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Bitwarden self-hosted on Google Cloud for Free

Bitwarden installation optimized for Google Cloud's 'always free' e2-micro compute instance

Note: if you follow these instructions the end product is a self-hosted instance of Bitwarden running in the cloud and will be free unless you exceed the 1GB egress per month or have egress to China or Australia. I talk about best practices to help avoid China/AUS egress, but there's a chance you can get charges from that so please keep that in mind.

This is a quick-start guide. Read about this project in more detail here.


Features

  • Bitwarden self-hosted
  • Automatic https certificate management through Caddy 2 proxy
  • Dynamic DNS updates through ddclient
  • Blocking brute-force attempts with fail2ban
  • Country-wide blocking through iptables and ipset

Pre-requisites

Before you start, ensure you have the following:

  1. A Google Cloud account
  2. A Cloudflare-managed DNS site with an A record ready for Bitwarden

f1-micro -> e2-micro migration

As of 1 August 2021, Google added the e2-micro machine type to the free tier. Google has contacted existing f1-micro users with a suggestion to upgrade to the more powerful e2-micro type (details in this reddit thread). Upgrading existing f1-micro instances running bitwarden_gcloud is easy can be accomplished following steps at the bottom of this README.

Step 1: Set up Google Cloud e2-micro Compute Engine Instance

Google Cloud offers an 'always free' tier of their Compute Engine with one virtual core and ~600 MB of RAM (about 150 MB free depending on which OS you installed). Vaultwarden runs well under these constraints; it's written in Rust and an ideal candidate for a micro instance.

Go to Google Compute Engine and open a Cloud Shell. You may also create the instance manually following the constraints of the free tier. In the Cloud Shell enter the following command to build the properly spec'd machine:

$ gcloud compute instances create bitwarden \
    --machine-type e2-micro \
    --zone us-central1-a \
    --image-project cos-cloud \
    --image-family cos-stable \
    --boot-disk-size=30GB \
    --tags http-server,https-server \
    --scopes compute-rw

You may change the zone to be closer to you or customize the name (bitwarden), but most of the other values should remain the same.

Next, create firewall rules to allow traffic to your VM. Bitwarden only serves encrypted traffic over HTTPS, but port 80 is needed for the Let's Encrypt challenges served by Caddy:

$ gcloud compute firewall-rules create bitwarden-http-ingress --action allow --target-tags http-server --rules tcp:80
$ gcloud compute firewall-rules create bitwarden-https-ingress --action allow --target-tags https-server --rules tcp:443

Step 2: Pull and Configure Project

Enter a shell on the new instance and clone this repo:

$ git clone https://github.com/dadatuputi/bitwarden_gcloud.git
$ cd bitwarden_gcloud

Set up the docker-compose alias by using the included script:

$ sh utilities/install-alias.sh
$ source ~/.bashrc
$ docker-compose --version
docker-compose version 1.25.5, build 8a1c60f

Configure Environmental Variables with .env

I provide .env.template which should be copied to .env and filled out; filling it out is self-explanitory and requires certain values such as a domain name, Cloudflare API tokens, etc. Be aware that there is an optional backup section that allows you to have an encrypted backup regularly backed up and emailed or synced to cloud storage. More documentation on this feature is available here.

Configure fail2ban (optional)

fail2ban stops brute-force attempts at your vault. To configure how long a ban is and how many attempts will trigger a ban, edit fail2ban/jail.d/jail.local:

bantime = 6h <- how long to enforce the ip ban
maxretry = 5  <- number of times to retry until a ban occurs

This will work out of the box - no fail2ban configuration is needed unless you want e-mail alerts of bans. To enable this, enter the SMTP settings in .env, and follow the instructions in fail2ban/jail.d/jail.local by uncommenting and entering destemail and sender and uncommenting the action_mwl action in the bitwarden and bitwarden-admin jails in the same file.

Configure Country-wide Blocking (optional)

The countryblock container will block ip addresses from countries specified in .env under COUNTRIES. China, Hong Kong, and Australia (CN, HK, AU) are blocked by default because Google Cloud will charge egress to those countries under the free tier. You may add any country you like to that list, or clear it out entirely if you don't want to block those countries. Be aware, however, you'll probably be charged for any traffic to those countries, even from bots or crawlers.

This country-wide blocklist will be updated daily at midnight, but you can change the COUNTRYBLOCK_SCHEDULE variable in .env to suit your needs.

These block-lists are pulled from <www.ipdeny.com> on each update.

Configure Automatic Rebooting After Updates (optional)

Container-Optimized OS will automatically update itself, but the update will only be applied after a reboot. In order to ensure that you are using the most current operating system software, you can set a boot script that waits until an update has been applied to schedule a reboot.

Before you start, ensure you have compute-rw scope for your bitwarden compute vm. If you used the gcloud command above, it includes that scope. If not, go to your Google Cloud console and edit the "Cloud API access scopes" to have "Compute Engine" show "Read Write". You need to shut down your compute vm in order to change this.

Modify the script to set your local timezone and the time to schedule reboots: set the TZ= and TIME= variables in utilities/reboot-on-update.sh. By default the script will schedule reboots for 06:00 UTC.

From within your compute vm console, type the command toolbox. From within toolbox, find the utilities folder within bitwarden_gcloud. toolbox mounts the host filesystem under /media/root, so go there to find the folder. It will likely be in /media/root/home/<google account name>/bitwarden_gcloud/utilities - cd to that folder.

Next, use gcloud to add the reboot-on-update.sh script to your vm's boot script metadata with the add-metadata command:

gcloud compute instances add-metadata <instance> --metadata-from-file startup-script=reboot-on-update.sh

You can confirm that your startup script has been added in your instance details under "Custom metadata" on the Compute Engine Console.

Next, restart your vm with the command $ sudo reboot. Once your vm has rebooted, you can confirm that the startup script was run with the command:

$ sudo journalctl -u google-startup-scripts.service

Now the script will wait until a reboot is pending and then schedule a reboot for the time configured in the script.

Step 3: Start Services

To start up, use docker-compose:

$ docker-compose up

You can now use your browser to visit your new Bitwarden site.

f1-micro to e2-micro Migration

Follow these steps to migrate from the previous free tier f1-micro to the new free tier e2-micro.

  1. Shut down your VM instance
  2. Edit the vm instance to machine type e2-micro using the google cloud GUI or cloud shell.
  3. Boot the VM again and everything should start as before.

Note that after shutting down and booting the new machine type, it may take a while for the DNS record's TTL to expire and point to the new IP which gets changed after a shutdown.

Notes

For a pure Cloudflare approach, see this issue.

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Bitwarden installation optimized for Google Cloud's 'always free' f1-micro compute instance

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