In general, Cython compiled modules are a lot faster than with Pyrex, as Cython specialises the generated code much better and thus generates more optimal code. Major examples include loops or function argument unpacking.
Just like in python.
[expr(x) for x in A if predicate(x)] is available, implementing the full specification at http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0202/ . Set and dict comprehensions, as introduced in Python 3.0, are equally supported. In Python 2.3, set comprehensions will automatically use the implementation in the
sets module, whereas later Python versions will use the faster builtin type.
Looping is optimized if A is a list or tuple. The for ... from syntax is also available, e.g.
[i*i for i from 0 <= i < 10]
As of Cython 0.13, inlined generator expressions are supported in some cases, so that these will work:
a = sum(i*i for i in range(100)) b = any(x for x in seq) c = all(t for t in tuples if len(t) > 0) d = list(items for items in seq) # same for set/dict
Note that generator expressions are not supported in general, except for the special cases above.
Conditional expressions as described in http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0308/
X if C else Y
Only one of X and Y is evaluated, (depending on the value of C).
Cython implements PEP 3132 (see http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3132/). You can therefore do
a, *b, c = [1,2,3,4,5,6]
which is equivalent to
a,b,c = 1, [2,3,4,5], 6
This works for any iterable on the right hand side.
Module level functions can now be declared inline, with the inline keyword passed on to the c compiler. These can be as fast as macros.
cdef inline int something_fast(int a, int b): return a*a+b
Note that class-level cdef functions are handled via a virtual function table, so the compiler won't be able to inline them in almost all cases.
In Pyrex, one must write
cdef int i, j, k i = 2 j = 5 k = 7
Now, with cython, one can write
cdef int i = 2, j = 5, k = 7
The expression on the right hand side can be arbitrarily complicated, e.g.
cdef int n = python_call(foo(x,y), a+b+c) - 32
for i from 0 <= i < 10 by 2: print i
0 2 4 6 8
Note also the range conversion below, which is preferred over the for-from syntax.
This will convert statements of the form
for i in range(...)
for i from ... when i is any cdef'd integer type, and the direction
(i.e. sign of step) can be determined.
WARNING: This may change the semantics if the range causes assignment to
i to overflow. Specifically, if this option is set, an error will be
raised before the loop is entered, whereas without this option the loop
will execute until a overflowing value is encountered. If this affects you,
Cython/Compiler/Options.py (eventually there will be a better
way to set this).
In c, ints are used for truth values. In python, any object can be used as a truth value (using the
__nonzero__ method), but the canonical choices are the two boolean objects True and False. The
bint of "boolean int" object is compiled to a c int, but get coerced to and from Cython as booleans. The return type of comparisons and several builtins is a bint as well. This allows one to avoid having to wrap things in bool().
For example, one can write
def is_equal(x): return x == y
which would return 1 or 0 in Pyrex, but returns True or False in python. One can declare variables and return values for functions to be of the bint type. For example
cdef int i = x cdef bint b = x
The first conversion would happen via
x.__int__() wheras the second would happen via
x.__nonzero__(). (Actually, if x is the python object True or False then no method call is made.)
Including a working classmethod
cdef class Blah: def some_method(self): print self some_method = classmethod(some_method) a = 2*3 print "hi", a
Runtime checks for (exact) lists and tuples are created and, if true, macros are used rather than generic API for element access, etc.
Cython adds a third function type on top of the usual
cdef. If a function is declared
cpdef it can be called from and overridden by both extension and normal python subclasses.
You can essentially think of a cpdef method as a cdef method + some extras. (That's how it's implemented at least.) First, it creates a def method that does nothing but call the underlying cdef method (and does argument unpacking/coercion if needed). At the top of the cdef method a little bit of code is added to check to see if it's overridden. Specifically, in pseudocode
if type(self) has a __dict__: foo = self.getattr('foo') if foo is not wrapper_foo: return foo(args) [cdef method body]
To detect whether or not a type has a dictionary, it just checks the
tp_dictoffset slot, which is NULL (by default) for
extension types, but non-
null for instance classes. If the dictionary exists, it does a single
attribute lookup and can tell (by comparing pointers) whether or not
the returned result is actually a new function. If, and only if, it
is a new function, then the arguments are packed into a tuple and the
method is called. This is all very fast.
A flag is set so this lookup does not occur if one calls the method on the class directly, e.g.
cdef class A: cpdef foo(self): pass x = A() x.foo() # will check to see if overridden A.foo(x) # will call A's implementation whether overridden or not
See EarlyBindingForSpeed for explanation and usage tips.
In Pyrex, if one types
<int>x where x is a Python object, one will get the memory address of x. Likewise, if one types
<object>i where i is a C int, one will get an "object" at location i in memory. This leads to confusing results and segfaults.
<type>x will try and do a coercion (as would happen on assignment of
x to a variable of type
type) if exactly one of the types is a python object. It does not stop one from casting where there is no conversion (though it will emit a warning). If one really wants the address, cast to a
void * first.
As in Pyrex
<MyExtensionType>x will cast
x to type
MyExtensionType without any type checking. Cython supports the syntax
<MyExtensionType?> to do the cast with type checking (i.e. it will throw an error if
x is not a (subclass of)
Cython now supports optional arguments for cdef and cpdef functions.
The syntax in the
.pyx file remains as in Python, but one declares such functions in the
.pxd file by writing
cdef foo(x=*). The number of arguments may increase on subclassing, but the argument types and order must remain the same.
There is a slight performance penalty in some cases when a cdef/cpdef function without any optional is overridden with one that does have default argument values.
For example, one can have the
cdef class A: cdef foo(self) cdef class B(A) cdef foo(self, x=*) cdef class C(B): cpdef foo(self, x=*, int k=*)
cdef class A: cdef foo(self): print "A" cdef class B(A) cdef foo(self, x=None) print "B", x cdef class C(B): cpdef foo(self, x=True, int k=3) print "C", x, k
Note: this also demonstrates how cpdef functions can override cdef functions.
Functions declared in structs are automatically converted to function pointers for convenience (especially handy when defining C++ classes).
(Thanks to Felix Wu)
cdef functions can now be declared as
cdef int foo(...) except + cdef int foo(...) except +TypeError cdef int foo(...) except +python_error_raising_function
in which case a Python exception will be raised when a C++ error is caught. See WrappingCPlusPlus for more details.
cdef import from means the same thing as
cdef extern from
Cython supports PEP 3120 and PEP 263, i.e. you can start your Cython source file with an encoding comment and generally write your source code in UTF-8. This impacts the encoding of byte strings and the conversion of unicode string literals like
u'abcd' to unicode objects.
Rather than introducing a new keyword
typecheck as explained in the Pyrex docs at http://www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/greg.ewing/python/Pyrex/version/Doc/Manual/special_methods.html, Cython emits a (non-spoofable and faster) typecheck whenever isinstance is used with an extension type as the second parameter.