87};

   for (int i=0; i<12; i++) {
      int maxtrack = midifile.getTrackCount();
      int track = i+1;
      if (track >= maxtrack) break;
      int channel = i;
      if (i >= 9) channel++;
      double bend = pythagorean[i] / maxbend;
      MidiEvent* me = midifile.addPitchBend(track, 0, channel, bend);
      me->seq = 1;
   }

   midifile.sortTracks();
   midifile.write(argv[2]);

   return 0;
}

The MidiFile::splitTracks() function will generate 13 or 14 tracks. Track 0 will contain all non-note MIDI messages from the original file, while tracks 1 to 12 will contain notes of a specific pitch-class on MIDI channels 1-12, skipping channel 10 (the General MIDI percussion channel). Percussion notes will be placed in track 13, but remain on channel 10.

The use of MidiEvent::seq being set to 1 and 2 in the program is used to force the first notes at tick time 0 to be placed after the pitch bend messages inserted at the same timestamp when MidiFile::sortTracks() is called (events with a lower sequence number will be placed before those with a higher number if they occur at the same time in a track when sorting the events in the track). The pitch-bend messages would probably be sorted before the notes anyway, but using seq should guarantee they are placed before the first notes.

Try this program on Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Fugue No. 4 in C-sharp minor:

4d 54 68 64 00 00 00 06 00 01 00 06 00 78 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 00 13 00 ff 51 03 08 8e 6c 00 ff 58 04 02 01 30 08 00 ff 2f
00 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 09 bd b2 50 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b
40 83 60 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 82 68 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00
90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 81 70 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 81 70 80 4b 40 82 68 90 4c 40
78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 78 80 47 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 50 40
82 68 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90 51 40 78 80 51 40 00 90 53 40 84 58 80 53 40 00 90
51 40 78 80 51 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90
4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 82 68 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40
00 90 47 40 78 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 78 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 81 70 80 44 40 00 90 46 40 78 80 46 40 00 90 47 40 78 80 47
40 00 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 83 60 80 47 40 00 90 46 40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 47 40 84 58 80 47 40 00 90 49
40 78 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 81 70 80 4b 40 00
90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00
90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 51 40 3c 80 51 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00
90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00
90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00
90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00
90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00
90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00
90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00
90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 46 40 3c 80 46 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 82 2c 80 47 40
00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 82 68 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c
40 00 90 4b 40 82 68 80 4b 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 84 58 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 81 70 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40
81 70 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 3c 80 48 40 00 90 46 40 3c 80 46 40 00 90 48 40 78 80 48 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 50
40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 51 40 3c 80 51 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e
40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e
40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4e
40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4d 40 81 70 80 4d 40 00 90 51 40 81 70 80 51 40 00 90 50 40 84 58 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40
00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 81 70 80 4a 40 78 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e
40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 4c 40 82 68 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80
4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40 83 60 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90 4c
40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4c 40 81 34 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00
90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00
90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00
90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 84 58 80 4b 40 00 90 44 40 78
80 44 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 3c
80 45 40 00 90 47 40 83 60 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 81 70 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 81 70 80 44 40 81 70 90 4b 40 83 60 80 4b 40
00 90 4a 40 81 70 80 4a 40 00 90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90 4d 40 81 70 80 4d 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40
3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40
3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40
3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40
3c 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 47 40 81 70 80 47 40 00 90 46 40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 45 40 81 70 80 45 40
00 90 44 40 81 70 80 44 40 89 30 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b
40 85 50 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 78 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40
00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40
00 90 51 40 3c 80 51 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40
00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40
00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40
00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40
00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40
00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40
00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40
00 90 45 40 3c 80 45 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 3c 80 45 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40
00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 3c 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 3c 80 44 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40
00 90 45 40 81 70 80 45 40 81 70 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b
40 84 58 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90
4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 83 60 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 81 70 80 4b
40 00 90 4f 40 81 70 80 4f 40 00 90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90 42 40 81 70 80 42 40 00 90 41 40 81 70 80 41 40 00 90 45
40 81 70 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 78 80 44 40 83 60 90 48 40 78 80 48 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00
90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00
90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 48 40 78 80 48 40 00 90 49 40 85 50 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48
40 00 90 47 40 81 70 80 47 40 00 90 46 40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 45 40 81 70 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 83 60 80 44 40 00 90 46
40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 83 60 80
4c 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40
81 70 80 48 40 00 90 49 40 8f 00 80 49 40 77 90 00 00 00 ff 2f 00 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 09 40 ab 10 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40
00 91 41 40 81 70 81 41 40 00 91 45 40 81 70 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 83 60 81 42 40 00 91 49 40
83 60 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 83 60 81 47 40 00 91 45 40 81 70 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 45 40 82 68 81 45
40 00 91 44 40 78 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 78 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 78 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 81 70 81 3f 40 00 91 44 40 81 70
81 44 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 43 40 81 70 81 43 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 3b 40 81 70 81 3b 40 00
91 3d 40 82 68 81 3d 40 00 91 3d 40 78 81 3d 40 00 91 3f 40 78 81 3f 40 00 91 3d 40 78 81 3d 40 00 91 3f 40 78 81 3f 40
00 91 41 40 78 81 41 40 00 91 42 40 81 70 81 42 40 00 91 45 40 81 70 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 3c 91 47 40 3c
81 47 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 78 81 42 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 78
81 44 40 00 91 42 40 78 81 42 40 00 91 41 40 81 70 81 41 40 00 91 42 40 82 68 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 84 58 81 40 40 00 91
3f 40 81 70 81 3f 40 00 91 40 40 84 58 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 78 81 3f 40 00 91 40 40 78 81 40 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40
00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 81 70 81 42 40 00 91 47 40 82 68 81 47 40 00 91 49 40 78 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 78 81
47 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 a1 60 91 49 40 81 70 81 49 40 00 91 48 40 81 70 81 48 40 00 91
4c 40 81 70 81 4c 40 00 91 4b 40 85 50 81 4b 40 00 91 49 40 83 60 81 49 40 00 91 48 40 78 81 48 40 00 91 47 40 81 34 81
47 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81 47 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 4a 40 3c 81 4a 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81
47 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81 47 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81
47 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81 47 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81
47 40 00 91 45 40 82 2c 81 45 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81 47 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 81
70 81 44 40 87 40 91 45 40 81 70 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 49 40 81 70 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 84 58 81 47
40 00 91 40 40 78 81 40 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44
40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 82 68 81 44 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 40 40 78 81
40 40 00 91 42 40 78 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81
45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81
42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81
40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81
40 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81
40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 3e 40 3c 81
3e 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 3b 40 3c 81 3b 40 00 91 3e 40 3c 81 3e 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 3b 40 3c 81
3b 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 3e 40 3c 81 3e 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81
3f 40 00 91 3d 40 3c 81 3d 40 00 91 48 40 81 70 81 48 40 00 91 3d 40 81 70 81 3d 40 00 91 3f 40 78 81 3f 40 00 91 3f 40
78 81 3f 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 46 40 3c 81 46 40 00 91 47 40 81 70 81 47 40 00 91 46 40 78 81 46 40 00 91 4b
40 78 81 4b 40 00 91 4b 40 78 81 4b 40 00 91 4b 40 78 81 4b 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 49
40 83 60 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 81 70 81 47 40 00 91 46 40 81 70 81 46 40 00 91 45 40 82 68 81 45 40 00 91 3f 40 78 81 3f
40 00 91 44 40 78 81 44 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 41 40 3c 81 41 40 00 91 42 40 83 60
81 42 40 00 91 40 40 81 70 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 81 70 81 3f 40 00 91 3d 40 81 70 81 3d 40 00 91 3f 40 83 60 81 3f 40 84
58 91 44 40 78 81 44 40 00 91 49 40 78 81 49 40 00 91 49 40 78 81 49 40 00 91 49 40 78 81 49 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40
00 91 46 40 3c 81 46 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 4b 40 3c 81 4b 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40
00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40
00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40
00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40
00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81 47 40
00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 4b 40 3c 81 4b 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 4b 40 78 81 4b 40
8b 20 91 42 40 78 81 42 40 00 91 47 40 78 81 47 40 00 91 47 40 78 81 47 40 00 91 47 40 78 81 47 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45
40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 45 40 81 70 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 84 1c 81 44 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c
81 42 40 00 91 41 40 3c 81 41 40 00 91 42 40 81 70 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 82 2c 81 44 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42
40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42
40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81 47 40 00 91 45
40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 45 40 3c 81 45 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 82 68 81 44 40 00 91
49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 49 40 82 68 81 49 40 00 91 46 40 78 81 46 40 00 91 4b 40 78 81 4b 40 00
91 4b 40 78 81 4b 40 00 91 4b 40 78 81 4b 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 47 40 3c 81 47 40 00 91 49 40 81 70 81 49 40
00 91 47 40 81 70 81 47 40 00 91 47 40 81 70 81 47 40 00 91 46 40 81 70 81 46 40 00 91 4a 40 81 70 81 4a 40 00 91 49 40
83 60 81 49 40 78 91 44 40 78 81 44 40 00 91 49 40 78 81 49 40 00 91 49 40 78 81 49 40 00 91 49 40 78 81 49 40 00 91 48
40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 46 40 3c 81 46 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 4b 40 81 70 81 4b 40 00 91
49 40 3c 81 49 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 49 40 81 70 81 49 40 00 91 42 40 81 70 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 83 60 81 44
40 00 91 42 40 82 68 81 42 40 82 68 91 44 40 78 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 42 40 78
81 42 40 00 91 42 40 78 81 42 40 00 91 42 40 78 81 42 40 00 91 40 40 3c 81 40 40 00 91 3f 40 3c 81 3f 40 00 91 40 40 82
68 81 40 40 00 91 42 40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 40
40 78 81 40 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 45 40 78 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 3c 81 44 40 00 91 42
40 3c 81 42 40 00 91 44 40 78 81 44 40 00 91 46 40 3c 81 46 40 00 91 48 40 3c 81 48 40 00 91 49 40 81 70 81 49 40 00 91
46 40 81 70 81 46 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 44 40 85 50 81 44 40 00 91 44 40 81 70 81 44 40 00 91 42 40 81 70
81 42 40 00 91 41 40 81 70 81 41 40 00 91 45 40 81 70 81 45 40 00 91 44 40 87 40 81 44 40 77 90 00 00 00 ff 2f 00 4d 54
72 6b 00 00 08 ba 98 30 92 3d 40 81 70 82 3d 40 00 92 3c 40 81 70 82 3c 40 00 92 40 40 81 70 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 83 60
82 3f 40 00 92 3d 40 81 70 82 3d 40 00 92 42 40 82 68 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 78 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 78 82 3f 40 00 92 3d
40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 3d 40 81 70 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 81 70 82 3b 40 00 92 3d 40 81 70 82 3d 40 00 92 42 40 82 68 82 42
40 00 92 40 40 78 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 78 82 3f 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 3f 40 81 70 82 3f 40 00 92 44 40 81 70
82 44 40 78 92 45 40 78 82 45 40 00 92 44 40 78 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 41 40 78 82 41 40 00 92 3d 40 78
82 3d 40 00 92 42 40 81 70 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 85 50 82 40 40 00 92 44 40 81 70 82 44 40 00 92 46 40 81 70 82 46 40 92
60 92 3d 40 81 70 82 3d 40 00 92 3c 40 81 70 82 3c 40 00 92 40 40 81 70 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 83 60 82 3f 40 00 92 3d 40
87 40 82 3d 40 00 92 36 40 78 82 36 40 00 92 38 40 78 82 38 40 00 92 3a 40 78 82 3a 40 00 92 3b 40 78 82 3b 40 00 92 3d
40 83 60 82 3d 40 81 70 92 40 40 81 70 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 81 70 82 3f 40 00 92 44 40 81 70 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 83 60
82 42 40 00 92 40 40 81 70 82 40 40 8b 20 92 44 40 81 70 82 44 40 00 92 43 40 81 70 82 43 40 00 92 47 40 81 70 82 47 40
00 92 46 40 84 58 82 46 40 00 92 3f 40 78 82 3f 40 00 92 44 40 82 68 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82
40 40 00 92 42 40 82 68 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 44 40 89 30 82 44 40 8c 18 92 3d
40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 41 40 3c 82 41 40 00 92 3f
40 3c 82 3f 40 00 92 41 40 81 70 82 41 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 36 40 3c 82 36 40 00 92 38 40 3c 82 38 40 00 92
39 40 78 82 39 40 00 92 3b 40 78 82 3b 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92
3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92
3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92
39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 38 40 3c 82 38 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 38 40 3c 82 38 40 00 92
39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92
3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92
40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92
3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92
3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92
3e 40 3c 82 3e 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92
3b 40 83 60 82 3b 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 38 40 3c 82 38 40 00 92 36 40 3c 82 36 40 00 92 34 40 3c 82 34 40 00
92 33 40 3c 82 33 40 00 92 31 40 3c 82 31 40 00 92 30 40 3c 82 30 40 00 92 31 40 3c 82 31 40 00 92 33 40 81 70 82 33 40
8e 08 92 31 40 78 82 31 40 00 92 36 40 78 82 36 40 00 92 36 40 78 82 36 40 00 92 36 40 78 82 36 40 00 92 34 40 3c 82 34
40 00 92 33 40 3c 82 33 40 00 92 34 40 81 70 82 34 40 00 92 37 40 81 70 82 37 40 00 92 38 40 81 70 82 38 40 00 92 35 40
78 82 35 40 87 40 92 33 40 78 82 33 40 00 92 38 40 78 82 38 40 00 92 38 40 78 82 38 40 00 92 38 40 78 82 38 40 00 92 36
40 3c 82 36 40 00 92 34 40 3c 82 34 40 00 92 36 40 82 2c 82 36 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 38 40 3c 82 38 40 00 92
36 40 3c 82 36 40 00 92 35 40 3c 82 35 40 00 92 33 40 3c 82 33 40 00 92 35 40 3c 82 35 40 00 92 31 40 3c 82 31 40 00 92
36 40 3c 82 36 40 00 92 35 40 3c 82 35 40 00 92 36 40 3c 82 36 40 00 92 38 40 3c 82 38 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92
38 40 3c 82 38 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3c 40 3c 82 3c 40 00 92
3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3f 40 3c 82 3f 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 3c 82 3f 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92
42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 45 40 3c 82 45 40 00 92
44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92
40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92
3f 40 3c 82 3f 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 3c 82 3f 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92
42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 3c 82 3f 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92
3f 40 81 70 82 3f 40 91 68 92 38 40 78 82 38 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40
00 92 3c 40 3c 82 3c 40 00 92 3a 40 3c 82 3a 40 00 92 3c 40 81 70 82 3c 40 00 92 3d 40 83 60 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 82 68
82 3b 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 41 40 81 70 82 41 40 00 92 42 40 81 70 82 42 40 00 92 3b 40 81 70 82 3b 40 00 92
3d 40 84 1c 82 3d 40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 3c 82 3b 40 00 92 39 40 3c 82 39 40 00 92 38 40 83 60 82 38 40
93 58 92 3b 40 78 82 3b 40 00 92 40 40 78 82 40 40 00 92 40 40 78 82 40 40 00 92 40 40 78 82 40 40 00 92 3e 40 3c 82 3e
40 00 92 3d 40 3c 82 3d 40 00 92 3b 40 81 70 82 3b 40 78 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 42 40 78 82
42 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 3c 82 3f 40 00 92 40 40 81 70 82 40 40 00 92 42 40 83
24 82 42 40 00 92 44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 45 40 78 82 45 40 00 92 44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 44 40
78 82 44 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 81 70 82 3f 40 00 92 40 40 83 60 82 40 40 00 92
3f 40 78 82 3f 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 3f 40 78 82 3f 40 00 92 41 40 3c 82 41 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92
44 40 78 82 44 40 00 92 44 40 78 82 44 40 78 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 3f 40 78 82 3f 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92
3c 40 81 70 82 3c 40 00 92 3d 40 83 60 82 3d 40 00 92 3f 40 81 70 82 3f 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d
40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 3c 82 3f
40 00 92 40 40 78 82 40 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 44 40 3c 82 44 40 00 92 46 40 81 70 82 46 40 00 92 3f 40 83 60
82 3f 40 00 92 40 40 81 70 82 40 40 00 92 3f 40 82 68 82 3f 40 00 92 40 40 3c 82 40 40 00 92 42 40 3c 82 42 40 00 92 41
40 78 82 41 40 00 92 3d 40 83 60 82 3d 40 00 92 3d 40 78 82 3d 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92 42 40 78 82 42 40 00 92
42 40 81 70 82 42 40 00 92 41 40 78 82 41 40 00 92 3f 40 78 82 3f 40 00 92 41 40 83 60 82 41 40 77 90 00 00 00 ff 2f 00
4d 54 72 6b 00 00 07 ac 8b 20 93 38 40 83 60 83 38 40 00 93 37 40 81 70 83 37 40 00 93 3b 40 81 70 83 3b 40 00 93 3a 40
83 60 83 3a 40 00 93 38 40 81 70 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 82 68 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40 00
93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 3d 40 78 83 3d 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 3c 83 39 40 00
93 3b 40 82 68 83 3b 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 81 70 83 38
40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 82 68 83 33 40 00 93 32 40 78 83 32 40 00 93 31 40 87 40
83 31 40 90 70 93 38 40 81 70 83 38 40 00 93 37 40 81 70 83 37 40 00 93 3b 40 81 70 83 3b 40 00 93 3a 40 83 60 83 3a 40
00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 35 40 81 70 83 35
40 00 93 39 40 81 70 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 83 60 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 84 58 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 36 40
3c 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 36 40
78 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 81 70 83 38 40 00 93 31 40 89 30 83 31 40 00 93 36 40 81 70 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00
93 33 40 78 83 33 40 00 93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00
93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 3b 40 89 30 83 3b 40 00 93 3d 40 81 70 83 3d 40 00 93 3c 40 81 70 83
3c 40 00 93 40 40 81 70 83 40 40 00 93 3f 40 83 60 83 3f 40 00 93 3d 40 84 58 83 3d 40 00 93 3b 40 78 83 3b 40 00 93 3a
40 78 83 3a 40 00 93 38 40 81 70 83 38 40 00 93 37 40 3c 83 37 40 00 93 35 40 3c 83 35 40 00 93 37 40 81 70 83 37 40 00
93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 3a 40 3c 83 3a 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 37 40 3c 83 37 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00
93 3a 40 3c 83 3a 40 00 93 3b 40 3c 83 3b 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 3c 83 39 40 00 93 3b 40 3c 83 3b 40 00
93 39 40 3c 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 3a 40 3c 83 3a 40 00 93 3b 40 3c 83 3b 40 00 93 3d 40 3c 83 3d 40 00
93 3a 40 3c 83 3a 40 00 93 3b 40 3c 83 3b 40 00 93 3d 40 3c 83 3d 40 00 93 3b 40 3c 83 3b 40 00 93 3a 40 3c 83 3a 40 00
93 3c 40 3c 83 3c 40 00 93 3d 40 3c 83 3d 40 00 93 3f 40 3c 83 3f 40 00 93 3c 40 3c 83 3c 40 00 93 3d 40 83 60 83 3d 40
98 30 93 36 40 81 70 83 36 40 00 93 35 40 81 70 83 35 40 00 93 39 40 81 70 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 83 60 83 38 40 00 93 36
40 83 60 83 36 40 93 58 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 3d 40 78 83 3d 40 00 93 3d 40 78 83 3d 40 00 93 3d 40 78 83 3d 40 00
93 3c 40 3c 83 3c 40 00 93 3a 40 3c 83 3a 40 00 93 3c 40 81 70 83 3c 40 00 93 3d 40 81 70 83 3d 40 00 93 39 40 81 70 83
39 40 00 93 36 40 81 70 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 81 70 83 38 40 00 93 35 40 81 70 83 35 40 00 93 36 40 81 70 83 36 40 00 93
38 40 83 60 83 38 40 00 93 33 40 83 60 83 33 40 9b 18 93 2c 40 78 83 2c 40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31
40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 30 40 3c 83 30 40 00 93 2e 40 3c 83 2e 40 00 93 30 40 81 70 83 30 40 00 93 31 40 81 70
83 31 40 90 70 93 31 40 83 60 83 31 40 00 93 30 40 81 70 83 30 40 00 93 34 40 81 70 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 83 60 83 33 40
00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40
00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 83 60 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 81 70 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 83 60
83 38 40 00 93 39 40 81 70 83 39 40 00 93 36 40 82 2c 83 36 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 33
40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 38 40 83 60 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 81 70 83 36 40 00
93 33 40 81 70 83 33 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40
00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 31 40 3c 83 31 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40
00 93 31 40 3c 83 31 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 31 40 3c 83 31 40
00 93 30 40 3c 83 30 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40
00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 37 40 3c 83 37 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 81 70 83 34
40 78 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 3b 40 78 83 3b 40 00 93 3b 40 78 83 3b 40 00 93 3b 40 78 83 3b 40 00 93 39 40 3c 83 39
40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 3c 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34
40 00 93 33 40 81 70 83 33 40 78 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 3f 40 78 83 3f 40 00 93 3f 40 78 83 3f 40 00 93 3f 40 78 83
3f 40 00 93 3d 40 3c 83 3d 40 00 93 3c 40 3c 83 3c 40 00 93 3d 40 83 60 83 3d 40 00 93 3c 40 81 70 83 3c 40 00 93 40 40
82 68 83 40 40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 35
40 3c 83 35 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 31 40 83 60 83 31 40 00 93 33 40 82 68 83 33 40 00 93 33 40 78 83 33 40 00
93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 3c 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00
93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00
93 34 40 78 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33 40 00 93 31 40 3c 83 31 40 00 93 33 40 78 83 33 40 00 93 2c 40 78 83 2c 40 00
93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 31 40 78 83 31 40 00 93 2f 40 3c 83 2f 40 00 93 2e 40 3c 83 2e 40 00
93 33 40 82 2c 83 33 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 36 40 81 34 83 36 40 00 93 34 40 3c 83 34 40 00 93 33 40 3c 83 33
40 00 93 31 40 3c 83 31 40 00 93 38 40 83 60 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 82 68 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 3c 83 38 40 00 93 39 40 3c
83 39 40 00 93 3b 40 78 83 3b 40 00 93 39 40 78 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 3d 40 78
83 3d 40 00 93 3b 40 3c 83 3b 40 00 93 39 40 3c 83 39 40 00 93 38 40 78 83 38 40 00 93 36 40 78 83 36 40 00 93 38 40 83
60 83 38 40 77 90 00 00 00 ff 2f 00 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 07 cd 00 90 31 40 83 60 80 31 40 00 90 30 40 81 70 80 30 40 00 90
34 40 81 70 80 34 40 00 90 33 40 83 60 80 33 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 33 40 78 80 33 40 00 90 34 40 82 68 80 34
40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 31 40 3c 80 31 40 00 90 33 40 78 80 33 40 00 90 38 40 78 80 38 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31
40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34 40 00 90 36 40 82 68 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 78 80 34 40 00 90 33 40 78 80
33 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 33 40 81 70 80 33 40 00 90 31 40 82 68 80 31 40 00 90 2f 40 78 80 2f 40 00 90 2d 40
78 80 2d 40 00 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 2d 40 81 70 80 2d 40 00 90 2e 40 81 70 80 2e 40 00 90 30 40 81 70 80 30 40 00
90 31 40 81 70 80 31 40 00 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 2d 40 78 80 2d 40 00 90 2f 40 82 68 80 2f 40 00 90 2d 40 78 80 2d
40 00 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 78 80 2a 40 00 90 31 40 81 70 80 31 40 00 90 2d 40 82 68 80 2d 40 00 90 2c 40 78
80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 78 80 2a 40 00 90 28 40 78 80 28 40 00 90 2a 40 81 70 80 2a 40 00 90 2c 40 81 70 80 2c 40 00 90 2d
40 78 80 2d 40 00 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 2d 40 78 80 2d 40 00 90 2f 40 78 80 2f 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 2f
40 78 80 2f 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 33 40 78 80 33 40 00 90 34 40 81 70 80 34 40 00 90 31 40 82 68 80 31 40 00
90 2f 40 78 80 2f 40 00 90 2e 40 78 80 2e 40 00 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 31 40 81 70 80 31 40 00 90 33 40 81 70 80 33
40 00 90 2c 40 81 70 80 2c 40 9a 20 90 2f 40 81 70 80 2f 40 00 90 2e 40 81 70 80 2e 40 00 90 33 40 81 70 80 33 40 00 90
31 40 83 60 80 31 40 00 90 2f 40 84 58 80 2f 40 00 90 38 40 78 80 38 40 00 90 36 40 78 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 78 80 34 40
00 90 3b 40 81 70 80 3b 40 00 90 2f 40 81 70 80 2f 40 00 90 34 40 81 70 80 34 40 00 90 39 40 81 70 80 39 40 00 90 38 40
81 70 80 38 40 00 90 3d 40 83 60 80 3d 40 00 90 3c 40 81 70 80 3c 40 00 90 3d 40 81 70 80 3d 40 95 48 90 31 40 3c 80 31
40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 34 40 78 80 34 40 00 90 36 40 78 80 36 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36
40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 39 40 3c 80 39 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34
40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38
40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34 40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34
40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34 40 00 90 39 40 3c 80 39
40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 39 40 3c 80 39 40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 31 40 3c 80 31 40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33
40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34 40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38
40 00 90 31 40 81 70 80 31 40 95 48 90 34 40 78 80 34 40 00 90 39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 39 40 78
80 39 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 38 40 81 70 80 38 40 00 90 39 40 81 70 80 39 40 00 90 36
40 81 70 80 36 40 00 90 2f 40 81 70 80 2f 40 00 90 34 40 81 70 80 34 40 00 90 2d 40 83 60 80 2d 40 00 90 2c 40 81 70 80
2c 40 91 68 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 2f 40 3c
80 2f 40 00 90 2e 40 3c 80 2e 40 00 90 2f 40 3c 80 2f 40 00 90 2e 40 3c 80 2e 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2f 40 3c
80 2f 40 00 90 2e 40 3c 80 2e 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2e 40 3c 80 2e 40 00 90 2f 40 3c 80 2f 40 00 90 2e 40 3c
80 2e 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 2e 40 3c 80 2e 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 3c
80 2a 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2e 40 3c 80 2e 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2f 40 3c 80 2f 40 00 90 2e 40 3c
80 2e 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2b 40 81 70 80 2b 40 00 90 2c 40 81 70 80 2c 40 00 90 2e 40 81 70 80 2e 40 00 90
33 40 81 70 80 33 40 00 90 2c 40 81 70 80 2c 40 85 50 90 25 40 83 60 80 25 40 00 90 30 40 81 70 80 30 40 00 90 28 40 81
70 80 28 40 00 90 27 40 83 60 80 27 40 00 90 25 40 78 80 25 40 00 90 25 40 3c 80 25 40 00 90 27 40 3c 80 27 40 00 90 28
40 78 80 28 40 00 90 2a 40 78 80 2a 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2d
40 3c 80 2d 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 28 40 3c 80 28 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2a
40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 28 40 3c 80 28 40 00 90 2a 40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 28
40 3c 80 28 40 00 90 27 40 3c 80 27 40 00 90 2a 40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 28 40 78 80 28 40 00 90 34 40 78 80 34 40 00 90 39
40 78 80 39 40 00 90 39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38 40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 38
40 78 80 38 40 00 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 2f 40 78 80 2f 40 00 90 2d 40 81 70 80 2d 40 00 90
2c 40 78 80 2c 40 8f 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 36 40 78 80 36 40 00 90 36 40 78 80 36 40 00 90 36 40 78 80 36 40 00
90 35 40 3c 80 35 40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 35 40 81 70 80 35 40 00 90 36 40 81 70 80 36 40 86 48 90 2c 40 78 80
2c 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31 40 00 90 30 40 3c 80 30 40 00 90 2e 40 3c 80
2e 40 00 90 30 40 3c 80 30 40 00 90 31 40 3c 80 31 40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 30 40 3c 80 30 40 00 90 28 40 81 70
80 28 40 78 90 2d 40 78 80 2d 40 00 90 27 40 81 70 80 27 40 78 90 2c 40 78 80 2c 40 00 90 25 40 78 80 25 40 8c 18 90 31
40 81 70 80 31 40 00 90 30 40 81 70 80 30 40 00 90 34 40 81 70 80 34 40 00 90 33 40 83 60 80 33 40 00 90 31 40 78 80 31
40 00 90 34 40 78 80 34 40 00 90 39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 39 40 78 80 39 40 00 90 38 40 3c 80 38
40 00 90 36 40 3c 80 36 40 00 90 34 40 3c 80 34 40 00 90 33 40 3c 80 33 40 00 90 31 40 3c 80 31 40 00 90 2f 40 3c 80 2f
40 00 90 2e 40 81 70 80 2e 40 00 90 2d 40 82 68 80 2d 40 00 90 2c 40 3c 80 2c 40 00 90 2a 40 3c 80 2a 40 00 90 29 40 81
70 80 29 40 00 90 2a 40 83 60 80 2a 40 00 90 2c 40 8f 00 80 2c 40 00 90 2b 40 83 60 80 2b 40 00 90 2c 40 87 40 80 2c 40
00 90 31 40 8f 00 80 31 40 77 90 00 00 00 ff 2f 00

How to split MIDI tracks into separate MIDI files

The following program takes a multi-track MIDI file with three or more tracks, and splits out each track into a separate MIDI file. The expression track of the original MIDI file is copied into the 0th track of the new MIDI files, and the individual tracks of the first MIDI file are copied to the 1st track of the output MIDI files.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   if (argc != 3) {
      cerr << "Usage: " << argv[0] << " input output" << endl;
      return 1;
   }
   MidiFile midifile(argv[1]);
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Problem reading input" << endl;
      return 1;
   }
   if (midifile.getTrackCount() < 3) {
      cerr << "Not enough tracks to split" << endl;
      return 1;
   }
   string basename = argv[2];
   if (basename.substr(basename.size() - 4) == ".mid")
      basename = basename.substr(0, basename.size() - 4);
   int outcount = midifile.getTrackCount() - 1;
   vector<MidiFile> outputs(outcount);
   for (int i=0; i<outcount; i++) {
      outputs[i].addTrack();
      for (int j=0; j<midifile[0].getEventCount(); j++)
         outputs[i].addEvent(midifile[0][j]);
      for (int j=0; j<midifile[i+1].getEventCount(); j++)
         outputs[i].addEvent(1, midifile[i+1][j]);
   }
   for (int i=0; i<outcount; i++)
      outputs[i].write(basename + "-" + to_string(i+1) + ".mid");
   return 0;
}

Here is the first file extracted from the MIDI file input for the temperament example:

4d 54 68 64 00 00 00 06 00 01 00 02 00 78 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 00 13 00 ff 51
03 08 8e 6c 00 ff 58 04 02 01 30 08 00 ff 2f 00 4d 54 72 6b 00 00 09 bd b2
50 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80
4c 40 00 90 4b 40 83 60 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 82 68 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 78
80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 81 70
80 49 40 00 90 47 40 81 70 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40
81 70 80 4b 40 82 68 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 49
40 78 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 78 80 47 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 50 40
82 68 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90 51 40
78 80 51 40 00 90 53 40 84 58 80 53 40 00 90 51 40 78 80 51 40 00 90 50 40
78 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c
80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 83 60
80 49 40 00 90 47 40 82 68 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 78
80 47 40 00 90 45 40 78 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 81 70 80 44 40 00 90 46 40 78
80 46 40 00 90 47 40 78 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 83
60 80 47 40 00 90 46 40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 47 40 84 58 80 47 40 00 90 49
40 78 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4c 40
81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 81 70 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b
40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40
3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 51 40 3c
80 51 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80
4c 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c
40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40
00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00
90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90
4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49
40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40
3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c
80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80
4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49
40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40
00 90 46 40 3c 80 46 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 82 2c 80 47 40
00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00
90 49 40 82 68 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 82 68 80 4b 40
00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 84 58 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 81 70 80 4b
40 00 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 3c 80 48 40 00 90 46 40 3c 80 46
40 00 90 48 40 78 80 48 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40
00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 51 40 3c 80 51 40 00
90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90
50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e
40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40
3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4d 40 81
70 80 4d 40 00 90 51 40 81 70 80 51 40 00 90 50 40 84 58 80 50 40 00 90 4e
40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 81 70 80 4a 40 78 90 49
40 78 80 49 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4e 40
78 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 4c 40 82
68 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40 83
60 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 81 70 80 49 40 00 90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90 4c
40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4c 40 81 34 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90
4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4c
40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40
3c 80 4a 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c
80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 83 60
80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40
84 58 80 4b 40 00 90 44 40 78 80 44 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 49 40
78 80 49 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 3c
80 45 40 00 90 47 40 83 60 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 81 70 80 45 40 00 90 44 40
81 70 80 44 40 81 70 90 4b 40 83 60 80 4b 40 00 90 4a 40 81 70 80 4a 40 00
90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90 4d 40 81 70 80 4d 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80 4c
40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40
00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00
90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90
47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49
40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40
3c 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 47 40 81 70 80 47 40 00 90 46
40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 45 40 81 70 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 81 70 80 44 40 89
30 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 4c 40 81 70 80
4c 40 00 90 4b 40 85 50 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81
70 80 48 40 78 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78
80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80
4e 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 51 40 3c 80 51 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50
40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 50 40 3c 80 50 40
00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00
90 50 40 3c 80 50 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90
4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b
40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40
3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4c 40 3c
80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80
4a 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49
40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40
00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4a 40 3c 80 4a 40 00
90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 3c 80 45 40 00 90
49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 3c 80 45 40 00 90 47
40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40
3c 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 3c 80 44 40 00 90 47 40 3c 80 47 40 00 90 45 40 81
70 80 45 40 81 70 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90
4c 40 81 70 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 84 58 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00
90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90 50 40 78 80 50 40 00 90
4e 40 3c 80 4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90
4c 40 83 60 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 81 70 80 4b 40 00 90 4f 40 81 70 80 4f 40
00 90 4e 40 81 70 80 4e 40 00 90 42 40 81 70 80 42 40 00 90 41 40 81 70 80
41 40 00 90 45 40 81 70 80 45 40 00 90 44 40 78 80 44 40 83 60 90 48 40 78
80 48 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80 4e 40 00 90 4e 40 78 80
4e 40 00 90 4c 40 3c 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 4c 40 78 80 4c
40 00 90 4b 40 3c 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 3c 80 49 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40
00 90 48 40 78 80 48 40 00 90 49 40 85 50 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48
40 00 90 47 40 81 70 80 47 40 00 90 46 40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 45 40 81 70
80 45 40 00 90 44 40 83 60 80 44 40 00 90 46 40 81 70 80 46 40 00 90 48 40
81 70 80 48 40 00 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90
4c 40 83 60 80 4c 40 00 90 4b 40 78 80 4b 40 00 90 49 40 78 80 49 40 00 90
48 40 81 70 80 48 40 00 90 49 40 83 60 80 49 40 00 90 48 40 81 70 80 48 40
00 90 49 40 8f 00 80 49 40 77 90 00 00 00 ff 2f 00

How to create vibrato with pitch-bend messages in a MIDI file

This example demonstrates the generation of a constant vibrato for notes in a MIDI file (on a particular channel). The program adds an extra track at the end of the file to store the pitch bends. The vibrato rate is constant regardless of the tempo setting for the MIDI file, since the vibrato is calculated in physical time rather than tick time. The MidiFile::getAbsoluteTickTime() function calculates the conversion between physical time in seconds and tick time in the MIDI file.

#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <utility>
#include <cmath>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.define("f|frequency=d:4.0",     "vibrato frequency");
   options.define("d|depth=d:20.0",        "vibrato depth in cents");
   options.define("b|bend-max=d:200.0",    "pitch bend depth");
   options.define("s|sample-rate=d:100.0", "sample rate");
   options.define("o|output-file=s",       "output filename");
   options.define("c|channel=i:0",         "output channel");
   options.process(argc, argv);

   MidiFile midifile;
   if (options.getArgCount() == 0) midifile.read(cin);
   else midifile.read(options.getArg(1));
   if (!midifile.status()) {
      cerr << "Problem reading file" << endl;
      return 1;
   }

   string filename  = options.getString("output-file");
   int    channel   = options.getInteger("channel");
   double freq      = options.getDouble("frequency");
   double depth     = options.getDouble("depth");
   double bend      = options.getDouble("bend-max");
   double srate     = options.getDouble("sample-rate");
   double phase     = 0.0;
   double twopi     = 2.0 * M_PI;
   double increment = twopi * freq / srate;
   double maxtime   = midifile.getFileDurationInSeconds();
   midifile.addTrack(); // store vibrato in separate track
   pair<int, double> tickbend;
   vector<pair<double, double>> storage;
   int count = maxtime * srate;
   storage.reserve(maxtime * srate + 1000);
   for (int i=0; i<count; i++) {
      tickbend.first = int(midifile.getAbsoluteTickTime(i/srate) + 0.5);
      tickbend.second = depth/bend * sin(phase);
      if ((storage.size() > 0) && (tickbend.first == 0)) break;
      storage.push_back(tickbend);
      phase += increment;
      if (phase > twopi) phase -= twopi;
   }
   int track = midifile.getTrackCount() - 1;
   for (int i=0; i<(int)storage.size(); i++)
      midifile.addPitchBend(track, storage[i].first, channel, storage[i].second);
   if (filename.empty()) cout << midifile;
   else midifile.write(filename);
   return 0;
}

Polyrhythm generator

Here is a program that generates polyrhythm patterns. Command line options are:

option default value meaning
-a 2 first instrument's division of the cycle
-b 3 first instrument's division of the cycle
-c 10 number of cycles
-d 2.0 duration of each cycle
--key1 76 percussion key number for first instrument
--key2 77 percussion key number for first instrument
-o output filename
#include "MidiFile.h"
#include "Options.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <utility>
#include <cmath>
using namespace std;
using namespace smf;

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
   Options options;
   options.define("a=i:2",           "cycle division 1");
   options.define("b=i:3",           "cycle division 2");
   options.define("c|cycle=i:10",    "cycle count");
   options.define("d|dur=d:2.0",     "duration of cycle in seconds");
   options.define("key1=i:76",       "first percussion key number");
   options.define("key2=i:77",       "second percussion key number");
   options.define("o|output-file=s", "output filename");
   options.process(argc, argv);

   int a = options.getInteger("a");
   int b = options.getInteger("b");
   int c = options.getInteger("cycle");
   int key1 = options.getInteger("key1");
   int key2 = options.getInteger("key2");
   double dur = options.getDouble("dur");
   double tempo = 60.0 / dur;

   MidiFile midifile;
   midifile.setTPQ(a*b);
   midifile.addTempo(0, 0, tempo);
   midifile.addTracks(2);
   for (int i=0; i<b*c + 1; i++) {
      midifile.addNoteOn(1, i*a, 9, key1, 64);
      midifile.addNoteOff(1, (i+1)*a, 9, key1);
   }
   for (int i=0; i<a*c + 1; i++) {
      midifile.addNoteOn(2, i*b, 9, key2, 64);
      midifile.addNoteOff(2, (i+1)*b, 9, key2);
   }

   string filename  = options.getString("output-file");
   if (filename.empty()) cout << midifile;
   else midifile.write(filename);
   return 0;
}

This program demonstrates how to set the ticks-per-quarter-note value in the MIDI header. In this case it is set to the factor of a*b which is the duration of one cycle (so each cycle has the duration of a quarter note). A tempo meta-message is also calculated based on the desired duration of a cycle.

For example, try the options -a 3 -b 4 -c 200 -d 1 -o 3x4.mid, which will play a 3-against-4 pattern for 200 cycles with each cycle lasting 1 second. Or here is 11-against-13 for 100 cycles: -a 11 -b 13 -c 100 -d 5 -o 11x13.mid.