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# Cython Top Level
import os, sys, re, codecs
if sys.version_info[:2] < (2, 4):
sys.stderr.write("Sorry, Cython requires Python 2.4 or later\n")
import Errors
# Do not import Parsing here, import it when needed, because Parsing imports
# Nodes, which globally needs debug command line options initialized to set a
# conditional metaclass. These options are processed by CmdLine called from
# main() in this file.
# import Parsing
import Version
from Scanning import PyrexScanner, FileSourceDescriptor
from Errors import PyrexError, CompileError, error, warning
from Symtab import ModuleScope
from Cython import Utils
import Options
module_name_pattern = re.compile(r"[A-Za-z_][A-Za-z0-9_]*(\.[A-Za-z_][A-Za-z0-9_]*)*$")
verbose = 0
class CompilationData(object):
# Bundles the information that is passed from transform to transform.
# (For now, this is only)
# While Context contains every pxd ever loaded, path information etc.,
# this only contains the data related to a single compilation pass
# pyx ModuleNode Main code tree of this compilation.
# pxds {string : ModuleNode} Trees for the pxds used in the pyx.
# codewriter CCodeWriter Where to output final code.
# options CompilationOptions
# result CompilationResult
class Context(object):
# This class encapsulates the context needed for compiling
# one or more Cython implementation files along with their
# associated and imported declaration files. It includes
# the root of the module import namespace and the list
# of directories to search for include files.
# modules {string : ModuleScope}
# include_directories [string]
# future_directives [object]
# language_level int currently 2 or 3 for Python 2/3
cython_scope = None
def __init__(self, include_directories, compiler_directives, cpp=False,
language_level=2, options=None, create_testscope=True):
# cython_scope is a hack, set to False by subclasses, in order to break
# an infinite loop.
# Better code organization would fix it.
import Builtin, CythonScope
self.modules = {"__builtin__" : Builtin.builtin_scope}
self.cython_scope = CythonScope.create_cython_scope(self)
self.modules["cython"] = self.cython_scope
self.include_directories = include_directories
self.future_directives = set()
self.compiler_directives = compiler_directives
self.cpp = cpp
self.options = options
self.pxds = {} # full name -> node tree
standard_include_path = os.path.abspath(os.path.normpath(
os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), os.path.pardir, 'Includes')))
self.include_directories = include_directories + [standard_include_path]
self.gdb_debug_outputwriter = None
def set_language_level(self, level):
self.language_level = level
if level >= 3:
from Future import print_function, unicode_literals, absolute_import
self.future_directives.update([print_function, unicode_literals, absolute_import])
self.modules['builtins'] = self.modules['__builtin__']
# pipeline creation functions can now be found in
def process_pxd(self, source_desc, scope, module_name):
import Pipeline
if isinstance(source_desc, FileSourceDescriptor) and source_desc._file_type == 'pyx':
source = CompilationSource(source_desc, module_name, os.getcwd())
result_sink = create_default_resultobj(source, self.options)
pipeline = Pipeline.create_pyx_as_pxd_pipeline(self, result_sink)
result = Pipeline.run_pipeline(pipeline, source)
pipeline = Pipeline.create_pxd_pipeline(self, scope, module_name)
result = Pipeline.run_pipeline(pipeline, source_desc)
return result
def nonfatal_error(self, exc):
return Errors.report_error(exc)
def find_module(self, module_name,
relative_to = None, pos = None, need_pxd = 1, check_module_name = True):
# Finds and returns the module scope corresponding to
# the given relative or absolute module name. If this
# is the first time the module has been requested, finds
# the corresponding .pxd file and process it.
# If relative_to is not None, it must be a module scope,
# and the module will first be searched for relative to
# that module, provided its name is not a dotted name.
debug_find_module = 0
if debug_find_module:
print("Context.find_module: module_name = %s, relative_to = %s, pos = %s, need_pxd = %s" % (
module_name, relative_to, pos, need_pxd))
scope = None
pxd_pathname = None
if check_module_name and not module_name_pattern.match(module_name):
if pos is None:
pos = (module_name, 0, 0)
raise CompileError(pos,
"'%s' is not a valid module name" % module_name)
if "." not in module_name and relative_to:
if debug_find_module:
print("...trying relative import")
scope = relative_to.lookup_submodule(module_name)
if not scope:
qualified_name = relative_to.qualify_name(module_name)
pxd_pathname = self.find_pxd_file(qualified_name, pos)
if pxd_pathname:
scope = relative_to.find_submodule(module_name)
if not scope:
if debug_find_module:
print("...trying absolute import")
scope = self
for name in module_name.split("."):
scope = scope.find_submodule(name)
if debug_find_module:
print("...scope =", scope)
if not scope.pxd_file_loaded:
if debug_find_module:
print("...pxd not loaded")
scope.pxd_file_loaded = 1
if not pxd_pathname:
if debug_find_module:
print("...looking for pxd file")
pxd_pathname = self.find_pxd_file(module_name, pos)
if debug_find_module:
print("......found ", pxd_pathname)
if not pxd_pathname and need_pxd:
package_pathname = self.search_include_directories(module_name, ".py", pos)
if package_pathname and package_pathname.endswith(''):
error(pos, "'%s.pxd' not found" % module_name)
if pxd_pathname:
if debug_find_module:
print("Context.find_module: Parsing %s" % pxd_pathname)
rel_path = module_name.replace('.', os.sep) + os.path.splitext(pxd_pathname)[1]
if not pxd_pathname.endswith(rel_path):
rel_path = pxd_pathname # safety measure to prevent printing incorrect paths
source_desc = FileSourceDescriptor(pxd_pathname, rel_path)
err, result = self.process_pxd(source_desc, scope, module_name)
if err:
raise err
(pxd_codenodes, pxd_scope) = result
self.pxds[module_name] = (pxd_codenodes, pxd_scope)
except CompileError:
return scope
def find_pxd_file(self, qualified_name, pos):
# Search include path for the .pxd file corresponding to the
# given fully-qualified module name.
# Will find either a dotted filename or a file in a
# package directory. If a source file position is given,
# the directory containing the source file is searched first
# for a dotted filename, and its containing package root
# directory is searched first for a non-dotted filename.
pxd = self.search_include_directories(qualified_name, ".pxd", pos, sys_path=True)
if pxd is None: # XXX Keep this until Includes/Deprecated is removed
if (qualified_name.startswith('python') or
qualified_name in ('stdlib', 'stdio', 'stl')):
standard_include_path = os.path.abspath(os.path.normpath(
os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), os.path.pardir, 'Includes')))
deprecated_include_path = os.path.join(standard_include_path, 'Deprecated')
pxd = self.search_include_directories(qualified_name, ".pxd", pos)
if pxd:
name = qualified_name
if name.startswith('python'):
warning(pos, "'%s' is deprecated, use 'cpython'" % name, 1)
elif name in ('stdlib', 'stdio'):
warning(pos, "'%s' is deprecated, use 'libc.%s'" % (name, name), 1)
elif name in ('stl'):
warning(pos, "'%s' is deprecated, use 'libcpp.*.*'" % name, 1)
if pxd is None and Options.cimport_from_pyx:
return self.find_pyx_file(qualified_name, pos)
return pxd
def find_pyx_file(self, qualified_name, pos):
# Search include path for the .pyx file corresponding to the
# given fully-qualified module name, as for find_pxd_file().
return self.search_include_directories(qualified_name, ".pyx", pos)
def find_include_file(self, filename, pos):
# Search list of include directories for filename.
# Reports an error and returns None if not found.
path = self.search_include_directories(filename, "", pos,
if not path:
error(pos, "'%s' not found" % filename)
return path
def search_include_directories(self, qualified_name, suffix, pos,
include=False, sys_path=False):
return Utils.search_include_directories(
tuple(self.include_directories), qualified_name, suffix, pos, include, sys_path)
def find_root_package_dir(self, file_path):
return Utils.find_root_package_dir(file_path)
def check_package_dir(self, dir, package_names):
return Utils.check_package_dir(dir, tuple(package_names))
def c_file_out_of_date(self, source_path):
c_path = Utils.replace_suffix(source_path, ".c")
if not os.path.exists(c_path):
return 1
c_time = Utils.modification_time(c_path)
if Utils.file_newer_than(source_path, c_time):
return 1
pos = [source_path]
pxd_path = Utils.replace_suffix(source_path, ".pxd")
if os.path.exists(pxd_path) and Utils.file_newer_than(pxd_path, c_time):
return 1
for kind, name in self.read_dependency_file(source_path):
if kind == "cimport":
dep_path = self.find_pxd_file(name, pos)
elif kind == "include":
dep_path = self.search_include_directories(name, pos)
if dep_path and Utils.file_newer_than(dep_path, c_time):
return 1
return 0
def find_cimported_module_names(self, source_path):
return [ name for kind, name in self.read_dependency_file(source_path)
if kind == "cimport" ]
def is_package_dir(self, dir_path):
return Utils.is_package_dir(dir_path)
def read_dependency_file(self, source_path):
dep_path = Utils.replace_suffix(source_path, ".dep")
if os.path.exists(dep_path):
f = open(dep_path, "rU")
chunks = [ line.strip().split(" ", 1)
for line in f.readlines()
if " " in line.strip() ]
return chunks
return ()
def lookup_submodule(self, name):
# Look up a top-level module. Returns None if not found.
return self.modules.get(name, None)
def find_submodule(self, name):
# Find a top-level module, creating a new one if needed.
scope = self.lookup_submodule(name)
if not scope:
scope = ModuleScope(name,
parent_module = None, context = self)
self.modules[name] = scope
return scope
def parse(self, source_desc, scope, pxd, full_module_name):
if not isinstance(source_desc, FileSourceDescriptor):
raise RuntimeError("Only file sources for code supported")
source_filename = source_desc.filename
scope.cpp = self.cpp
# Parse the given source file and return a parse tree.
f = Utils.open_source_file(source_filename, "rU")
import Parsing
s = PyrexScanner(f, source_desc, source_encoding = f.encoding,
scope = scope, context = self)
tree = Parsing.p_module(s, pxd, full_module_name)
except UnicodeDecodeError, e:
#import traceback
line = 1
column = 0
msg = e.args[-1]
position = e.args[2]
encoding = e.args[0]
for idx, c in enumerate(open(source_filename, "rb").read()):
if c in (ord('\n'), '\n'):
line += 1
column = 0
if idx == position:
column += 1
error((source_desc, line, column),
"Decoding error, missing or incorrect coding=<encoding-name> "
"at top of source (cannot decode with encoding %r: %s)" % (encoding, msg))
if Errors.num_errors > 0:
raise CompileError
return tree
def extract_module_name(self, path, options):
# Find fully_qualified module name from the full pathname
# of a source file.
dir, filename = os.path.split(path)
module_name, _ = os.path.splitext(filename)
if "." in module_name:
return module_name
names = [module_name]
while self.is_package_dir(dir):
parent, package_name = os.path.split(dir)
if parent == dir:
dir = parent
return ".".join(names)
def setup_errors(self, options, result):
Errors.reset() # clear any remaining error state
if options.use_listing_file:
result.listing_file = Utils.replace_suffix(source, ".lis")
path = result.listing_file
path = None
def teardown_errors(self, err, options, result):
source_desc = result.compilation_source.source_desc
if not isinstance(source_desc, FileSourceDescriptor):
raise RuntimeError("Only file sources for code supported")
result.num_errors = Errors.num_errors
if result.num_errors > 0:
err = True
if err and result.c_file:
Utils.castrate_file(result.c_file, os.stat(source_desc.filename))
except EnvironmentError:
result.c_file = None
def create_default_resultobj(compilation_source, options):
result = CompilationResult()
result.main_source_file = compilation_source.source_desc.filename
result.compilation_source = compilation_source
source_desc = compilation_source.source_desc
if options.output_file:
result.c_file = os.path.join(compilation_source.cwd, options.output_file)
if options.cplus:
c_suffix = ".cpp"
c_suffix = ".c"
result.c_file = Utils.replace_suffix(source_desc.filename, c_suffix)
return result
def run_pipeline(source, options, full_module_name=None, context=None):
import Pipeline
source_ext = os.path.splitext(source)[1]
options.configure_language_defaults(source_ext[1:]) # py/pyx
if context is None:
context = options.create_context()
# Set up source object
cwd = os.getcwd()
abs_path = os.path.abspath(source)
full_module_name = full_module_name or context.extract_module_name(source, options)
if options.relative_path_in_code_position_comments:
rel_path = full_module_name.replace('.', os.sep) + source_ext
if not abs_path.endswith(rel_path):
rel_path = source # safety measure to prevent printing incorrect paths
rel_path = abs_path
source_desc = FileSourceDescriptor(abs_path, rel_path)
source = CompilationSource(source_desc, full_module_name, cwd)
# Set up result object
result = create_default_resultobj(source, options)
if options.annotate is None:
# By default, decide based on whether an html file already exists.
html_filename = os.path.splitext(result.c_file)[0] + ".html"
if os.path.exists(html_filename):
line =, "r", encoding="UTF-8").readline()
if line.startswith(u'<!-- Generated by Cython'):
options.annotate = True
# Get pipeline
if source_ext.lower() == '.py' or not source_ext:
pipeline = Pipeline.create_py_pipeline(context, options, result)
pipeline = Pipeline.create_pyx_pipeline(context, options, result)
context.setup_errors(options, result)
err, enddata = Pipeline.run_pipeline(pipeline, source)
context.teardown_errors(err, options, result)
return result
# Main Python entry points
class CompilationSource(object):
Contains the data necesarry to start up a compilation pipeline for
a single compilation unit.
def __init__(self, source_desc, full_module_name, cwd):
self.source_desc = source_desc
self.full_module_name = full_module_name
self.cwd = cwd
class CompilationOptions(object):
Options to the Cython compiler:
show_version boolean Display version number
use_listing_file boolean Generate a .lis file
errors_to_stderr boolean Echo errors to stderr when using .lis
include_path [string] Directories to search for include files
output_file string Name of generated .c file
generate_pxi boolean Generate .pxi file for public declarations
recursive boolean Recursively find and compile dependencies
timestamps boolean Only compile changed source files. If None,
defaults to true when recursive is true.
verbose boolean Always print source names being compiled
quiet boolean Don't print source names in recursive mode
compiler_directives dict Overrides for pragma options (see
evaluate_tree_assertions boolean Test support: evaluate parse tree assertions
language_level integer The Python language level: 2 or 3
cplus boolean Compile as c++ code
def __init__(self, defaults = None, **kw):
self.include_path = []
if defaults:
if isinstance(defaults, CompilationOptions):
defaults = defaults.__dict__
defaults = default_options
options = dict(defaults)
directives = dict(options['compiler_directives']) # copy mutable field
options['compiler_directives'] = directives
if 'language_level' in directives and 'language_level' not in kw:
options['language_level'] = int(directives['language_level'])
def configure_language_defaults(self, source_extension):
if source_extension == 'py':
if self.compiler_directives.get('binding') is None:
self.compiler_directives['binding'] = True
def create_context(self):
return Context(self.include_path, self.compiler_directives,
self.cplus, self.language_level, options=self)
class CompilationResult(object):
Results from the Cython compiler:
c_file string or None The generated C source file
h_file string or None The generated C header file
i_file string or None The generated .pxi file
api_file string or None The generated C API .h file
listing_file string or None File of error messages
object_file string or None Result of compiling the C file
extension_file string or None Result of linking the object file
num_errors integer Number of compilation errors
compilation_source CompilationSource
def __init__(self):
self.c_file = None
self.h_file = None
self.i_file = None
self.api_file = None
self.listing_file = None
self.object_file = None
self.extension_file = None
self.main_source_file = None
class CompilationResultSet(dict):
Results from compiling multiple Pyrex source files. A mapping
from source file paths to CompilationResult instances. Also
has the following attributes:
num_errors integer Total number of compilation errors
num_errors = 0
def add(self, source, result):
self[source] = result
self.num_errors += result.num_errors
def compile_single(source, options, full_module_name = None):
compile_single(source, options, full_module_name)
Compile the given Pyrex implementation file and return a CompilationResult.
Always compiles a single file; does not perform timestamp checking or
return run_pipeline(source, options, full_module_name)
def compile_multiple(sources, options):
compile_multiple(sources, options)
Compiles the given sequence of Pyrex implementation files and returns
a CompilationResultSet. Performs timestamp checking and/or recursion
if these are specified in the options.
# run_pipeline creates the context
# context = options.create_context()
sources = [os.path.abspath(source) for source in sources]
processed = set()
results = CompilationResultSet()
recursive = options.recursive
timestamps = options.timestamps
if timestamps is None:
timestamps = recursive
verbose = options.verbose or ((recursive or timestamps) and not options.quiet)
context = None
for source in sources:
if source not in processed:
if context is None:
context = options.create_context()
if not timestamps or context.c_file_out_of_date(source):
if verbose:
sys.stderr.write("Compiling %s\n" % source)
result = run_pipeline(source, options, context=context)
results.add(source, result)
# Compiling multiple sources in one context doesn't quite
# work properly yet.
context = None
if recursive:
for module_name in context.find_cimported_module_names(source):
path = context.find_pyx_file(module_name, [source])
if path:
"Cannot find .pyx file for cimported module '%s'\n" % module_name)
return results
def compile(source, options = None, full_module_name = None, **kwds):
compile(source [, options], [, <option> = <value>]...)
Compile one or more Pyrex implementation files, with optional timestamp
checking and recursing on dependecies. The source argument may be a string
or a sequence of strings If it is a string and no recursion or timestamp
checking is requested, a CompilationResult is returned, otherwise a
CompilationResultSet is returned.
options = CompilationOptions(defaults = options, **kwds)
if isinstance(source, basestring) and not options.timestamps \
and not options.recursive:
return compile_single(source, options, full_module_name)
return compile_multiple(source, options)
# Main command-line entry point
def setuptools_main():
return main(command_line = 1)
def main(command_line = 0):
args = sys.argv[1:]
any_failures = 0
if command_line:
from CmdLine import parse_command_line
options, sources = parse_command_line(args)
options = CompilationOptions(default_options)
sources = args
if options.show_version:
sys.stderr.write("Cython version %s\n" % Version.version)
if options.working_path!="":
result = compile(sources, options)
if result.num_errors > 0:
any_failures = 1
except (EnvironmentError, PyrexError), e:
sys.stderr.write(str(e) + '\n')
any_failures = 1
if any_failures:
# Set the default options depending on the platform
default_options = dict(
show_version = 0,
use_listing_file = 0,
errors_to_stderr = 1,
cplus = 0,
output_file = None,
annotate = None,
generate_pxi = 0,
working_path = "",
recursive = 0,
timestamps = None,
verbose = 0,
quiet = 0,
compiler_directives = {},
evaluate_tree_assertions = False,
emit_linenums = False,
relative_path_in_code_position_comments = True,
c_line_in_traceback = True,
language_level = 2,
gdb_debug = False,
compile_time_env = None,
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