Migrations Plugin for CakePHP
Version 2.1 for cake 2.x
This migrations plugin enables developers to quickly and easily manage and migrate between database schema versions.
As an application is developed, changes to the database may be required, and managing that in teams can get extremely difficult. Migrations enables you to share and co-ordinate database changes in an iterative manner, removing the complexity of handling these changes.
- Unzip or clone this plugin into your app/Plugin/Migrations folder or the shared plugins folder for your CakePHP installation.
- Add the plugin to your app/Config/bootstrap.php using
Console/cake Migrations.migration run all -p Migrationsto initialized the
Generating your first migration
The first step to adding migrations to an existing database is to import the database's structure into a format the migrations can work with. Namely a migration file. To create the first migration file run the following command:
cake Migrations.migration generate
Answer the questions asked, and it will generate a new file containing a database structure snapshot using the internal migration's plugin syntax. If you want import all tables regardless if it has a model or not you can use -f (force) parameter while running the command:
cake Migrations.migration generate -f
After generating or being supplied a set of migrations, you can process them to change the state of your database.
This is the crux of the migrations plugin, allowing migration of schemas up and down the migration chain, offering flexibility and easy management of your schema and data states.
Runing all pending migrations
To get all pending changes into your database run:
cake Migrations.migration run all
Reseting your database
cake Migrations.migration run reset
Downgrade to previous version
cake Migrations.migration run down
Upgrade to next version
cake Migrations.migration run up
Running migrations for plugins
cake Migrations.migration run all --plugin Users
Getting the status of available/applied Migrations
cake Migrations.migration status
Migration shell return codes
0 = Success 1 = No migrations available 2 = Not a valid migration version
Auto migration files ###
Once you have Generated your first Migration you will probably do more changes to your database. To simplify the generation of new migration you can do Schema Diffs. To this, you need to follow the steps:
- Generate your first Migration (if haven't generated yet)
- Generate a schema file with
cake schema generate
- Do changes to your database using your favorite tool
- Generate a new migration file doing
cake Migrations.migration generate
Manually creating migration files
If you prefer full control over your changes, or do not want to mess with sql at all you have the option to manually create your migration files. First create a blank migration doing:
cake Migrations.migration generate
And skip the databse to schema comparison if asked. Then open the newly created file under
The file must be filled using the migration directives as follows:
Create table is used for the creation of new tables in your database. Note that migrations will generate errors if the specified table already exists in the database. Directives exist (Drop, Rename) to deal with existing tables before proceeding with table creation.
'create_table' => array( 'categories' => array( 'id' => array( 'type' =>'string', 'null' => false, 'default' => NULL, 'length' => 36, 'key' => 'primary'), 'name' => array( 'type' =>'string', 'null' => false, 'default' => NULL), 'indexes' => array( 'PRIMARY' => array( 'column' => 'id', 'unique' => 1) ) ), 'emails' => array( 'id' => array( 'type' => 'string', 'length ' => 36, 'null' => false, 'key' => 'primary'), 'data' => array( 'type' => 'text', 'null' => false, 'default' => NULL), 'sent' => array( 'type' => 'boolean', 'null' => false, 'default' => '0'), 'error' => array( 'type' => 'text', 'default' => NULL), 'created' => array( 'type' => 'datetime'), 'modified' => array( 'type' => 'datetime'), 'indexes' => array( 'PRIMARY' => array( 'column' => 'id', 'unique' => 1) ) ) );
Drop table is used for removing tables from the schema. Directives exist Create, Rename to handle other table based migration operations.
'drop_table' => array( 'categories', 'emails' )
Changes the name of a table in the database. Directives exist (Create, Drop) to handle creation and deletion of tables.
'rename_table' => array( 'categories' => 'groups', 'emails' => 'email_addresses' )
Create Field is used to add fields to an existing table in the schema. Note that migrations will generate errors if the specified field already exists in the table. Directives exist (Drop, Rename, Alter) to deal with existing fields before proceeding with field addition.
'create_field' => array( 'categories' => array( 'created' => array( 'type' => 'datetime'), 'modified' => array( 'type' => 'datetime') ) )
Drop field is used for removing fields from existing tables in the schema. Directives exist (Create, Rename, Alter) to handle other field based migration operations.
'drop_field' => array( 'categories' => array( 'created', 'modified'), 'emails' => array( 'error') )
Changes the field properties in an existing table. Note that partial table specifications are passed, which is a subset of a full array of Table data. These are the fields that are to be modified as part of the operation. If you wish to leave some fields untouched, simply exclude them from the Table spec for the alter operation. Directives exist (Create, Drop, Rename) to handle other field operations.
'alter_field' => array( 'categories' => array( 'length' => 11 ) )
Changes the name of a field on a specified table in the database. Directives exist (Create, Drop, Alter) to handle creation and deletion of fields.
'rename_field' => array( 'categories' => array( 'name' => 'title' ), 'emails' => array( 'error' => 'error_code', 'modified' => 'updated' ), )
In order to add a new index to an existing field, you need to drop the field and create it again passing the index definition in an array.
'drop_field' => array( 'posts' => array('title') ), 'create_field' => array( 'posts' => array( 'title' => array('type' => 'string', 'length' => 255, 'null' => false), 'indexes' => array('UNIQUE_TITLE' => array('column' => 'title', 'unique' => true)) ) )
Likewise, if you want to drop an index then you need to drop the field including the indexes you want to drop, then you create the field again.
'drop_field' => array( 'posts' => array('title', 'indexes' => array('UNIQUE_TITLE')) ), 'create_field' => array( 'posts' => array( 'title' => array('type' => 'string', 'null' => true, 'length' => 255) ) )
- PHP version: PHP 5.2+
- CakePHP version: 2.1
For support and feature request, please visit the Migrations Plugin Support Site.
For more information about our Professional CakePHP Services please visit the Cake Development Corporation website.
The master branch holds the STABLE latest version of the plugin. Develop branch is UNSTABLE and used to test new features before releasing them.
Previous maintenance versions are named after the CakePHP compatible version, for example, branch 1.3 is the maintenance version compatible with CakePHP 1.3. All versions are updated with security patches.
Contributing to this Plugin
Please feel free to contribute to the plugin with new issues, requests, unit tests and code fixes or new features. If you want to contribute some code, create a feature branch from develop, and send us your pull request. Unit tests for new features and issues detected are mandatory to keep quality high.
Copyright 2009-2011, Cake Development Corporation
Licensed under The MIT License
Redistributions of files must retain the above copyright notice.