Create and manipulate 32-bit RGBA images
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README.md

Image::RGBA Build Status

Create and manipulate 32-bit RGBA images

Synopsis

use Image::RGBA;

my $img = Image::RGBA.create(10, 20);
my $pixel = $img.pixel(2, 5);
$pixel.g = 0xA0;
say $pixel;
use Image::RGBA::Text;
use Image::PGN::Inflated;

my $img = Image::RGBA::Text.load('examples/camelia.txt'.IO);
spurt 'camelia.png', to-png($img);

for Image::RGBA::Text.slurp('examples/feep.txt'.IO) {
    spurt "{.meta<name>}.png", .&to-png;
}
use Image::RGBA::Fun;
use Image::PGN::Inflated;

my $img = load-rgba-from-textfile('examples/camelia.txt');
spurt 'camelia.png', to-png($img);

my %palette = x => 'fbf', o => 'a33';
say create-rgba-from-text(q:to/THE_END/, 2, 2, :%palette).pixel(0, 1);
    x o
    o x
    THE_END

Description

This module allows the manipulation of raw RGBA images on a per-pixel basis and the creation of such images from a simple text format.

The pixel data is held in a flat byte buffer, with each 4-byte sequence describing the red, green, blue and alpha channel.

The text representation of a pixel is given by a sequence of non-whitespace characters (a 'word'), separated by whitespace to form the image data.

Before decoding, each word gets filtered through a 'palette', a hash mapping arbitrary words to hexadecimal color values in one of the 6 supported formats.

Images may be embedded in structured text files, with each line potentially holding a parsing directive starting in =, or pixel data.

The Base Module Image::RGBA

Wraps binary pixel data.

class Image::RGBA {
    has buf8 $.bytes;
    has uint $.width is required;
    has uint $.height is required;
    has %.meta;

    method create($width, $height, $bytes?) { ... }
    method pixel($x, $y) { ... }
}

my class Pixel {
    # numerical manipulation
    method r is rw { ... }
    method g is rw { ... }
    method b is rw { ... }
    method a is rw { ... }
    method value($order = BigEndian) is rw { ... }

    # stringification
    method Str { ... }  # rgba(?,?,?,?)
    method hex { ... }  # hexadecimal, excluding alpha channel
    method hexa { ... } # hexadecimal, including alpha channel
}

Parsing Text with Image::RGBA::Text

Methods load and slurp for text parsing are exposed via the type object.

class Image::RGBA::Text {
    # loads a single image
    method load($src, :%palettes = {}) { ... }

    # returns a sequence of all images
    method slurp($src, :%palettes = {}) { ... }
}

The $src argument must provide a lines method. Examples of valid sources are strings, file handles and path objects. A hash of named palette hashes may be passed in, allowing communication betweeen sources.

The module contains two decoder classes that implement parsing of color values and colorization of the image.

class Image::RGBA::Text::Decoder {
    has Image::RGBA $.image is required;
    has Associative $.palette = {};

    method create($width, $height, %palette?) { ... }

    # colorize a single pixel, moving the cursor forward
    method paint($color) { ... }

    # use each word of the text to colorize a subsequent pixel
    method decode($text) { ... }

    # check if the image has been fully colorized
    method done { ... }
}

class Image::RGBA::Text::ScalingDecoder is Image::RGBA::Text::Decoder {
    has uint $.scale is required;
    method create($width, $height, $scale, %palette?) { ... }
}

The latter class allows automatic scaling of the image by an integer factor.

Functional API provided by Image::RGBA::Fun

# Create individual images from raw data
sub create-rgba($width, $height, $bytes?) { ... }
sub create-rgba-from-text($text, $width, $height, $scale = 1, :%palette) { ... }

# Load individual image, parsing directives
sub load-rgba-from-text($text, :%palettes) { ... }
sub load-rgba-from-textfile($file, :%palettes) { ... }

# Load all images, parsing directives
sub slurp-rgba-from-text($text, :%palettes) { ... }
sub slurp-rgba-from-textfile($file, :%palettes) is export { ... }

If a file argument is not of type IO::Handle, it is assumed to be a file path and converted via a call to .IO.

The Textual Format

Yet to be properly documented. When in doubt, check the examples directory for working code.

Supported Directives

=img <width> <height> <scale>?

=palette <name>

=map <alias> <color>

=use <palette>

=meta <key> <value>

Following an =img directive, until the image has been fully colorized, each line that does not start in = is assumed to hold pixel data.

A =palette directive may occur between =img directives, but must not occur until any given image is complete.

Supported Color Formats

There are six different ways to specify colors. They are distinguished by the number of characters in the given string.

A single hexadecimal digit

Numbers 0 through 7 are black and dark colors, all opaque. Number 8 is a transparent black pixel. Numbers 9 through F are bright colors followed by white.

Digit RGB value Alpha value Name
0 #000000 100% black
1 #800000 100% dark red (maroon)
2 #008000 100% dark green
3 #808000 100% dark yellow (olive)
4 #000080 100% dark blue (navy)
5 #800080 100% dark magenta (purple)
6 #008080 100% dark cyan (teal)
7 #808080 100% dark gray
8 #000000 0% transparent black
9 #FF0000 100% red
A #00FF00 100% green (lime)
B #FFFF00 100% yellow
C #0000FF 100% blue
D #FF00FF 100% magenta (fuchsia)
E #00FFFF 100% cyan (aqua)
F #FFFFFF 100% white

Double hexadecimal digits

Double hexadecimal digits, i.e. 00 through FF, will result in a greyscale of opaque pixels. 00 is black, FF is white, the values in between just have the given hexadecimal number for the R, G, B channels and FF for the alpha channel.

Three hexadecimal digits

Three hexadecimal digits will result in opaque pixels where the individual hexadecimal digits are doubled and stored as the R, G, and B value respectively. For example, the value 47e would result in the RGB color value #4477ee at fixed alpha value FF.

Four hexadecimal digits

This works the same way as three hexadecimal digits, but the alpha channel takes its value from the fourth digit rather than being fixed at FF.

Six hexadecimal digits

Six hexadecimal digits work exactly like you would expect from HTML, CSS, or graphics software in general: The first two digits are for the red channel, the next two for the green channel, and the last two for the blue channel. The alpha channel is always FF.

Eight hexadecimal digits

This works the same way as six hexadecimal digits, but the last two digits are used for the alpha channel.

Bugs and Development

Development happens at GitHub. If you found a bug or have a feature request, use the issue tracker over there.

Copyright and License

Copyright (C) 2019 by cygx <cygx@cpan.org>

Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0