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html

Hyper-Text Markup Language!


your first web page

Save this text as a file:

<b>whatever</b>

give it a .html extension and open your file in a web browser.


more tags:

  • <i>...</i> - make text italicized
  • <u>...</u> - underline some text
  • <br> - line break (aka "blank line")
  • <img src="whatever.png"> - show an image!
  • <a href="http://cool.com">cool</a> - link!
  • <h1>...</h1> - headers (big text)

tags have attributes

attributes are modifications/specifications that you can make to the tag.

<img src="cat.jpg" height="100" width="100">

all img attributes: http://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_img.asp


what tags are there?

there are loads of tags.

full list: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element

many are rarely used.

a few common ones are in this talk, but you can explore more tags with view source and inspect element


div

<div>...</div>

a box for text. it goes all the way across the screen.


span

<span>...</span>

a chunk of a single line.

useful if you want to style a small section of text within a div


table

<table>
    <tr>
        <td>...</td>
        <td>...</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>...</td>
        <td>...</td>
    </tr> 
</table>

wow bullet points

<ul>
    <li>...</li>
    <li>...</li>
    <li>...</li>
</ul>

form

<form method="post" action="/">
  <p>
    cats? 
  </p>
  <input type="text" name="cats">
  <p>
    <input type="submit" value="submit!">
  </p>
</form>

css

modify how your elements appear with styles

remember attributes?

some elements have attributes specific to them, but there are also "global" attributes that apply to every element.

  • style
  • class
  • id

(all global attributes: http://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_standardattributes.asp)


the "style" attribute

<h1 style="color:blue">...</h1>

<h1 style="color:blue;text-align:center">...</h1>


where to specify styles

  • Inline - using a style attribute in HTML elements
  • Internal - using a <style> element in the HTML <head> section
  • External - using one or more external CSS files

(the above is from http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_css.asp)


styles per element

<html>
<head>
<style>
h1 {
    display: block;
    font-size: 2em;
    margin-top: 0.67em;
    margin-bottom: 0.67em;
    margin-left: 0;
    margin-right: 0;
    font-weight: bold;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>...</h1>
</body>
</html>

(from http://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_hn.asp)


styles for ids

use an id when there will only be a single element

<html>
<head>
<style>
#msg {
    font-weight: bold;
    font-size: 72px;
    color: magenta;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<div id="msg">wow!</div>
</body>
</html>

styles for class

use a class when there could be many elements

<html><head>
<style>
.msg {
    font-weight: bold;
    font-size: 72px;
    color: magenta;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<div class="cool">wow!</div>
<div class="cool">neat!</div>
<div class="cool">super!</div>
</body></html>

external style sheets

<link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css">

view the source on http://cyber.wizard.institute & explore the stylesheet.


css selectors

You can create blocks of css rules that apply to more than just individual classes and ids with css selectors.

#page .row .title {
    color: cyan;
}

will match <div class="title"></div> in:

<div id="page">
  <div class="row">
    <div class="header">
      <div class="title"></div>
      <div class="date"></div>
      <div class="author"></div>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

css selectors

We just used spaces between elements in #page .row .title, but we can do lots of other things with css:

  • p - matches all elements with a p tag
  • div h2 - matches any h2 tags that are below a div
  • div > h2 - matches any h2 tags that are directly below a div
  • #pic1 - matches an element with the id pic1
  • .header - matches an element with the class header
  • h1 h2 h3 - matches all h1 h2 h3's
  • div[foo="bar"] - matches a div with an attribute foo set to bar
  • div.cool#bar[baz="yay"] - matches a div with the class cool, the id bar that has an attribute baz set to yay

and more! http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/selector.html#pattern-matching


css selectors

You can use css selectors directly from javascript:

<body>
  <div id="neat">
      <div class="msg">...</div>
  </div>
  <script>
    document.querySelector('#neat .msg').textContent = 'cool!!!!'
  </script>
</body>

neocities

You can host your html on neocities for free!

https://neocities.org