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Canister is a simple plugin for bottle, providing:

  • formatted logs
  • url and form params unpacking
  • sessions (server side) based on a session_id cookie
  • authentication through basic auth or bearer token (OAuth2)
  • CORS for cross-domain REST APIs


Usually (no dependency except bottle):

pip install canister

...or download the single file

However, if you plan to use JWT/OAuth2:

pip install canister[jwt]


import bottle
import canister
from canister import session

app = bottle.Bottle()

def index(foo=None):
    if 'counter' in['counter'] += 1
    else:['counter'] = 0
    return '''
            Session sid: %s
            Session user: %s
            Session data: %s 
            "?foo=...": %s
    ''' % (session.sid, session.user,, foo)


If not otherwise configured, logs will be written in the logs directory. They look like this:

2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   ============
2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   Initializing
2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   ============
2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   python version: 3.4.3 (default, Oct 14 2015, 20:28:29) 
2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   bottle version: 0.12.9
2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   ------------------------------------------
2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   ...all config params...
2016-07-02 09:38:31,022 INFO     [MainThread]   ------------------------------------------
2016-07-02 09:38:33,216 INFO     []   GET http://localhost:8080/
2016-07-02 09:38:33,216 INFO     []   Session id: VJ8zq5Gq55cVstAJg4zcC2E1
2016-07-02 09:38:33,217 INFO     []   Response: 200 (1ms)

You will get one such log file each day, like log.2016-07-02, for the last 30 days.

You can also log messages in your code like this:

def index():'Hey!')
    return 'Ho!'

The logging uses the common logging module and is thread safe. When serving requests, the corresponding thread also gets renamed according to the client IP and the start of its session ID. This can be seen in the logs [] in order to be able to easely follow client-server "discussions" over a longer timespan.

You can also tweak logging settings in the config:


# The logs directory
log_path = ./logs/

log_level = INFO

# Log older than that will be deleted
log_days = 30

URL and form params unpacking

Using canister, all URL parameters and form POST parameters are automatically unpacked.


def hello(foo, bar=''):
    if bar:
        return 'Hi %s and %s!' % (foo, bar)
        return 'Hi %s!' % foo

When requesting http://.../hi?foo=John&bar=Smith, the response will be Hi John Smith!.

In this example, the foo parameter is mandatory, and the bar parameter is optional since it has a default value.

If a mandatory argument is missing, an Exception will be throw.


Sessions are kept server side in memory and identified through a HTTP-only cookie with a session_id.

The session data is simply a python dictionary:

import bottle
import canister
from canister import session

def index():
    if 'counter' in['counter'] += 1
    else:['counter'] = 0
    # ...

Since a server never knows when a user quits, sessions simply time out after some time. By default, they expire after an hour, but this can be fine tuned in the config:


# how long the session data will still be available after the last access, in seconds
session_timout = 3600

One more note about sessions: it's in-memory. Therefore sessions are lost when you stop/restart/crash the server. Also, for large data or long durability, use a DB, not sessions.


Canister will automatically parse two kind of Authorization headers:

  • Basic authentication (for basic login/password)
  • JWT / Bearer token authentication (for OAuth2)

See the example configuration above to see how it is configured.

The user will then be available in canister.session.user for the duration of the session. In case of basic authentication, user will be the username. If it is JWT authentication (OAuth2), user will contain the profile with the requested attributes.


If you have REST APIs, enabling CORS can be quite useful.


# applies CORS to responses, write * to allow AJAX requests from anywhere
CORS = *

If enabled through the config, they will be applied to all responses!

Sample config file


# ...due to limitations of bottle's plugin mechanism,

# Logs
log_path = ./logs/
log_level = INFO
log_days = 30

# how long the session data will still be available after the last access, in seconds
session_timout = 3600

# applies CORS to responses, write * to allow AJAX requests from anywhere
#CORS = *

# Basic auth
auth_basic_username = alice
auth_basic_encryption = clear
auth_basic_password = my-secret

# ...or alternatively, if you dislike putting your plain text password in the config:
# auth_basic_encryption = sha256
# auth_basic_password = 186ef76e9d6a723ecb570d4d9c287487d001e5d35f7ed4a313350a407950318e

# Auth using JWT (for OAuth2)
auth_jwt_client_id = ABC
# accepted encodings are "clear", "base64std" or "base64url"
auth_jwt_encoding = base64url
auth_jwt_secret = my-secret

Security ABC

  • use HTTPS
  • be aware of CSRF
  • don't enable CORS if you don't need to


a bottle wrapper to provide logging, sessions and authentication







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