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OpenFlow Testing Framework July, 2010 Last updated March 2012 Copyright (c) 2010 The Board of Trustees of The Leland Stanford Junior University Warning +++++++ This is still experimental and it requires root privilege to control the dataplane ports. As a consequence, there may be risks to the machine on which this is running. Use caution. Please see Helpful Notes below. License +++++++ The software included with this distribution is subject to the OpenFlow Switching License as given in the included file LICENSE. Details are also available at: http://www.openflow.org/wp/legal Other software referenced in this distribution is subject to its respective license. Getting OFTest ++++++++++++++ You can check out OFTest with git with the following command: git clone git://github.com/floodlight/oftest Introduction ++++++++++++ This test framework is meant to exercise a candidate OpenFlow switch (the device/switch under test, DUT or SUT). It provides a connection like a controller to which the switch connects and it controls data plane ports, sending and receiving packets, which should be connected to the switch. There are two parts to running the test framework: * Building the python libraries that support the OF protocol * Running oft, the main entry point of the test framework Normally log output from oft is sent to the file oft.log, but can be redirected to the console by specifying --log-file="". Quick Start +++++++++++ You need to have Python setup tools and Scapy installed on your system. See 'Pre-requisites' below. Make sure your switch is running and trying to connect to a controller on the machine where you're running oft (normally port 6633). See below regarding run_switch.py for a script that starts up a software switch on the test host. Currently, switches must be running version 1.0 of OpenFlow. # git clone git://github.com/floodlight/oftest # cd oftest/tools/munger # make install # cd ../../tests Make sure the switch you want to test is running -- see (4) below for the reference switch example. # ./oft --list # sudo ./oft --test-spec=Echo # sudo ./oft --verbose --log-file="" # sudo ./oft --test-spec=<mod> --platform=remote --host=... Longer Start ++++++++++++ 1. Pre-requisites: * An OF switch instance to test (see 4 below) * Root privilege on host running oft * Switch running OpenFlow 1.0 and attempting to connect to a controller on the machine running oft. * Python 2.5 or 2.6. You can run platforms using eth interfaces with Python 2.4. Python 2.7 may work. * Python setup tools (e.g.: sudo apt-get install python-setuptools) * oftest checked out (called <oftest> here) * scapy installed: http://www.secdev.org/projects/scapy/ 'sudo apt-get install scapy' should work on Debian. * tcpdump installed (optional, but scapy will complain if it's not there) * Doxygen and doxypy for document generation (optional) * lint for source checking (optional) 2. Build the OpenFlow Python message classes Important: The OF version used by the controller is based on the file in <oftest>/tools/pylibopenflow/include/openflow.h This is currently the 1.0 release file. cd <oftest>/tools/munger make install This places files in <oftest>/src/python/oftest/src and then calls setuptools to install on the local host 3. Edit configuration if necessary Local platforms work with veth interface pairs and default to four ports. You can adjust this a bit with the command line parameters port_count, base_of_port and base_if_index. Starting from remote.py as a simple example, you can add your own <platform>.py file and then have it imported with --platform=<platform> on the command line. This is meant to allow you to test remote switches attempting to connect to a controller on a network accessible to the test host. 4. Start the switch to test The switch must be running and actively attempting to connect to a controller on the test host at the port number used by oft (6633 by default, or specified as --port=<n> as an argument to oft). If you're new to the test environment and want to check its sanity, you can do the following. This requires that your host kernel supports virtual ethernet interfaces. This is best done in a window separate from where you will run oft. 4A. Check out openflow (preferably at the same level as oftest): git clone git://openflowswitch.org/openflow.git 4B. cd openflow; ./boot.sh; ./configure; make 4C. cd ../oftest/tests 4D. Run the switch startup script: sudo ./run_switch.py; Now you can run oft (see below). 4F. Use --help to see command line switches. If you use a port number other than the default, make sure you use the same one for the switch as for oft. 4E. Use control-C to terminate the switch daemons. 4F. To clean up the virtual ethernet interfaces, use sudo rmmod veth New tools allow you to run an OVS instance as well. See oftest/tools/ovs-ctl. You will need to install a version of openvswitch. See http://openvswitch.org/. 5. Run oft See Warning above; requires sudo to control the dataplane cd <oftest>/tests sudo ./oft --help Helpful Note: Rebuilding ++++++++++++++++++++++++ If you ever make a change to the code in src/oftest/python... you must rebuild and reinstall the source code. See Step (2) in the Longer Start above. If you see WARNING:..:Could not import file ... There is likely a Python error in the file. Try invoking the Python cli directly and importing the file to get more information. Helpful Note: Recovering From Crash +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ If the test script, oft, becomes unresponsive, you may find that ^C does not break out of the script. In this case you have two options: * Use ^Z to interrupt the script and return to the shell prompt. * Start another terminal window to the same machine. In either case, you then need to kill the process that is hung. Use the following commands: me@host> ps aux | grep oft root 4 0.0 S< Jul07 0:00 [ksoftirqd/0] ... root 14066 3.2 Tl 09:27 0:00 python ./oft ... me 14074 0.0 R+ 09:28 0:00 grep oft me@host> sudo kill -9 14066 where 14066 is the process ID of the hung process. (Replace it with the PID for your process.) This is still preliminary work and there are bugs in the framework that need to be ironed out. Please report any issues to firstname.lastname@example.org. OFT Command Line Options ++++++++++++++++++++++++ Here is a summary of the oft command line options. Use --help to see the long and short command option names. platform : String identifying the target platform controller_host : Host on which test controller is running (for sockets) controller_port : Port on which test controller listens for switch cxn port_count : Number of ports in dataplane base_of_port : Base OpenFlow port number in dataplane base_if_index : Base OS network interface for dataplane test_dir : Directory to search for test files (default .) test_spec : Specification of test(s) to run log_file : Filename for test logging list : Boolean: List all tests and exit debug : String giving debug level (info, warning, error...) verbose : Same as debug=verbose Overview ++++++++ The directory structure is currently: <oftest> ` |-- doc |-- src | `-- python | `-- oftest |-- tests | `-- oft and files with test cases `-- tools |-- munger `-- pylibopenflow The tools directory is what processes the OpenFlow header files to produce Python classes representing OpenFlow messages. The results are placed in src/python/oftest and currently include: message.py: The main API providing OF message classes error.py: Subclasses for error messages action.py: Subclasses for action specification cstruct.py: Direct representation of C structures in Python class_maps.py: Addition info about C structures In addition, the following Python files are present in src/python/oftest: controller.py: The controller representation dataplane.py: The dataplane representation action_list.py: Action list class netutils.py: e.g., set promisc on sockets ofutils.py: Utilities related to OpenFlow messages oft_assert.py: Test framework level assertion Tests are run from the tests directory. The file oft is the top level entry point for tests. Try ./oft --help for some more. Important Notes +++++++++++++++ 1. If you edit any of the files in src/python/oftest or any of the scripts in tools/munger/scripts, you MUST re-run make install. This is easy to forget. 2. If your running into issues with transactions, and it appears that OpenFlow messages aren't quite right, start by looking at any length fields in the packets. With the local platform, you can use wireshark on the loopback interface as well as the dataplane veth interfaces. Adding Your Own Test Cases ++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Check the online tutorial: http://openflow.org/wk/index.php/OFTestTutorial You can: * Add cases to an existing file * Add a new file If you add cases to an existing file, each case should be its own class. It must inherit from unittest.TestCase or one of its derivatives and define runTest (that's how test cases are discovered). If you add a new file, it must implement a top level function called test_set_init which takes a configuration dictionary. See basic.py for an example. The main point of this is to pass the port map object to the test cases. But you can access any configuration parameters this way. Each test case in the new file must derive from unittest.TestCase. CONVENTIONS: The first line of the doc string for a file and for a test class is displayed in the list command. Please keep it clear and under 50 characters. Using CentOS/RHEL +++++++++++++++++ CentOS/RHEL have two challenges: they are very tied to Python 2.4 (and Scapy requires Python 2.5 for its latest version) and they require a kernel upgrade to use veth pairs for local platform testing. If you only need to control eth interfaces for a remote platform, you can use CentOS/RHEL without major disruption. The key is to download scapy-1.2 from the following link: wget http://hg.secdev.org/scapy/raw-file/v126.96.36.199/scapy.py See: http://www.dirk-loss.de/scapy-doc/installation.html#installing-scapy-v1-2 for more info. Copy scapy.py to /usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages If you hit an error related to importing scapy.all, you just need to change the import to refer to scapy (not scapy.all). See examples in parse.py for example. Other Info ++++++++++ * Build doc with + cd <oftest>/tools/munger + make doc Places the results in <oftest>/doc/html If you have problems, check the install location doxypy.py and that it is set correctly in <oftest>/doc/Doxyfile * Run lint on sources + cd <oftest>/tools/munger + make lint Places results in <oftest>/lint/*.log The file controller.log currently has some errors indicated To Do +++++ * Need to have an overview of the components of the test, how they connect and how they are managed by the test framework. * See the Regression Test component on trac: http://www.openflowswitch.org/bugs/openflow http://www.openflowswitch.org/bugs/openflow/query?component=Regression+test+suite * Make the framework work with OF versions other than 1.0?