Skip to content
This repository

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
  • 3 commits
  • 1 file changed
  • 0 comments
  • 1 contributor

Showing 1 changed file with 29 additions and 15 deletions. Show diff stats Hide diff stats

  1. 44  fingal-ronain.tex
44  fingal-ronain.tex
@@ -26,9 +26,9 @@ \section{Psychoanalysis and the Early Irish Tale}
26 26
 
27 27
 While the foregoing overview of the theory of TA will give the reader enough background to understand the following analysis, a major question still remains: can modern psychoanalysis of literary texts tell scholars anything about the minds of the scribes of early Irish tales?  This is a path fraught with difficulties.  All our information concerning early Irish society is doubly filtered: first, through what scribes chose to record and second, through the editing process that created, in some cases, wildly divergent surviving copies of texts.  In addition, the random survival of sources must be kept in mind while reading the work.
28 28
 
29  
-The underlying axiom in the use of psychoanalytic methods is this: psychoanalysis reveals timeless and universal truths about the human condition.  Thus, psychoanalysis can give us insights into the working mind of a scribe/author from over a thousand years ago in the same way that a therapist can gain an understanding of a patient's mental condition.  Can scholars do the same for the early Irish scribe?
  29
+The underlying axiom in the use of psychoanalytic methods is this: psychoanalysis reveals timeless and universal truths about the human condition.  Thus, psychoanalysis can give readers insights into the working mind of a scribe/author from over a thousand years ago in the same way that a therapist can gain an understanding of a patient's mental condition.  Can scholars do the same for the early Irish scribe?
30 30
 
31  
-The main difficulty with ascribing motive to the early Irish scribe/author is that scholars have no direct evidence of their work other than the tales in the manuscripts.  This makes the early Irish scribe/author a `blackbox'.\footnote{Although, one could make the same argument for any human being.}  Thus, one could make any kind of speculation upon them.  Psychoanalytic methods lift the burden of the scholar to explain the inner workings of the scribe/author.  While this may be a particularly incomplete or debatable, it gives the scholar room to analyse texts and come to some concultion to the underlying meaning in light of a psychoanalytic method of reading. 
  31
+The main difficulty with ascribing motive to the early Irish scribe/author is that scholars have no direct evidence of their work other than the tales in the manuscripts.  This makes the early Irish scribe/author a `blackbox'.\footnote{Although, one could make the same argument for any human being.}  Thus, one could make any kind of speculation upon them.  Psychoanalytic methods lift the burden of the scholar to explain the inner workings of the scribe/author.  While this may be a particularly incomplete or debatable, it gives the scholar room to analyse texts and come to some concultion to the underlying meaning in light of a psychoanalytic method. 
32 32
 
33 33
 A note of caution at this point is appropriate.  Any means or method of analysis which becomes overly rigid or dogmatically applied will lose its explanitory power.  While the use of TA in this instance is particuarly apt and may be of more general use, the whole of early Irish literature or, indeed, the whole of any literature rarely fits any analysis.\footnote{insert footnote here}  
34 34
 
@@ -36,31 +36,33 @@ \section{Psychoanalysis and the Early Irish Tale}
36 36
  
37 37
 \section{TA: an Introduction}
38 38
 
39  
-TA was the creation of Dr. Eric Berne who completed his medical residency in psychiatry at Yale University under Dr. Paul Federn.  Following World War Two, Berne joined the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute under the Erik Erickson while also practising at Mt. Zion Hospital.  From this point forward, Berne's thoughts on psychoanalysis began to differ from others in psychiatry.  The formal break came in 1949 when he was refused admittance to the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute. 
  39
+TA was the creation of Dr. Eric Berne who completed his medical residency in psychiatry at Yale University under Dr. Paul Federn.  Following World War Two, Berne joined the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute under Erik Erickson while also practising at Mt. Zion Hospital.  From this point forward, Berne's thoughts on psychoanalysis began to differ from others in psychiatry.  The formal break came in 1949 when he was refused admittance to the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute. 
40 40
 
41 41
 The seminal book for TA is \emph{Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy: a Systematic Individual and Social Psychiatry}.\footnote{\cite{Berne1961}.}  This book lays the foundational theory and practice of TA.  While the theory has been extended over time by others, the theory as expounded in this book will provide much of the methodology and theoretical underpinning for the following analysis.
42 42
 
43 43
 \subsection{Social Theory and Strokes}
44 44
 
45  
-While many other psychoanalytic method focus on the individual, TA takes the opposite view: people are strictly social animals.  Individuals physically need social interaction to survive.  In TA, a person without such interaction will die.  As many psychologists have noted, intense isolation causes mental illness and places much more physical stress on an individual.  Thus, individuals always live within a social network.  This has implications in the therapeutic environment as TA is often used in group therapy rather than isolated private therapy.
  45
+While many other psychoanalytic method focus on the individual, TA takes the opposite view: people are strictly social animals.  Individuals physically need social interaction to survive.  In TA, a person without such interaction will die.  As many psychologists have noted, intense isolation causes mental illness and places much more physical stress on an individual.\footnote{insert footnote here}  Thus, individuals always live within a social network.  This has implications in the therapeutic environment as TA is often used in group therapy rather than isolated private therapy.
46 46
 
47  
-TA hypothesizes that people in interaction--in this and following cases, for the sake of clarity, it is assumed that there are only two people communicating--have a stimulus-response schema or, in other words, a transaction in communication.  This gives TA its `transactional' name.  When two people communicate, they do so by the means of `strokes'.  These strokes can be positive or negative; however, they are vital to an individual's mental and physical well-being.  In fact, if an individual is not receiving strokes, they will engineer a method of obtaining negative strokes. 
  47
+TA hypothesizes that people in interaction--in this and following cases, for the sake of clarity, it is assumed that there are only two people communicating--have a stimulus-response schema or, in other words, a transaction in communication.  This gives TA its `transactional' name.  When two people communicate, they do so by the means of `strokes'.  These strokes can be positive or negative; however, they are vital to an individual's mental and physical well-being.  In fact, if an individual is not receiving strokes, they will engineer a method of obtaining negative strokes. \footnote{insert footnote here}
48 48
 
49 49
 \subsection{Ego States}
50 50
 
51  
-TA is sometimes described as `Freud without the sub-concious'.  While neo-Freudian thought accepts that there are parts of the human mind which are inaccessible even by the person themselves, TA rejects this analysis.  Although, TA does accept that there are various `ego states' that a person may occupy during a transaction.  In TA terms, there are three ego states: Archeopsyche, Neopsyche, Exteropsyche.  While Berne in his original work referred to these as `psychic organs' and differentiated them from the `ego states':\footnote{insert footnote here} Child, Adult, and Parent, later he merged the two concepts,\footnote{insert footnote here} this article will follow this merge referencing the Child, Adult, and Parent as Archeopsyche, etc.  The reason behind this is that Child, Adult, and Parent can cause confusion such that the reader may misinterpret the application of the theory.\footnote{This over-simplification occurred when TA entered the mainstream of American popular culture in the late 1980's.}
  51
+TA is sometimes described as `Freud without the sub-conscious'.  While neo-Freudian thought accepts that there are parts of the human mind which are inaccessible even by the person themselves, TA rejects this analysis.  Although, TA does accept that there are various `ego states' that a person may occupy during a transaction.  In TA terms, there are three ego states: Archeopsyche, Neopsyche, Exteropsyche.  While Berne in his original work referred to these as `psychic organs' and differentiated them from the `ego states':\footnote{insert footnote here} Child, Adult, and Parent, later he merged the two concepts.\footnote{insert footnote here} This article will follow this merge referencing the Child, Adult, and Parent as Archeopsyche, etc.  The reason behind this is that Child, Adult, and Parent can cause confusion such that the reader may misinterpret the application of the theory.\footnote{This over-simplification occurred when TA entered the mainstream of American popular culture in the late 1980's.}
52 52
 
53  
-The Archeopsyche is the recognition that each human being carries thoughts, feelings, and points of view, and actions from their childhood in to their physical adulthood.  It must be stressed at this point that the Archeopsyche is a complete personality and not a fragment or a residual part of an earlier stage of development; this is true of all ego states.  The Neopsyche is the logical and rational part of the individual.  The Exteropsyche are the thoughts and feelings which are embedded in the personality of an individual by their parents.  This ego states often carries the traditional or culturally acceptable information in the form of sayings or often repeated information.\footnote{One may be struck at this point how closely this resembles Plato's view of the psyche. [insert citation here]} 
  53
+The Archeopsyche is the recognition that each human being carries thoughts, feelings, points of view, and actions from their childhood in to their physical adulthood.  It must be stressed at this point that the Archeopsyche is a complete personality and not a fragment or a residual part of an earlier stage of development; this is true of all ego states.  The Neopsyche is the logical and rational part of the individual.  The Exteropsyche are the thoughts and feelings which are embedded in the personality of an individual by their parents.  This ego states often carries the traditional or culturally acceptable information in the form of sayings or often repeated information.\footnote{One may be struck at this point how closely this resembles Plato's view of the psyche. [insert citation here]} 
54 54
 
55 55
 \emph{Cathexis} is the `psychic power' invested in a particular ego state.  An ego state which has executive power is cathecated at any given moment.\footnote{insert footnote here}  \emph{Cathexis} can flow between ego states depending on the stimuli involved.
56 56
 
57  
-With this in mind, we can discuss how the ego states interact within a transaction.  First, a stimulus is created within the cathecated ego state.  This stimulus is directed at a particular ego state in the transacting individual.  In a complementary transaction, this stimulus is then responded to by the ego state activated by the stimulus.  This would be a normal and healthy set of transactions.  In a crossed-transaction, the stimulus intended for an ego state is responded to by another, unexpected, ego state.  For instance, a stimulus from one person in an Adult ego state for another person's Adult ego state is instead responded to by the other person's Child ego state which is directed towards the initiating person's Parent ego state.  Crossed transactions are the cause of miscommunication and failed understanding.
  57
+With this in mind, we can discuss how the ego states interact within a transaction.  First, a stimulus is created within the cathecated ego state.  This stimulus is directed at a particular ego state in the transacting individual.  In a complementary transaction, this stimulus is then responded to by the ego state activated by the stimulus.  This would be a normal and healthy set of transactions.  In a crossed-transaction, the stimulus intended for an ego state is responded to by another, unexpected, ego state.  For instance, a stimulus from one person in an Adult ego state intended for another person's Adult ego state is instead recieved by the other person's Child ego state which is directed towards the initiating person's Parent ego state.  Crossed transactions are the cause of miscommunication and failed understanding.
58 58
 
59 59
 \subsection{Games}
60 60
 
61  
-While crossed transactions may cause miscommunication, the search for strokes (either positive or negative) will cause individuals to engage in `Games'.  In TA, a game is when a person will enter into a series of transactions to gain strokes.  There are beneficial games and harmful games.  Because TA is used primarily in the caring and therapeutic industries, harmful games have been researched more throughly than beneficial games.  However, as in therapy, harmful games are the most prevalent in literature.  In this sense, \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} is unexceptional.  To anticipate, \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} demonstrates the Rapo game in the third degree.
  61
+While crossed transactions may cause miscommunication, the search for strokes (either positive or negative) will cause individuals to engage in `Games'.  In TA, a game is when a person will enter into a series of transactions to gain strokes.  There are beneficial games and harmful games.  Because TA is used primarily in the caring and therapeutic industries, harmful games have been researched more throughly than beneficial games.  However, as in therapy, harmful games are also the most prevalent in literature.  In this sense, \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} is unexceptional.  Games in TA terms have a `payoff' or a crisis moment which satisifies the psychological needs of an individual for strokes.
62 62
 
63  
-While an individual may enter into a game with one or more persons, a script is where an individual will enter into the same set of transactions or games with the same payoff.  In this case, the individual will need to find a new set of players.  This is especially true if the last game was of the second or third degree type.
  63
+Each game has three degress.  With each degree, the stakes for the payoff become ever greater.  At the first degree, the game may be enjoyable as a pastime in its own right and does not pose a threat to the individuals involved.  At the second, degree minor psychological damage may occur as a result of the game.  At the third degree, serious physical or psychological harm, even death, may occur.  To anticipate, \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} demonstrates the `Rapo' game in the third degree.
  64
+
  65
+While an individual may enter into a game with one or more persons, a script is where an individual will enter into the same set of transactions or games with the same payoff continually.  In this case, for each iteration of a game, an individual will need to find a new set of players.  This is especially true if the last game was of the second or third degree type.
64 66
 
65 67
 \subsection{Drama Triangle}
66 68
 
@@ -74,24 +76,36 @@ \section{Applying TA to \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in}}
74 76
 
75 77
 Once R\'{o}n\'{a}in brings home his new wife, the young and beautiful Eochaid's Daughter, the situation immidately turns to her and her relationship with Mael Fothartaig.\footnote{Many have noted the fact that Eochaid's Daughter is never given a proper name. [insert cites here]}  [insert author here] has suggested that Eochaid's Daughter was meant to be the wife of Mael Fothartaig but there is no reason internal to the tale that she was ever meant to be with Mael Forthartaig.\footnote{insert footnote here}  Eochaid's Daughter takes an immediate interest in Mael Forthartaig, who does not want to anger his father so he leaves Ireland for Scotland.\footnote{\cite[4, ll. 56--61]{Greene1955}.}
76 78
 
77  
-Eochaid's Daughter in this instance wishes to engage in a game with Mael Fothartaig and his father.  This is described by Berne as the Rapo game.  The first degree of this game is often played at parties between members of the opposite sex where it is termed flirting.  The second degree of Rapo is where there is third party who has a vested interest in the female member of the game.  This game can also be a part of a larger game termed `Let's you and him fight'.  The third degree of Rapo is where the game becomes violent and can lead to the death of one or more people involved in the game.\footnote{insert footnote here}  To play Rapo, Eochaid's Daughter needs to have other game players.  Mael Forthartaig attempts to end the game by leaving for Scotland.  This is often the route taken by heroes in early Irish literature to gain experience and come back fully formed to face the dangers left behind in Ireland.\footnote{insert footnote here}
  79
+Eochaid's Daughter in this instance wishes to engage in a game with Mael Fothartaig and his father.  This is described by Berne as the `Rapo' game.  The first degree of this game is often played at parties between members of the opposite sex where it is termed `flirting'.  The second degree of `Rapo' is where there is third party who has a vested interest in the female member of the game.  This game can also be a part of a larger game termed `Let's you and him fight'.  The third degree of Rapo is where the game becomes violent and can lead to the death of one or more people involved in the game.\footnote{insert footnote here}  To play Rapo, Eochaid's Daughter needs to have other game players.  Mael Forthartaig attempts to end the game by leaving for Scotland.  This is often the route taken by heroes in early Irish literature to gain experience and come back fully formed to face the dangers left behind in Ireland but in this instance, those experiences do not save Mael Forthartaig.\footnote{insert footnote here}
78 80
 
79  
-Mael Forthartaig can only remain in Scotland temporarily before he must return to Ireland to face Eochaid's Daughter.  At this point, Eochaid's Daughter uses a rouse to entrap Mael Forthartaig.  She sends her handmaiden to him and they spend the night together.\footnote{insert footnote here}  This is another attempt to force Mael Forthartaig to play Rapo with her.  At this point, Mael Fothartaig agrees to meet with Eochaid's Daughter on a hill for a tryst.  At this point, Congal becomes involved.  While on her way to meet Mael Forthartaig, Eochaid's Daughter meets Congal who verbally abuses her.\footnote{insert footnote here}  On the Drama Triangle, Congal is the Savior; Mael Forthartaig is the Victim; and Eochaid's Daughter is the Persecutor.
  81
+Mael Forthartaig can only remain in Scotland temporarily before he must return to Ireland to face Eochaid's Daughter.  At this point, Eochaid's Daughter uses a rouse to entrap Mael Forthartaig.  She sends her handmaiden to him and they spend the night together.\footnote{insert footnote here}  This is another attempt to force Mael Forthartaig to play `Rapo' with her.  At this point, Mael Fothartaig agrees to meet with Eochaid's Daughter on a hill for a tryst.  At this point, Congal becomes involved.  While on her way to meet Mael Forthartaig, Eochaid's Daughter meets Congal who verbally abuses her.\footnote{insert footnote here}  On the Drama Triangle, Congal is the Savior; Mael Forthartaig is the Victim; and Eochaid's Daughter is the Persecutor.
80 82
 
81  
-At this point, it would be instructive to discuss why Eochaid's Daughter is persisting in her attempt to get Mael Fothartaig to play Rapo with her. First, the narrative depends on her being persistent in her attempts.  In terms of literary critque, it is often necessary to exaggerate psychological flaws to have an impact upon the reader.  Thus, in reality, games of the third degree, such as this, are quite rare but, for the narrative to work on the reader, games of the third degree are more common.  On the other hand, the symptomatology of Rapo also drives the narrative.  Eochaid's Daughter's Archeopsyche is sexually excited by Mael Fothartaig and, as their ages correspond, she has more in common with him than  R\'{o}n\'{a}in.  The Archeopsyche has contaminated the Neopsyche so that rational decision making on her part is now impossible.  Berne determined that this kind of contamination causes delusional behavior, which is, at this point in the story, what is driving Eochaid's Daughter to their ultimate doom.\footnote{insert footnote here}  Moreover, her Archeopsyche is cathecated most of the time and is making decisions where the Neopsyche or Exteropsyche should be cathecated.
  83
+At this point, it would be instructive to discuss why Eochaid's Daughter is persisting in her attempt to get Mael Fothartaig to play `Rapo' with her. First, the narrative depends on her being persistent in her attempts.  In terms of literary critque, it is often necessary to exaggerate psychological flaws to have an impact upon the reader.  Thus, in reality, games of the third degree, such as this, are quite rare but, for the narrative to work on the reader, games of the third degree are necessary.  On the other hand, the symptomatology of `Rapo' also drives the narrative.  Eochaid's Daughter's Archeopsyche is sexually excited by Mael Fothartaig and, as their ages correspond, she has more in common with him than R\'{o}n\'{a}in.  The Archeopsyche has contaminated the Neopsyche so that rational decision making on her part is now impossible.  Berne determined that this kind of contamination causes delusional behavior, which is, at this point in the story, what is driving Eochaid's Daughter to their ultimate doom.\footnote{insert footnote here}  Moreover, her Archeopsyche is cathecated most of the time and is making decisions where the Neopsyche or Exteropsyche should be cathecated.
82 84
 
83 85
 Another method of analysing this portion of the story is that Eochaid's Daughter wishes to have Mael Fothartaig so that she could secure her place after the eventual death of R\'{o}n\'{a}in.  This strategy is strongly suggested by other stories in Early Irish literature.  In this case, Medb is the candidate archetype as in one story concerning her states that she had one man in the kingship and another in waiting.\footnote{insert footnote here}
84 86
 
85 87
 The climax of the story happens swiftly after the incident on the hill.  Mael forthartaig returns to his father's house after spending time on the hill waiting for Eochaid's Daughter.  R\'{o}n\'{a}in's court is all around him, including, fatally, his jester and his wife.  After the banquet, Eochaid's Daughter, the jester,\footnote{For the role of the jester, \cite{Poppe1993}.} and Mael Fothartaig engage in, the now famous, verse capping episode.  During this, Eochaid's Daughter accuses Mael Fothartaig of having sexual relations with her.  This causes R\'{o}n\'{a}in to kill his son and subsequently kill Eochaid's Daughter which causes the down fall of his kingdom as her father takes revenge on R\'{o}n\'{a}in.
86 88
 
87  
-With her attempts to ensnare Mael Fothartaig now irreparably damaged by Congal's interference, she now enters Rapo's endgame by, interestingly TA terms, a game within a game, the verse capping.  She uses R\'{o}n\'{a}in to kill Mael Fothartaig and, in the process, kill herself.\footnote{For a differing understanding of this episode, see \cite{Poppe1996}.}    Whether she knows her own demise is coming or not is up to learned interpretation, however, killing Mael Fothartaig and causing massive social disruption is her main objective at this point in the narrative.\footnote{For textual problems surrounding R\'{o}n\'{a}in's lament for his dead son, see \cite{Uhlich2006}.}
  89
+With her attempts to ensnare Mael Fothartaig now irreparably damaged by Congal's interference, she now enters Rapo's endgame by, interestingly TA terms, a game within a game, the verse capping.  She uses R\'{o}n\'{a}in to kill Mael Fothartaig and, in the process, kill herself.\footnote{For a differing understanding of this episode, see \cite{Poppe1996}.}  Whether she knows her own demise is coming or not depends on learned interpretation, however, killing Mael Fothartaig and causing massive social disruption is her main objective at this point in the narrative.\footnote{For textual problems surrounding R\'{o}n\'{a}in's lament for his dead son, see \cite{Uhlich2006}.}
88 90
 
89 91
 \section{TA, the Author, and \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in}}
90 92
 
91  
-Taking a step back, the author of \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} has adroitly used two TA games, Rapo and `Let's you and him fight', and the Drama Triangle to move the plot forward.  While we cannot ascribe knowledge to the author of \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in}, the themes are broad enough that applying TA theory can reveal reasonable results about the structure of the tale and the motivations of the characters within it.
  93
+Taking a step back, the author of \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} has adroitly used two TA games, `Rapo' and `Let's you and him fight',\footnote{insert footnote here} and the Drama Triangle to move the plot forward.  While we cannot ascribe knowledge of TA to the author of \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in}, the themes are broad enough that applying TA theory can reveal reasonable results about the structure of the tale and the motivations of the characters within it.
  94
+
  95
+We can now turn our attension not on to story itself but upon the scribe/author.  First, \emph{fingal} `kin-slaying', while typical in the dynastic struggles and recorded in the annals,\footnote{insert footnote here} was the most difficult of situations in early Irish law, which states that the perpetrator of \emph{fingal} would be placed in a boat and sent out to sea as it incumbent upon God to decide the fate of the kin-slayer.\footnote{insert footnote here}  While this might have pertained to those non-\emph{nemed} kin-slayers, in the world of kings, bishops, and poets, it was more acceptable because of their exemption to the normal apparatus of early Irish law.\footnote{insert footnote here}  Why then write a story which uses a class which is not subject to the normal legal process and place upon them the social conundrum of \emph{fingal}?
  96
+
  97
+The author/scribe places this situation in the realm of social \'{e}lite adds tension and interest to the story for those not of the same social standing.  However, the story was recorded by one of those \'{e}ilte themselves, namely a scribe in an early Irish monastery.  This gives a different hue to the proceedings as related in the tale.  While the foregoing is true, stories such as \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} would probably have formed some of the entertainment option at a local or regional \emph{oenach} thus the story was written by a member of the social \'{e}lite but its intended audience could have included those in attendance at a formal or informal social occasion.
  98
+
  99
+Second, the author/scribe places the story in the pre-Christian era.  This gives the story the penumbra of tradition and antique truth, which was important to early Irish society.\footnote{insert footnote here}  In addition, it distances the audience from their normal political and social surroundings into an abstract reflection of the same.  This gives the audience the space to enjoy the story for its own merits while allowing them to interpret the story in light of their own lives.\footnote{insert footnote here}
  100
+
  101
+Third, while the legal niceties of \emph{fingal} were conveniently removed from the story through the use of \emph{nemed}-class characters, the social problems of \emph{fingal} in relation to the story are clearly the focus of the story for the audience.  The fear of \emph{fingal} was an ever present danger.  This is especially true in a society in which the relationship between foster-brothers was held in high esteem and genetic brothers were threats.\footnote{insert footnote here}  Thus the combination of motifs, including sex, and fear is what made this story compelling for the author and the audience.
92 102
 
93 103
 \section{Conclusion}
94 104
 
  105
+As is shown above, using psychoanalytic methods on early Irish literature with judicious use can be a fruitful line of enquiry.  TA is but one of many well-known and well studied areas in literary criticism.  One of the larger methodological problems inherent in the process of using psychoanalytic methods is that psychoanalysis is a modern invention.  While many modern ideas and thoughts can be used to understand phenomena in early Ireland, psychoanalysis is one of the more troubling as it enforces a universality in the past which scholars have no physical access.  Thus, conclusions arrived at in this fashion are always open to critique.
  106
+
  107
+\emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} lends itself neatly into the use of psychoanalysis as it is short enough to be analysable in the whole while it is detailed enough concerning the characters that their personalities are recognisable.  While other early Irish stories may not lend themselves to this style of analysis because of the stock or archetypal characters who recite a long litany of lists to other characters, \emph{Fingal R\'{o}n\'{a}in} shows a deftness of touch when describing characters and their dialogue.  However, this should not detain scholars from using insights from psychoanalysis in its many guises to analyse early Irish prose narrative.
  108
+
95 109
 \singlespace
96 110
 
97 111
 \printbibliography

No commit comments for this range

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.