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\documentclass[dvipdfm]{book}
\newcommand{\VolumeName}{Volume 4: Axiom Developers Guide}
\input{bookheader.tex}
\mainmatter
\setcounter{chapter}{0} % Chapter 1
\begin{quote}
Confronting every new programmer learning a new language are
\begin{itemize}
\item The Cave of Artifacts
\item The Forest of Tooling
\item The Mountain of Language
\item The Cloud Castle of Mindset
\end{itemize}
-- Daniel Higginbotham in Clojure for the Brave and True
\end{quote}
\section{What is the purpose of the HACKPI domain?}
HACKPI is a hack provided for the benefit of the axiom interpreter.
As a mathematical type, it is the simple transcendental extension
\verb|Q(\pi)| of the rational numbers. This type allows interactive
users to use the name \verb|'%pi'| without a type both where a numerical
value is expected [ as in \verb|draw(sin x,x=-%pi..%pi)| ] or when the
exact symbolic value is meant. The interpreter defaults a typeless
\verb|%pi| to HACKPI and then uses the various conversions to cast it
further as required by the context.
One could argue that it is unfair to single \verb|%pi| out from other
constants, but it occurs frequently enough in school examples
(specially for graphs) so it was worth a special hack. In a
non-interactive environment (library), HACKPI would not exist.
(Manuel Bronstein)
\section{How Axiom Builds}
\subsection{The environment variables}
Axiom uses a tree of Makefiles to build the system. Each Makefile
is created from the literate file (Makefile.pamphlet) and then executed.
In order to have a complete set of variables we create an ``environment''
that contains all of the shell variables (except the AXIOM variable).
These can be changed on the command line at the time of the top level
``make'' command. One common usage pattern is to override the NOISE
variable. This variable controls whether we see the full output or just
the echo of each individual step. Sometimes a build fails at a step and
we would like to know the details. By default they are written to
\verb|$TMP/trace| but we can watch every detail with the command line:
\begin{verbatim}
make NOISE=
\end{verbatim}
This overrides the output file and writes everything to the console.
Another common usage pattern is to override the tests that are run.
By default, all tests are run. This can be very time consuming.
A particular subset can be run or, using the option ``notests'', none
will be run:
\begin{verbatim}
make TESTSET=notests
\end{verbatim}
\begin{verbatim}
AWK=gawk
BOOKS=/research/test/books
BYE=bye
CC=gcc
CCF=-O2 -fno-strength-reduce -Wall -D_GNU_SOURCE -DLINUXplatform
-I/usr/X11/include
COMMAND=/usr/local/axiom/mnt/ubuntu/bin/axiom
DAASE=/research/test/src/share
DESTDIR=/usr/local/axiom
DOCUMENT=/research/test/mnt/ubuntu/bin/document
GCLDIR=/research/test/lsp/gcl-2.6.8pre4
GCLOPTS=--enable-vssize=65536*2 --enable-locbfd --disable-dynsysbfd
--disable-statsysbfd --enable-maxpage=512*1024 --disable-xgcl
--disable-tkconfig
GCLVERSION=gcl-2.6.8pre4
INC=/research/test/src/include
INT=/research/test/int
LDF= -L/usr/X11R6/lib -L/usr/lib -lXpm
LISP=lsp
LSP=/research/test/lsp
MNT=/research/test/mnt
NOISE=-o /research/test/obj/tmp/trace
O=o
OBJ=/research/test/obj
PART=cprogs
PATCH=patch
PLF=LINUXplatform
RANLIB=ranlib
RUNTYPE=serial
SPAD=/research/test/mnt/
SPADBIN=/research/test/mnt/ubuntu/bin
SPD=/research/test
SRC=/research/test/src
SRCDIRS=interpdir sharedir algebradir etcdir clefdir docdir graphdir
smandir hyperdir browserdir inputdir
SUBPART=everything
SYS=ubuntu
TANGLE=/research/test/mnt/ubuntu/bin/lib/notangle
TAR=tar
TESTSET=none
TMP=/research/test/obj/tmp
TOUCH=touch
UNCOMPRESS=gunzip
VERSION=Axiom (May 2010)
WEAVE=/research/test/mnt/ubuntu/bin/lib/noweave
XLIB=/usr/X11R6/lib
ZIPS=/research/test/zips
\end{verbatim}
\section{The runtime structure of Axiom}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{ps/v4architecture.eps}\\
{\bf Runtime Structure \cite{Bake14}}
\end{center}
\subsection{The build step}
This shows the steps taken to build Axiom in the sequence they happen.
Each level of indentation is another level of Makefile being executed.
\begin{verbatim}
Makefile
1 noweb
2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
3 extract Makefile.SYS from Makefile.pamphlet
4 latex SRC/input/*.input.pamphlet
5 extract SRC/algebra/Makefile.help from SRC/algebra/Makefile.pamphlet
5a make SRC/algebra/Makefile.help parallelhelp
5a1 extract syntax help from BOOKS/bookvol5
5a2 extract help files from BOOKS/bookvol10.*
6 extract BOOKS/Makefile from BOOKS/Makefile.pamphlet
6a make BOOKS/Makefile
6a1 copy SRC/scripts/tex/axiom.sty to AXIOM/doc
6a2 create AXIOM/doc/*.pdf
6a2a copy book*.pamphlet to AXIOM/doc
6a2b extract latex for each book
6a2c latex each book
6a2d dvipdfm each dvi file
6a3 make AXIOM/doc/toc.pdf
7 extract AXIOM/doc/hypertex/Makefile1 from BOOKS/bookvol11
7a make AXIOM/doc/hypertex/Makefile1
7a1 extract all xhtml pages to AXIOM/doc/hypertex
7a2 extract axiom1.bitmap from BOOK/bookvol11
7a3 extract rcm3720.input from BOOK/bookvol11
7a4 extract strang.input from BOOK/bookvol11
7a5 extract signatures.txt from BOOK/bookvol11
7a6 copy BOOKS/ps/doctitle.png to AXIOM/doc/hypertex
7a7 copy BOOKS/ps/lightbayou.png to AXIOM/doc/hypertex
8 make Makefile.SYS
8a create the root directories
8b create noweb if needed
8c extract SRC/Makefile from SRC/Makefile.pamphlet
8d make SRC/Makefile setup
8d1 extract SRC/scripts/Makefile from SRC/scripts/Makefile.pamphlet
8d2 make SRC/scripts/Makefile
8d1a copy all scripts to AXIOM/bin
8d3 extract SRC/lib/Makefile from SRC/lib/Makefile.pamphlet
8d4 make SRC/lib/Makefile
8d4a compile INT/lib/bsdsignal.c
8d4b compile INT/lib/cursor.c
8d4c compile INT/lib/edin.c
8d4d compile INT/lib/fnct-key.c
8d4e compile INT/lib/halloc.c
8d4f compile INT/lib/openpty.c
8d4g compile INT/lib/pixmap.c
8d4h compile INT/lib/prt.c
8d4i compile INT/lib/sockio-c.c
8d4j compile INT/lib/spadcolors.c
8d4k compile INT/lib/util.c
8d4l compile INT/lib/wct.c
8d4m compile INT/lib/xdither.c
8d4n compile INT/lib/xshade.c
8d4o compile INT/lib/xspadfill.c
8d4p create libspad.a
8d4q compile INT/lib/cfuns-c.c
8d4r compile INT/lib/hash.c
8d4s latex all files to INT/doc/src/lib
8e extract LSP/Makefile from LSP/Makefile.pamphlet
8f make LSP/Makefile gcldir
8f1 untar ZIPS/gcl
8f2 apply Axiom patches to gcl
8f3 copy gcl_collectfn.lsp to OBJ/SYS/lsp
8f4 copy sys-proclaim.lisp to OBJ/SYS/lsp
8f5 make LSP/GCLVERSION/Makefile
8f6 add BOOKS/tangle.lsp to gcl to create INT/SYS/lisp
8g make SRC/Makefile
8g1 make stanzas from SRCDIRS
8g1a interpdir
8g1a1 copy bookvol5 to src/interp
8g1a2 copy bookvol9 to src/interp
8g1a3 copy bookvol10.5 to src/interp
8g1a4 extract util.ht from BOOKS/bookvol7.1 to AXIOM/doc
8g1a5 make SRC/interp/Makefile
8g1a5a build SAVESYS=OBJ/SYS/bin/interpsys
8g1a5a1 build DEPSYS=OBJ/SYS/bin/depsys
8g1a5a2 compile all interp files
8g1a5a3 call build-interpsys to make SAVESYS
8g1a5a4 build warm.data
8g1a5a5 build SAVESYS
8g1a5a6 copy SAVESYS to AXIOMSYS=AXIOM/bin/AXIOMsys
8g1b sharedir
8g1b1 make share/Makefile
8g1b1a copy SRC/share/algebra/command.list to AXIOM/lib
8g1c algebradir
8g1c1 extract algebra/Makefile from SRC/algebra/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1c2 copy bookvol10.2 to SRC/algebra
8g1c3 copy bookvol10.3 to SRC/algebra
8g1c4 copy bookvol10.4 to SRC/algebra
8g1c5 copy bookvol10.5 to SRC/algebra
8g1c6 extract 'findAlgebraFiles'
from SRC/algebra/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1c7 execute findAlgebraFiles and append output
to SRC/algebra/Makefile
8g1c8 make SRC/algebra/Makefile
8g1c8a build INT/algebra nrlibs
8g1c8b copy SRC/algebra/libdb.text to AXIOM/algebra
8g1c8c construct AXIOM/bin/index.html
8g1c8d copy SRC/share/algebra/gloss.text AXIOM/algebra
8g1c8e copy SRC/share/algebra/glossdef.text AXIOM/algebra
8g1c8f copy SRC/share/algebra/glosskey.text AXIOM/algebra
8g1d etcdir
8g1d1 extract SRC/etc/Makefile from SRC/etc/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1d2 make etc/Makefile
8g1d2a copy SRC/doc/gloss.text INT/algebra
8g1d2b copy SRC/doc/topics.data INT/algebra
8g1d2c call make-databases
8g1d2b copy INT/algebra/*.daase AXIOM/algebra
8g1d2e compile asq.c
8g1d2f copy OBJ/SYS/etc/asq AXIOM/bin
8g1d2g copy SRC/etc/summary AXIOM/lib
8g1d2h copy SRC/etc/copyright AXIOM/lib
8g1e clefdir
8g1e1 extract SRC/clef/Makefile from SRC/clef/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1e2 make clef/Makefile
8g1e2a extract edible.c to OBJ/SYS/clef
8g1e2b compile OBJ/SYS/clef/edible.c
8g1e2c link edible, fnct-key, edin, bsdsignal, prt, wct,
openpty, cursor into AXIOM/bin/clef
8g1f docdir
8g1f1 extract SRC/doc/Makefile from SRC/doc/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1f2 make SRC/doc/Makefile
8g1f2a extract SRC/doc/axiom.bib to INT/doc
8g1f2b extract SRC/doc/axiom.sty to AXIOM/bin/tex
8g1f2c extract SRC/doc/refcard.dvi to AXIOM/doc
8g1f2d extract SRC/doc/endpaper.dvi to AXIOM/doc
8g1f2e copy SRC/doc/ps/* to AXIOM/doc/ps
8g1f2f extract SRC/doc/rosetta.dvi to AXIOM/doc
8g1f2g extract SRC/doc/booklet.c to INT
8g1f2h compile booklet.c
8g1f2i copy booklet to AXIOM/bin
8g1g graphdir
8g1g1 extract SRC/graph/Makefile from BOOKS/bookvol8.pamphlet
8g1g2 make graph/Makefile
8g1g2a compile and link AXIOM/lib/viewman
8g1g2b compile and link AXIOM/lib/view2d
8g1g2c compile and link AXIOM/lib/view3d
8g1g2d compile and link AXIOM/lib/viewalone
8g1g2e extract AXIOM/graph/parabola.view from bookvol8
8g1g2f extract psfiles from bookvol8 to AXIOM/lib/graph
8g1h smandir
8g1h1 extract SRC/sman/Makefile from BOOKS/bookvol6.pamphlet
8g1h2 make sman/Makefile
8g1h2a extract INT/sman/session.c from bookvol6
8g1h2b compile INT/sman/session.c to OBJ/SYS/sman/session.o
8g1h2c link OBJ/SYS/sman/session.o to AXIOM/lib/session
8g1h2d extract INT/sman/spadclient.c from bookvol6
8g1h2e compile INT/sman/spadclient.c
to OBJ/SYS/sman/spadclient.o
8g1h2f link OBJ/SYS/sman/spadclient.o to AXIOM/lib/spadclient
8g1h2g extract INT/sman/sman.c from bookvol6
8g1h2h compile INT/sman/sman.c to OBJ/SYS/sman/sman.o
8g1h2i link OBJ/SYS/sman/sman.o to AXIOM/lib/sman
8g1h2j extract axiom shell script from bookvol6 to AXIOM/bin
8g1h2k chmod axiom shell script to be executable
8g1h2l create AXIOM/doc/bookvol6.dvi
8g1i hyperdir
8g1i1 extract INT/hyper/Makefile from BOOKS/bookvol7.pamphlet
8gli2 make INT/hyper/Makefile (to make hyperdoc)
8g1i2a extract and compile AXIOM/lib/spadbuf
8g1i2b extract and compile AXIOM/lib/ex2ht
8g1i2c extract and compile AXIOM/bin/htadd
8g1i2d extract and compile AXIOM/lib/hthits
8g1i2e extract and compile AXIOM/bin/htsearch
8g1i2f extract and compile AXIOM/lib/presea
8g1i2g extract and compile AXIOM/bin/hypertex
8g1i2h untar SPD/books/axbook.tgz to AXIOM/doc
8g1i2j copy SPD/books/bigbayou.png to AXIOM/doc
8g1i2k copy SPD/books/doctitle.png to AXIOM/doc
8g1i3 extract INT/hyper/Makefile from BOOKS/bookvol7.1.pamphlet
8g1i4 make INT/hyper/Makefile (to make hyperdoc pages)
8g1i4a copy SPD/books/bookvol7.1 to AXIOM/doc
8g1i4b htadd pages from AXIOM/doc/bookvol7.1
8g1i4c copy SPD/books/bitmaps AXIOM/doc/bitmaps
8g1i4d copy SPD/books/viewports AXIOM/doc/viewports
8g1i4e untar AXIOM/doc/viewports .Z files
8g1j browserdir
8g1j1 build of hyperdoc browser commented out
8g1k inputdir
8g1k1 extract SRC/input/Makefile from SRC/input/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1k2 make SRC/input/Makefile
8g1k2a copy SRC/input/*.input INT/input
8g1k2b lisp tangle input files from SRC/input/*.input.pamphlet
8g1k2c extract INT/input/Makefile
from SRC/input/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1k2d make INT/input/Makefile TESTSET
8g1k2d1 run regresstests
8g1k2d2 run catstests
8g1k2d3 run richtests
8g1k2d4 run regression tests
8g1k2d5 extract INT/input/Makefile.algebra
from SRC/algebra/Makefile.pamphlet
8g1k2d6 make INT/input/Makefile.algebra
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{Where each output file is created}
Here we show which step in the above set of actions creates the file
that ends up in the final ship directory. We break it down by subdirectory
in the final image.
\subsubsection{AXIOM/algebra}
\begin{verbatim}
in AXIOM/algebra:
*.o
browse.daase
category.daase
compress.daase
dependents.daase
interp.daase
operation.daase
users.daase
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/autoload}
\begin{verbatim}
in AXIOM/autoload:
ax.o
bc-matrix.o
br-con.o
ht-util.o
mark.fn
mark.o
nag-c02.o
nag-c05.o
nag-c06.o
nag-d01.o
nag-d02.o
nag-d03.o
nag-e01.o
nag-e02.o
nag-e04.o
nag-f01.o
nag-f02.o
nag-f04.o
nag-f07.o
nag-s.o
nspadaux.o
pspad1.fn
pspad1.o
pspad2.fn
pspad2.o
topics.o
wi1.fn
wi1.o
wi2.fn
wi2.o
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/bin}
\begin{verbatim}
in AXIOM/bin:
asq 8g1d2f copy OBJ/SYS/etc/asq AXIOM/bin
axiom 8g1h2k chmod axiom shell script to be executable
axiom.sty 6a1 copy SRC/scripts/tex/axiom.sty to AXIOM/doc
AXIOMsys 8g1a5a6 copy SAVESYS to AXIOMSYS=AXIOM/bin/AXIOMsys
booklet 8g1f2i copy booklet to AXIOM/bin
boxhead 2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
boxtail 2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
boxup 2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
clef 8g1e2c link edible, fnct-key, edin, bsdsignal, prt, wct,
openpty, cursor into AXIOM/bin/clef
document 2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
htadd 8g1i2c extract and compile AXIOM/bin/htadd
htsearch 8g1i2e extract and compile AXIOM/bin/htsearch
hypertex 8g1i2g extract and compile AXIOM/bin/hypertex
index.html 8g1c8c construct AXIOM/bin/index.html
lib 1 noweb
btdefn
cpif
emptydefn
finduses
h2a
htmldoc
markup
mnt
nodefs
noidx
noindex
noroff
noroots
notangle
nountangle
noweave
noweb
nt
nuweb2noweb
numtime
pipedocs
tmac.w
toascii
tohtml
toroff
totex
unmarkup
Makefile.pamphlet
man
man1
cpif.1
htmltoc.1
nodefs.1
noindex.1
noroff.1
noroots.1
notangle.1
nountangle.1
noweave.1
noweb.1
nuweb2noweb.1
sl2h.1
man7
nowebfilters.7
nowebstyle.7
showdvi 2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
? sman 8g1h2i link OBJ/SYS/sman/sman.o to AXIOM/lib/sman
SPADEDIT 2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
tex 2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
axiom.sty 8g1f2b extract SRC/doc/axiom.sty to AXIOM/bin/tex
2 copy SRC/scripts to AXIOM/bin
noweb.sty 1 noweb
nwmac.tex 1 noweb
? viewalone 8g1g2d compile and link AXIOM/lib/viewalone
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/doc}
\begin{verbatim}
AXIOM/doc:
axbook
*.xhtml
axiom.sty
bigbayou.png
bitmaps
*.bitmap
bookvol0.out
bookvol0.pdf
bookvol0.toc
bookvol10.1.out
bookvol10.1.pdf
bookvol10.1.toc
bookvol10.2.out
bookvol10.2.pdf
bookvol10.2.toc
bookvol10.3.out
bookvol10.3.pdf
bookvol10.3.toc
bookvol10.4.out
bookvol10.4.pdf
bookvol10.4.toc
bookvol10.5.out
bookvol10.5.pdf
bookvol10.5.toc
bookvol10.out
bookvol10.pdf
bookvol10.toc
bookvol11.out
bookvol11.pdf
bookvol11.toc
bookvol12.out
bookvol12.pdf
bookvol12.toc
bookvol1.out
bookvol1.pdf
bookvol1.toc
bookvol2.out
bookvol2.pdf
bookvol2.toc
bookvol3.out
bookvol3.pdf
bookvol3.toc
bookvol4.out
bookvol4.pdf
bookvol4.toc
bookvol5.out
bookvol5.pdf
bookvol5.toc
bookvol6.out
bookvol6.pdf
bookvol6.toc
bookvol7.out
bookvol7.pdf
bookvol7.toc
bookvol7.1.out
bookvol7.1.pamphlet
bookvol7.1.pdf
bookvol7.1.toc
bookvol8.out
bookvol8.pdf
bookvol8.toc
bookvol9.out
bookvol9.pdf
bookvol9.toc
bookvolbib.pdf
doctitle.png
endpaper.dvi
ht.db
hypertex
*.xhtml
msgs
s2-us.msgs
ps
*.ps
refcard.dvi
rosetta.dvi
spadhelp
*.help
src
? algebra
algebra.Makefile.dvi
books.Makefile.dvi
clef
axiom.sty
edible.c.dvi
clef.Makefile.dvi
doc.Makefile.dvi
etc.Makefile.dvi
? hyper
input
*.input.dvi
input.Makefile.dvi
? interp
interp.Makefile.dvi
lib
*.c.dvi
lib.Makefile.dvi
Makefile.dvi
root.Makefile.dvi
scripts.Makefile.dvi
share.Makefile.dvi
? sman
src.Makefile.dvi
toc.pdf
util.ht
viewports
*.view
data
graph0
image.bm
image.xpm
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/graph}
\begin{verbatim}
AXIOM/graph
parabola.view: 8g1g2e extract AXIOM/graph/parabola.view from bookvol8
data
graph0
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/input}
\begin{verbatim}
AXIOM/input:
*.input files
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/lib}
\begin{verbatim}
AXIOM/lib:
command.list 8g1b1a copy SRC/share/algebra/command.list to AXIOM/lib
copyright 8g1d2h copy SRC/etc/copyright AXIOM/lib
ex2ht 8g1i2b extract and compile AXIOM/lib/ex2ht
graph 8g1g2f extract psfiles from bookvol8 to AXIOM/lib/graph
colorpoly.ps
colorwol.ps
drawarc.ps
drawcolor.ps
drawIstr.ps
drawline.ps
drawlines.ps
drawpoint.ps
draw.ps
drawrect.ps
drawstr.ps
drwfilled.ps
end.ps
fillarc.ps
fillpoly.ps
fillwol.ps
header.ps
setup.ps
hthits 8g1i2d extract and compile AXIOM/lib/hthits
presea 8g1i2f extract and compile AXIOM/lib/presea
session 8g1h2c link OBJ/SYS/sman/session.o to AXIOM/lib/session
spadbuf 8g1i2a extract and compile AXIOM/lib/spadbuf
spadclient 8g1h2f link OBJ/SYS/sman/spadclient.o AXIOM/lib/spadclient
SPADEDIT
summary 8g1d2g copy SRC/etc/summary AXIOM/lib
view2d 8g1g2b compile and link AXIOM/lib/view2d
view3d 8g1g2c compile and link AXIOM/lib/view3d
viewman 8g1g2a compile and link AXIOM/lib/viewman
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/src}
\begin{verbatim}
AXIOM/src:
? algebra
\end{verbatim}
\subsubsection{AXIOM/timestamp}
\begin{verbatim}
AXIOM/timestamp
\end{verbatim}
\section{How Axiom Works}
\subsection{Input and Type Selection}
First we change the default setting for autoload messages to
turn off the noise of file loading from the library:
\begin{verbatim}
(1) -> )set mes auto off
\end{verbatim}
Next we tell the interpreter to show us the modemaps used to
classify input and select types. This is known as ``bottomup''
messages. We can watch the interpreter ponder the input.
\begin{verbatim}
(1) -> )set mes bot on
\end{verbatim}
Now we give it something nontrivial to ponder.
\begin{verbatim}
(1) -> f:=1/(a*x+b)
\end{verbatim}
After parsing the input Axiom begins to figure out the type
of the expression. In this case it starts with the multiply
operator in the denominator.
Axiom has determined that ``a'' is of type VARIABLE and ``x''
is of type VARIABLE. It is looking for function of the form
\begin{verbatim}
VARIABLE * VARIABLE
\end{verbatim}
so it looks in the domain of the left argument ``a'' which is
VARIABLE and does not find the required function. Similarly
it looks in the domain of the right argument ``x'' which is
VARIABLE and, not surprisingly, does not find the required function.
It tried to promote each VARIABLE to SYMBOL and looks for a way
to mulitply VARIABLES and SYMBOLS or SYMBOLS and SYMBOLS. Neither
succeeds.
\begin{verbatim}
Function Selection for *
Arguments: (VARIABLE a,VARIABLE x)
-> no appropriate * found in Variable a
-> no appropriate * found in Variable x
-> no appropriate * found in Symbol
-> no appropriate * found in Variable a
-> no appropriate * found in Variable x
-> no appropriate * found in Symbol
Modemaps from Associated Packages
no modemaps
\end{verbatim}
Since it cannot find a specific modemap that uses the exact types
it now expands the search to look for the general modemaps. It
searches these modemaps in order to try to find one that fits.
\begin{verbatim}
Remaining General Modemaps
[1] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has XFALG(D2,D1) and D2 has ORDSET and D1 has RING
\end{verbatim}
The first match will fail because Symbol does not have RING. We can
determine this by asking the interpreter:
\begin{verbatim}
SYMBOL has RING
(1) false
Type: Boolean
\end{verbatim}
The following modemaps will fail for various similar reasons:
\begin{verbatim}
[2] (D1,D) -> D from D
if D has XFALG(D1,D2) and D1 has ORDSET and D2 has RING
[3] (Integer,D) -> D from D
if D has VECTCAT D2 and D2 has TYPE and D2 has ABELGRP
[4] (D1,D) -> D from D
if D has VECTCAT D1 and D1 has TYPE and D1 has MONOID
[5] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has VECTCAT D1 and D1 has TYPE and D1 has MONOID
[6] (D,D1) -> D1 from D
if D has SMATCAT(D2,D3,D4,D1) and D3 has RING and D4 has
DIRPCAT(D2,D3) and D1 has DIRPCAT(D2,D3)
[7] (D1,D) -> D1 from D
if D has SMATCAT(D2,D3,D1,D4) and D3 has RING and D1 has
DIRPCAT(D2,D3) and D4 has DIRPCAT(D2,D3)
[8] (D,D) -> D from D if D has SGROUP
[9] (D,D1) -> D from D if D has RMODULE D1 and D1 has RNG
[10] (D,D) -> D from D if D has MONAD
[11] (D,D) -> D from D
if D has MATCAT(D1,D2,D3) and D1 has RING and D2 has FLAGG
D1 and D3 has FLAGG D1
[12] (D1,D) -> D from D
if D has MATCAT(D1,D2,D3) and D1 has RING and D2 has FLAGG
D1 and D3 has FLAGG D1
[13] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has MATCAT(D1,D2,D3) and D1 has RING and D2 has FLAGG
D1 and D3 has FLAGG D1
[14] (Integer,D) -> D from D
if D has MATCAT(D2,D3,D4) and D2 has RING and D3 has FLAGG
D2 and D4 has FLAGG D2
[15] (D,D1) -> D1 from D
if D has MATCAT(D2,D3,D1) and D2 has RING and D3 has FLAGG
D2 and D1 has FLAGG D2
[16] (D1,D) -> D1 from D
if D has MATCAT(D2,D1,D3) and D2 has RING and D1 has FLAGG
D2 and D3 has FLAGG D2
[17] ((D5 -> D6),(D4 -> D5)) -> (D4 -> D6) from MappingPackage3(D4,
D5,D6)
if D4 has SETCAT and D5 has SETCAT and D6 has SETCAT
[18] (D1,D) -> D from D if D has LMODULE D1 and D1 has RNG
[19] (PolynomialIdeals(D1,D2,D3,D4),PolynomialIdeals(D1,D2,D3,D4))
-> PolynomialIdeals(D1,D2,D3,D4)
from PolynomialIdeals(D1,D2,D3,D4)
if D1 has FIELD and D2 has OAMONS and D3 has ORDSET and D4
has POLYCAT(D1,D2,D3)
[20] (D1,D) -> D from D
if D has GRMOD(D1,D2) and D1 has COMRING and D2 has ABELMON
[21] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has GRMOD(D1,D2) and D1 has COMRING and D2 has ABELMON
[22] (D1,D2) -> D from D
if D has FMCAT(D1,D2) and D1 has RING and D2 has SETCAT
[23] (D1,D2) -> D from D
if D has FAMONC(D2,D1) and D2 has SETCAT and D1 has CABMON
[24] (Equation D1,D1) -> Equation D1 from Equation D1
if D1 has SGROUP and D1 has TYPE
[25] (D1,Equation D1) -> Equation D1 from Equation D1
if D1 has SGROUP and D1 has TYPE
[26] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has DIRPCAT(D2,D1) and D1 has TYPE and D1 has MONOID
[27] (D1,D) -> D from D
if D has DIRPCAT(D2,D1) and D1 has TYPE and D1 has MONOID
[28] (DenavitHartenbergMatrix D2,Point D2) -> Point D2
from DenavitHartenbergMatrix D2
if D2 has Join(Field,TranscendentalFunctionCategory)
[29] (PositiveInteger,Color) -> Color from Color
[30] (DoubleFloat,Color) -> Color from Color
[31] (CartesianTensor(D1,D2,D3),CartesianTensor(D1,D2,D3)) ->
CartesianTensor(D1,D2,D3)
from CartesianTensor(D1,D2,D3)
if D1: INT and D2: NNI and D3 has COMRING
[32] (PositiveInteger,D) -> D from D if D has ABELSG
[33] (NonNegativeInteger,D) -> D from D if D has ABELMON
[34] (Integer,D) -> D from D if D has ABELGRP
\end{verbatim}
Eventually the interpreter decides that it can coerce Symbol to
Polynomial(Integer). We can do this in the interpreter also:
\begin{verbatim}
a::Symbol::POLY(INT)
(1) a
Type: Polynomial Integer
\end{verbatim}
And the interpreter can find multiply in POLY(INT):
\begin{verbatim}
[1] signature: (POLY INT,POLY INT) -> POLY INT
implemented: slot $$$ from POLY INT
[2] signature: (POLY INT,POLY INT) -> POLY INT
implemented: slot $$$ from POLY INT
\end{verbatim}
We can see this signature exists by asking the interpreter to show
us the domain POLY(INT) (truncated here for brevity):
\begin{verbatim}
)show POLY(INT)
Polynomial Integer is a domain constructor.
Abbreviation for Polynomial is POLY
This constructor is exposed in this frame.
Issue )edit src/algebra/POLY.spad to see algebra source code for POLY
------------------------------- Operations --------------------------------
?*? : (Fraction Integer,%) -> % ?*? : (Integer,%) -> %
?*? : (PositiveInteger,%) -> % ?*? : (%,Fraction Integer) -> %
?*? : (%,Integer) -> % ?*? : (%,%) -> %
\end{verbatim}
Having found multipy the interpreter now starts a search for the operation
\begin{verbatim}
(POLY(INT)) + (VARIABLE)
\end{verbatim}
It cannot find this modemap
\begin{verbatim}
Function Selection for +
Arguments: (POLY INT,VARIABLE b)
-> no appropriate + found in Polynomial Integer
-> no appropriate + found in Variable b
-> no appropriate + found in Variable b
\end{verbatim}
so it promotes VARIABLE to POLY(INT) and finds the operation:
\begin{verbatim}
(POLY(INT)) + (POLY(INT))
\end{verbatim}
\begin{verbatim}
[1] signature: (POLY INT,POLY INT) -> POLY INT
implemented: slot $$$ from POLY INT
\end{verbatim}
Next it tackles the division operation where the numerator is
PI (PositiveInteger) and the denominator is POLY(INT). It tries
to find
\begin{verbatim}
(PI) / (POLY(INT))
\end{verbatim}
in PositiveInteger, Polynomial Integer and Integer. All attempts fail.
\begin{verbatim}
Function Selection for /
Arguments: (PI,POLY INT)
-> no appropriate / found in PositiveInteger
-> no appropriate / found in Polynomial Integer
-> no appropriate / found in Integer
-> no appropriate / found in PositiveInteger
-> no appropriate / found in Polynomial Integer
-> no appropriate / found in Integer
Modemaps from Associated Packages
no modemaps
\end{verbatim}
So now it turns to the general modemaps:
\begin{verbatim}
Remaining General Modemaps
[1] (D,D1) -> D from D if D has VSPACE D1 and D1 has FIELD
[2] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has RMATCAT(D2,D3,D1,D4,D5) and D1 has RING and D4 has
DIRPCAT(D3,D1) and D5 has DIRPCAT(D2,D1) and D1 has FIELD
[3] (D1,D1) -> D from D if D has QFCAT D1 and D1 has INTDOM
[4] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has MATCAT(D1,D2,D3) and D1 has RING and D2 has FLAGG
D1 and D3 has FLAGG D1 and D1 has FIELD
[5] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has LIECAT D1 and D1 has COMRING and D1 has FIELD
[6] (D,D) -> D from D if D has GROUP
[7] (SparseMultivariatePolynomial(D2,Kernel D),
SparseMultivariatePolynomial(D2,Kernel D)) -> D
from D if D2 has INTDOM and D2 has ORDSET and D has FS D2
[8] (Float,Integer) -> Float from Float
[9] (D,D) -> D from D if D has FIELD
[10] (D,D) -> D from D
if D = EQ D1 and D1 has FIELD and D1 has TYPE or D = EQ D1
and D1 has GROUP and D1 has TYPE
[11] (DoubleFloat,Integer) -> DoubleFloat from DoubleFloat
[12] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has AMR(D1,D2) and D1 has RING and D2 has OAMON and D1
has FIELD
\end{verbatim}
it eventually promotes PI to FRAC(POLY(INT)) and
POLY(INT) to FRAC(POLY(INT)) and finds the match:
\begin{verbatim}
(FRAC(POLY(INT))) / (FRAC(POLY(INT)))
\end{verbatim}
We can ask the intepreter to show us this operation (again, the
output is truncated for brevity):
\begin{verbatim}
)show FRAC(POLY(INT))
Fraction Polynomial Integer is a domain constructor.
Abbreviation for Fraction is FRAC
This constructor is exposed in this frame.
Issue )edit src/algebra/FRAC.spad to see algebra source code for FRAC
------------------------------- Operations --------------------------------
?*? : (Fraction Integer,%) -> % ?*? : (Integer,%) -> %
?*? : (PositiveInteger,%) -> % ?*? : (%,Fraction Integer) -> %
?*? : (%,%) -> % ?**? : (%,Integer) -> %
?**? : (%,PositiveInteger) -> % ?+? : (%,%) -> %
?-? : (%,%) -> % -? : % -> %
?/? : (%,%) -> % ?<? : (%,%) -> Boolean
\end{verbatim}
\begin{verbatim}
[1] signature: (FRAC POLY INT,FRAC POLY INT) -> FRAC POLY INT
implemented: slot $$$ from FRAC POLY INT
\end{verbatim}
At this point the interpreter has succeeded in finding a type for
the expression and eventually returns the result badged with the
appropriate type:
\begin{verbatim}
1
(1) -------
a x + b
Type: Fraction Polynomial Integer
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{A simple integral}
Now we will show an integration with successive levels of expansion
of explanation. We will use the expression above:
\begin{verbatim}
(1) -> f:=1/(a*x+b)
1
(1) -------
a x + b
Type: Fraction Polynomial Integer
(2) -> integrate(f,x)
log(a x + b)
(2) ------------
a
Type: Union(Expression Integer,...)
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{A simple integral, expansion 1 interpreter}
\begin{verbatim}
(2) -> integrate(f,x)
\end{verbatim}
Here we assume the previous discussion of modemap handling for the
expression f and we only look at the modemap handling for the integrate
function. We are looking for a modemap of the form:
\begin{verbatim}
integrate(FRAC(POLY(INT)),VARIABLE x)
\end{verbatim}
So first we look in the domains of the arguments, that is, in
Fraction Polynomial Integer, and Variable. Neither one succeeds:
\begin{verbatim}
Function Selection for integrate
Arguments: (FRAC POLY INT,VARIABLE x)
-> no appropriate integrate found in Fraction Polynomial Integer
-> no appropriate integrate found in Variable x
-> no appropriate integrate found in Fraction Polynomial Integer
-> no appropriate integrate found in Variable x
Modemaps from Associated Packages
no modemaps
\end{verbatim}
Next we look at the general modemaps to find one that might work:
\begin{verbatim}
Remaining General Modemaps
[1] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D1 = SYMBOL and D has UTSCAT D2 and D2 has RING and D2
has ACFS INT and D2 has PRIMCAT and D2 has TRANFUN and D2
has ALGEBRA FRAC INT or D1 = SYMBOL and D has UTSCAT D2 and
D2 has RING and D2 has variables: D2 -> List D1 and D2 has
integrate: (D2,D1) -> D2 and D2 has ALGEBRA FRAC INT
[2] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D1 = SYMBOL and D has UPXSCAT D2 and D2 has RING and D2
has ACFS INT and D2 has PRIMCAT and D2 has TRANFUN and D2
has ALGEBRA FRAC INT or D1 = SYMBOL and D has UPXSCAT D2
and D2 has RING and D2 has variables: D2 -> List D1 and D2
has integrate: (D2,D1) -> D2 and D2 has ALGEBRA FRAC INT
[3] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D1 = SYMBOL and D has ULSCAT D2 and D2 has RING and D2
has ACFS INT and D2 has PRIMCAT and D2 has TRANFUN and D2
has ALGEBRA FRAC INT or D1 = SYMBOL and D has ULSCAT D2 and
D2 has RING and D2 has variables: D2 -> List D1 and D2 has
integrate: (D2,D1) -> D2 and D2 has ALGEBRA FRAC INT
[4] (Polynomial D2,Symbol) -> Polynomial D2 from Polynomial D2
if D2 has ALGEBRA FRAC INT and D2 has RING
[5] (D,D1) -> D from D
if D has MTSCAT(D2,D1) and D2 has RING and D1 has ORDSET
and D2 has ALGEBRA FRAC INT
[6] (Fraction Polynomial D4,Symbol) -> Union(Expression D4,List
Expression D4)
from IntegrationResultRFToFunction D4
if D4 has CHARZ and D4 has Join(GcdDomain,RetractableTo
Integer,OrderedSet,LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
[7] (Expression Float,List Segment OrderedCompletion Float) ->
Result
from AnnaNumericalIntegrationPackage
[8] (Expression Float,Segment OrderedCompletion Float) -> Result
from AnnaNumericalIntegrationPackage
[9] (GeneralUnivariatePowerSeries(D2,D3,D4),Variable D3) ->
GeneralUnivariatePowerSeries(D2,D3,D4)
from GeneralUnivariatePowerSeries(D2,D3,D4)
if D3: SYMBOL and D2 has ALGEBRA FRAC INT and D2 has RING
and D4: D2
[10] (D2,Symbol) -> Union(D2,List D2) from FunctionSpaceIntegration(
D4,D2)
if D4 has Join(EuclideanDomain,OrderedSet,
CharacteristicZero,RetractableTo Integer,
LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer) and D2 has Join(
TranscendentalFunctionCategory,PrimitiveFunctionCategory,
AlgebraicallyClosedFunctionSpace D4)
[11] (Fraction Polynomial D4,SegmentBinding OrderedCompletion
Fraction Polynomial D4) -> Union(f1: OrderedCompletion Expression
D4,f2: List OrderedCompletion Expression D4,fail: failed,
pole: potentialPole)
from RationalFunctionDefiniteIntegration D4
if D4 has Join(EuclideanDomain,OrderedSet,
CharacteristicZero,RetractableTo Integer,
LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
[12] (Fraction Polynomial D4,SegmentBinding OrderedCompletion
Expression D4) -> Union(f1: OrderedCompletion Expression D4,f2:
List OrderedCompletion Expression D4,fail: failed,pole:
potentialPole)
from RationalFunctionDefiniteIntegration D4
if D4 has Join(EuclideanDomain,OrderedSet,
CharacteristicZero,RetractableTo Integer,
LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
[13] (D2,SegmentBinding OrderedCompletion D2) -> Union(f1:
OrderedCompletion D2,f2: List OrderedCompletion D2,fail: failed,
pole: potentialPole)
from ElementaryFunctionDefiniteIntegration(D4,D2)
if D2 has Join(TranscendentalFunctionCategory,
PrimitiveFunctionCategory,AlgebraicallyClosedFunctionSpace
D4) and D4 has Join(EuclideanDomain,OrderedSet,
CharacteristicZero,RetractableTo Integer,
LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
\end{verbatim}
Modemap [6] wins because we can construct the first argument
by matching
\begin{verbatim}
Fraction Polynomial Integer
\end{verbatim}
to
\begin{verbatim}
Fraction Polynomial D4
\end{verbatim}
so we can infer that D4 == Integer
\begin{verbatim}
[6] (Fraction Polynomial D4,Symbol) -> Union(Expression D4,List
Expression D4)
from IntegrationResultRFToFunction D4
if D4 has CHARZ and D4 has Join(GcdDomain,RetractableTo
Integer,OrderedSet,LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
\end{verbatim}
Given that match we have two requirements on Integer, both of which
we can check with the interpreter:
\begin{verbatim}
INT has CHARZ
(3) true
Type: Boolean
(4) -> INT has Join(GcdDomain,RetractableTo Integer,OrderedSet,_
LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
(4) true
Type: Boolean
\end{verbatim}
So we have a match
\begin{verbatim}
[1] signature: (FRAC POLY INT,SYMBOL) -> Union(EXPR INT,LIST EXPR INT)
implemented: slot (Union (Expression (Integer))
(List (Expression (Integer))))
(Fraction (Polynomial (Integer)))(Symbol)
from IRRF2F INT
[2] signature: (EXPR INT,SYMBOL) -> Union(EXPR INT,LIST EXPR INT)
implemented: slot (Union (Expression (Integer))
(List (Expression (Integer))))
(Expression (Integer))(Symbol)
from FSINT(INT,EXPR INT)
\end{verbatim}
Now we invoke
\begin{verbatim}
integrate(FRAC(POLY(INT)),SYMBOL) -> Union(EXPR INT,LIST EXPR INT)
from IRRF2F(INT)
integrate(1/(a*x+b),x)
\end{verbatim}
can print the result:
\begin{verbatim}
log(a x + b)
(2) ------------
a
Type: Union(Expression Integer,...)
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{A simple integral, expansion 2 integrate}
Now that we know how the interpreter has matched the input and called
the function we need to follow the first level call into the function.
Axiom provides a trace tool that will allow us to walk into the function
invocation and watch what happens. We will follow this same invocation
path many times, each time we will descend another layer, repeating the
information as we do.
For now, we look at the domain IRRF2F from irexpand.spad.
The categorical definition of this domain reads (we remove parts
of the definition for brevity):
\begin{verbatim}
IntegrationResultRFToFunction(R): Exports == Implementation where
R: Join(GcdDomain, RetractableTo Integer, OrderedSet,
LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
RF ==> Fraction Polynomial R
F ==> Expression R
IR ==> IntegrationResult RF
OF ==> OutputForm
Exports ==> with
expand : IR -> List F
++ expand(i) returns the list of possible real functions
++ corresponding to i.
if R has CharacteristicZero then
integrate : (RF, Symbol) -> Union(F, List F)
++ integrate(f, x) returns the integral of \spad{f(x)dx}
++ where x is viewed as a real variable..
Implementation ==> add
import IntegrationTools(R, F)
import TrigonometricManipulations(R, F)
import IntegrationResultToFunction(R, F)
toEF: IR -> IntegrationResult F
toEF i == map(#1::F, i)$IntegrationResultFunctions2(RF, F)
expand i == expand toEF i
complexExpand i == complexExpand toEF i
if R has CharacteristicZero then
import RationalFunctionIntegration(R)
if R has imaginary: () -> R then
integrate(f, x) == complexIntegrate(f, x)
else
integrate(f, x) ==
l := [mkPrim(real g, x) for g in expand internalIntegrate(f, x)]
empty? rest l => first l
l
@
\end{verbatim}
We can see that this domain constructor takes one argument which, in
this case, is Integer. We've already determined that Integer has the
required Joins:
\begin{verbatim}
(4) -> INT has Join(GcdDomain,RetractableTo Integer,OrderedSet,_
LinearlyExplicitRingOver Integer)
(4) true
Type: Boolean
\end{verbatim}
and we can see that:
\begin{verbatim}
(5) -> INT has CharacteristicZero
(5) true
Type: Boolean
\end{verbatim}
so we can match the signature of integrate:
\begin{verbatim}
integrate(Fraction Polynomial Integer, Symbol) ->
Union(Expression Integer, List Expression Integer)
\end{verbatim}
We can trace this domain and ask to see the output in math form:
\begin{verbatim}
(6) -> )trace IRRF2F )math
Packages traced:
IntegrationResultRFToFunction Integer
Parameterized constructors traced:
IRRF2F
\end{verbatim}
and now, when we do the integration, we see the output of the trace:
\begin{verbatim}
integrate(1/(a*x+b),x)
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.expand,18 :
1 a x + b
arg1= - log(-------)
a a
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.expand,18 :
a x + b
log(-------)
a
[------------]
a
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
log(a x + b)
------------
a
log(a x + b)
(6) ------------
a
Type: Union(Expression Integer,...)
\end{verbatim}
From this we learn that the arguments to integrate are exactly the
arguments we supplied and we know the exact types of the arguments
because they have to match the signature of the function:
\begin{verbatim}
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
integrate(, Symbol) ->
1
arg1= ------- <== Fraction Polynomial Integer
a x + b
arg2= x <== Symbol
\end{verbatim}
and returns the result
\begin{verbatim}
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
log(a x + b)
------------ <== Union(Expression Integer, List Expression Integer)
a
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{A simple integral, expansion 2 internalIntegrate}
If we look at the function definition for integrate:
\begin{verbatim}
integrate(f, x) ==
l := [mkPrim(real g, x) for g in expand internalIntegrate(f, x)]
empty? rest l => first l
l
\end{verbatim}
we can see that there is a call to the function
\begin{verbatim}
internalIntegrate(f, x)
\end{verbatim}
and we can compute the types of the arguments since they are exactly
the types of the integrate function itself:
\begin{verbatim}
internalIntegrate(Fraction Polynomial Integer, Symbol)
\end{verbatim}
and since the return value will be fed to the expand function we
can look at the signature of expand:
\begin{verbatim}
expand: IntegrationResult Fraction Polynomial Integer ->
List Expression Integer
\end{verbatim}
and we can get the full signature for internalIntegrate:
\begin{verbatim}
internalIntegrate(Fraction Polynomial Integer, Symbol) ->
IntegrationResult Fraction Polynomial Integer
\end{verbatim}
This comes from the domain
\begin{verbatim}
RationalFunctionIntegration(F): Exports == Implementation where
F: Join(IntegralDomain, RetractableTo Integer, CharacteristicZero)
\end{verbatim}
where F is Integer.
\begin{verbatim}
SE ==> Symbol
P ==> Polynomial F
Q ==> Fraction P
UP ==> SparseUnivariatePolynomial Q
QF ==> Fraction UP
LGQ ==> List Record(coeff:Q, logand:Q)
UQ ==> Union(Record(ratpart:Q, coeff:Q), "failed")
ULQ ==> Union(Record(mainpart:Q, limitedlogs:LGQ), "failed")
Exports ==> with
internalIntegrate: (Q, SE) -> IntegrationResult Q
++ internalIntegrate(f, x) returns g such that \spad{dg/dx = f}.
Implementation ==> add
import RationalIntegration(Q, UP)
import IntegrationResultFunctions2(QF, Q)
import PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(IndexedExponents SE,
SE, F, P, Q)
internalIntegrate(f, x) ==
map(multivariate(#1, x), integrate univariate(f, x))
\end{verbatim}
If we look the signature for internalIntegrate and expand it we see:
\begin{verbatim}
internalIntegrate: (Q, SE) -> IntegrationResult Q
internalIntegrate: ( Fraction Polynomial Integer, Symbol) ->
IntegrationResult Fraction Polynomial Integer
\end{verbatim}
which is exactly what we need. When we look at the function we see:
\begin{verbatim}
internalIntegrate(f, x) ==
map(multivariate(#1, x), integrate univariate(f, x))
\end{verbatim}
We can watch the function call by tracing INTRF:
\begin{verbatim}
(7) -> )trace INTRF )math
Packages traced:
IntegrationResultRFToFunction Integer,
RationalFunctionIntegration Integer
Parameterized constructors traced:
IRRF2F, INTRF
\end{verbatim}
and we see:
\begin{verbatim}
(7) -> integrate(1/(a*x+b),x)
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
1<enter RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
1>exit RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1 a x + b
- log(-------)
a a
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.expand,18 :
1 a x + b
arg1= - log(-------)
a a
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.expand,18 :
a x + b
log(-------)
a
[------------]
a
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
log(a x + b)
------------
a
log(a x + b)
(7) ------------
a
Type: Union(Expression Integer,...)
\end{verbatim}
Now we see that internalIntegrate was called with the arguments
\begin{verbatim}
1<enter RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1
arg1= ------- <== Fraction Polynomial Integer
a x + b
arg2= x <== Symbol
\end{verbatim}
and returned the values:
\begin{verbatim}
1>exit RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1 a x + b
- log(-------) <== IntegrationResult Fraction Polynomial Integer
a a
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{A simple integral, expansion 3 univariate}
But the internalIntegrate function does its work by calling yet
other functions, the deepest of which is univariate:
\begin{verbatim}
internalIntegrate(f, x) ==
map(multivariate(#1, x), integrate univariate(f, x))
\end{verbatim}
Since univariate uses the arguments to the internalIntegrate function
which has the signature:
\begin{verbatim}
internalIntegrate: ( Fraction Polynomial Integer, Symbol) ->
\end{verbatim}
we can determine that we need a univariate function with the signature:
\begin{verbatim}
univariate: ( Fraction Polynomial Integer, Symbol) ->
\end{verbatim}
This function is found in PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions, POLYCATQ
which has the form:
\begin{verbatim}
PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(E, V, R, P, F):
Exports == Implementation where
E: OrderedAbelianMonoidSup
V: OrderedSet
R: Ring
P: PolynomialCategory(R, E, V)
F: Field with
coerce: P -> %
numer : % -> P
denom : % -> P
UP ==> SparseUnivariatePolynomial F
RF ==> Fraction UP
Exports ==> with
variables : F -> List V
++ variables(f) returns the list of variables appearing
++ in the numerator or the denominator of f.
mainVariable: F -> Union(V, "failed")
++ mainVariable(f) returns the highest variable appearing
++ in the numerator or the denominator of f, "failed" if
++ f has no variables.
univariate : (F, V) -> RF
++ univariate(f, v) returns f viewed as a univariate
++ rational function in v.
Implementation ==> add
P2UP: (P, V) -> UP
univariate(f, x) == P2UP(numer f, x) / P2UP(denom f, x)
P2UP(p, x) ==
map(#1::F,
univariate(p, x))$SparseUnivariatePolynomialFunctions2(P, F)
\end{verbatim}
So we are calling the function:
\begin{verbatim}
univariate: ( Fraction Polynomial Integer, Symbol) ->
Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial Field with
coerce: PolynomialCategory(Ring, OrderedAbelianMonoidSup, OrderedSet) -> %
numer: % -> PolynomialCategory(Ring, OrderedAbelianMonoidSup, OrderedSet)
denom: % -> PolynomialCategory(Ring, OrderedAbelianMonoidSup, OrderedSet)
\end{verbatim}
which we can see by tracing that domain:
\begin{verbatim}
(8) -> )trace POLYCATQ )math
Packages traced:
IntegrationResultRFToFunction Integer,
RationalFunctionIntegration Integer,
PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(IndexedExponents
Kernel Expression Integer,Kernel Expression Integer,
Integer,SparseMultivariatePolynomial(Integer,Kernel
Expression Integer),Expression Integer),
PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(IndexedExponents
Symbol,Symbol,Integer,Polynomial Integer,Fraction
Polynomial Integer)
Parameterized constructors traced:
IRRF2F, INTRF, POLYCATQ
\end{verbatim}
which gives the input:
\begin{verbatim}
1<enter PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions.univariate,16 :
1
arg1= ------- <== Fraction Polynomial Integer
a x + b
arg2= x <== Symbol
\end{verbatim}
and the output
\begin{verbatim}
1>exit PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions.univariate,16 :
1
-
a
----- <== Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial Field with
b coerce: P -> %
? + - numer: % -> P
a denom: % -> P
\end{verbatim}
It should be clear that univariate divided the numerator and
denominator by the leading coefficient of the polynomial in
the denominator. It also replaced ``x'' with the variable ``?''.
\subsection{A simple integral, expansion 4 integrate}
When univariate returns, the results are fed to another integrate,
this time from RationalIntegration (INTRAT). This domain looks like:
\begin{verbatim}
RationalIntegration(F, UP): Exports == Implementation where
F : Join(Field, CharacteristicZero, RetractableTo Integer)
UP: UnivariatePolynomialCategory F
RF ==> Fraction UP
IR ==> IntegrationResult RF
LLG ==> List Record(coeff:RF, logand:RF)
URF ==> Union(Record(ratpart:RF, coeff:RF), "failed")
U ==> Union(Record(mainpart:RF, limitedlogs:LLG), "failed")
OF ==> OutputForm
Exports ==> with
integrate : RF -> IR
++ integrate(f) returns g such that \spad{g' = f}.
Implementation ==> add
import TranscendentalIntegration(F, UP)
integrate f ==
rec := monomialIntegrate(f, differentiate)
integrate(rec.polypart)::RF::IR + rec.ir
\end{verbatim}
This domain was constructed and ``brought into scope'' in
RationalFunctionIntegration(F) with the statement
\begin{verbatim}
import RationalIntegration(Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer)
\end{verbatim}
and the function has the signature
\begin{verbatim}
integrate:
Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer ->
IntegrationResult Fraction
Fraction Polynomial Integer
\end{verbatim}
\begin{verbatim}
1<enter RationalIntegration.integrate,32 :
1
-
a
arg1= ----- <== Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial
b Fraction Polynomial Integer
? + -
a
1>exit RationalIntegration.integrate,32 :
1 b
- log(? + -) <== IntegrationResult Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial
a a Fraction Polynomial Integer
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{A simple integral, expansion 5 monomialIntegrate}
The integrate function is defined as:
\begin{verbatim}
integrate f ==
print(outputForm("tpdhere INTRAT 1")@OF)$OF
rec := monomialIntegrate(f, differentiate)
integrate(rec.polypart)::RF::IR + rec.ir
\end{verbatim}
Notice that while ``f'' is an argument to integrate, the ``differentiate''
function is a free variable. The Axiom compiler will look at all of the
symbols ``in scope'' to find its meaning. This code does an import:
\begin{verbatim}
import TranscendentalIntegration(Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer)
\end{verbatim}
which exports monomialIntegrate
\begin{verbatim}
TranscendentalIntegration(F, UP): Exports == Implementation where
F : Field
UP : UnivariatePolynomialCategory F
RF ==> Fraction UP
FF ==> Record(ratpart:F, coeff:F)
UF ==> Union(FF, "failed")
IR ==> IntegrationResult RF
REC ==> Record(ir:IR, specpart:RF, polypart:UP)
Exports ==> with
monomialIntegrate : (RF, UP -> UP) -> REC
++ monomialIntegrate(f, ') returns \spad{[ir, s, p]} such that
++ \spad{f = ir' + s + p} and all the squarefree factors of the
++ denominator of s are special w.r.t the derivation '.
Implementation ==> add
import SubResultantPackage(UP, UP2)
import MonomialExtensionTools(F, UP)
import TranscendentalHermiteIntegration(F, UP)
import CommuteUnivariatePolynomialCategory(F, UP, UP2)
monomialIntegrate(f, derivation) ==
zero? f => [0, 0, 0]
r := HermiteIntegrate(f, derivation)
zero?(inum := numer(r.logpart)) =>
[r.answer::IR, r.specpart, r.polypart]
iden := denom(r.logpart)
x := monomial(1, 1)$UP
resultvec := subresultantVector(UP2UP2 inum -
(x::UP2) * UP2UP2 derivation iden, UP2UP2 iden)
respoly := primitivePart leadingCoefficient resultvec 0
rec := splitSquarefree(respoly, kappa(#1, derivation))
logs:List(LOG) := [
[1, UP2UPR(term.factor),
UP22UPR swap primitivePart(resultvec(term.exponent),term.factor)]
for term in factors(rec.special)]
dlog :=
((derivation x) = 1) => r.logpart
differentiate(mkAnswer(0, logs, empty()),
differentiate(#1, derivation))
(u := retractIfCan(p := r.logpart - dlog)@Union(UP, "failed")) case UP =>
[mkAnswer(r.answer, logs, empty), r.specpart, r.polypart + u::UP]
[mkAnswer(r.answer, logs, [[p, dummy]]), r.specpart, r.polypart]
\end{verbatim}
which expands into the type signature:
\begin{verbatim}
monomialIntegrate:
(Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer ->
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer) ->
Record(ir: IntegrationResult Fraction
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer,
specpart: Fraction
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer,
polypart: SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer)
++ monomialIntegrate(f, ') returns \spad{[ir, s, p]} such that
++ \spad{f = ir' + s + p} and all the squarefree factors of the
++ denominator of s are special w.r.t the derivation '.
\end{verbatim}
we can watch this happen:
\begin{verbatim}
)trace INTTR )math
Function traced: UnivariatePolynomialCategory
Packages traced:
IntegrationResultRFToFunction Integer,
RationalFunctionIntegration Integer,
RationalIntegration(Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial
Integer), PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(
IndexedExponents Kernel Expression Integer,Kernel
Expression Integer,Integer,
SparseMultivariatePolynomial(Integer,Kernel
Expression Integer),Expression Integer),
PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(IndexedExponents
Symbol,Symbol,Integer,Polynomial Integer,Fraction
Polynomial Integer), TranscendentalIntegration(
Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial
Integer)
Parameterized constructors traced:
IRRF2F, INTRF, INTRAT, POLYCATQ, INTTR
\end{verbatim}
and we can watch the monomialIntegrate function call
\begin{verbatim}
(34) -> integrate(1/(a*x+b),x)
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
"tpdhere IRRF2F 1"
1<enter RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
1<enter PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions.univariate,16 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
1>exit PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions.univariate,16 :
1
-
a
-----
b
? + -
a
1<enter RationalIntegration.integrate,32 :
1
-
a
arg1= ----- <== Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial
b Fraction Polynomial Integer
? + -
a
1<enter TranscendentalIntegration.monomialIntegrate,81 :
1
-
a
arg1= ----- <== Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial
b Fraction Polynomial Integer
? + -
a
arg2= theMap(UPOLYC-;differentiate;2S;37,873)
1>exit TranscendentalIntegration.monomialIntegrate,81 :
1 b
[ir= - log(? + -),specpart= 0,polypart= 0]
a a
1>exit RationalIntegration.integrate,32 :
1 b
- log(? + -)
a a
1>exit RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1 a x + b
- log(-------)
a a
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
log(a x + b)
------------
a
log(a x + b)
(34) ------------
a
Type: Union(Expression Integer,...)
(35) ->
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{A simple integral, expansion 6 HermiteIntegrate}
Since ``f'' is not zero we invoke HermiteIntegrate from the domain
TranscendentalHermiteIntegration which looks like:
\begin{verbatim}
TranscendentalHermiteIntegration(F, UP): Exports == Implementation where
F : Field
UP : UnivariatePolynomialCategory F
N ==> NonNegativeInteger
RF ==> Fraction UP
REC ==> Record(answer:RF, lognum:UP, logden:UP)
HER ==> Record(answer:RF, logpart:RF, specpart:RF, polypart:UP)
Exports ==> with
HermiteIntegrate: (RF, UP -> UP) -> HER
++ HermiteIntegrate(f, D) returns \spad{[g, h, s, p]}
++ such that \spad{f = Dg + h + s + p},
++ h has a squarefree denominator normal w.r.t. D,
++ and all the squarefree factors of the denominator of s are
++ special w.r.t. D. Furthermore, h and s have no polynomial parts.
++ D is the derivation to use on \spadtype{UP}.
Implementation ==> add
import MonomialExtensionTools(F, UP)
HermiteIntegrate(f, derivation) ==
rec := decompose(f, derivation)
hi := normalHermiteIntegrate(rec.normal, derivation)
qr := divide(hi.lognum, hi.logden)
[hi.answer, qr.remainder / hi.logden, rec.special, qr.quotient + rec.poly]
\end{verbatim}
The function has the same input signature as monomialIntegrate but a
different return signature.
\begin{verbatim}
HermiteIntegrate:
(Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer ->
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer) ->
Record(answer:Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial
Fraction Polynomial Integer,
logpart:Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial
Fraction Polynomial Integer,
specpart:Fraction SparseUnivariatePolynomial
Fraction Polynomial Integer,
polypart:SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial Integer)
\end{verbatim}
so we trace this domain
\begin{verbatim}
(37) -> )trace INTHERTR )math
Function traced: UnivariatePolynomialCategory
Packages traced:
IntegrationResultRFToFunction Integer,
RationalFunctionIntegration Integer,
RationalIntegration(Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial
Integer), PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(
IndexedExponents Kernel Expression Integer,Kernel
Expression Integer,Integer,
SparseMultivariatePolynomial(Integer,Kernel
Expression Integer),Expression Integer),
PolynomialCategoryQuotientFunctions(IndexedExponents
Symbol,Symbol,Integer,Polynomial Integer,Fraction
Polynomial Integer), TranscendentalIntegration(
Fraction Polynomial Integer,
SparseUnivariatePolynomial Fraction Polynomial
Integer), TranscendentalHermiteIntegration(Fraction
Polynomial Integer,SparseUnivariatePolynomial
Fraction Polynomial Integer)
Parameterized constructors traced:
IRRF2F, INTRF, INTRAT, POLYCATQ, INTTR, INTHERTR
\end{verbatim}
and now we see
\begin{verbatim}
(38) -> integrate(1/(a*x+b),x)
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
"tpdhere IRRF2F 1"
1<enter RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1
arg1= -------
a x + b
arg2= x
1<enter RationalIntegration.integrate,32 :
1
-
a
arg1= -----
b
? + -
a
"tpdhere INTRAT 1"
1<enter TranscendentalIntegration.monomialIntegrate,81 :
1
-
a
arg1= -----
b
? + -
a
arg2= theMap(UPOLYC-;differentiate;2S;37,873)
1<enter TranscendentalHermiteIntegration.HermiteIntegrate,18 :
1
-
a
arg1= -----
b
? + -
a
arg2= theMap(UPOLYC-;differentiate;2S;37,873)
1>exit TranscendentalHermiteIntegration.HermiteIntegrate,18 :
1
-
a
[answer= 0,logpart= -----,specpart= 0,polypart= 0]
b
? + -
a
1>exit TranscendentalIntegration.monomialIntegrate,81 :
1 b
[ir= - log(? + -),specpart= 0,polypart= 0]
a a
"tpdhere UPOLYC 1"
1>exit RationalIntegration.integrate,32 :
1 b
- log(? + -)
a a
1>exit RationalFunctionIntegration.internalIntegrate,25 :
1 a x + b
- log(-------)
a a
1<enter IntegrationResultRFToFunction.expand,18 :
1 a x + b
arg1= - log(-------)
a a
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.expand,18 :
a x + b
log(-------)
a
[------------]
a
1>exit IntegrationResultRFToFunction.integrate,32 :
log(a x + b)
------------
a
log(a x + b)
(38) ------------
a
Type: Union(Expression Integer,...)
\end{verbatim}
so HermiteIntegrate did nothing to the input.
Next we call normalHermiteIntegrate which is a local function
\section{Tools}
\subsection{svn}
SVN is a source control system on all platforms. Axiom 'silver' is
maintained in an SVN archive on sourceforge. This can be pulled from:
\begin{verbatim}
svn co https://axiom.svn.sf.net/svnroot/axiom/trunk/axiom axiom
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{git}
Git is a unix-based source code control system. Axiom 'silver' is
maintained in a git archive. This can be pulled from:
\begin{verbatim}
git-clone ssh://git@axiom-developer.org/home/git/silver
\end{verbatim}
the password for the userid git is linus.
\subsection{cvs}
This assumes that you have set up ssh on the Savannah site.
CVS does not use a password. You have to log onto the Savannah
site and set up a public key. This requires you to:
\begin{itemize}
\item set up a local public key:
ssh-keygen -b 1024 -t rsa1
\item open a browser
\item nagivate to the savannah page that has your personal keys
\item open .ssh/identity.pub
\item cut .ssh/identity.pub
\item paste it into your personal key list on savannah
\item go have a beer (the page takes an hour or two to update)
\end{itemize}
Once you have a working key you can do the cvs login.
If it prompts you for a password then the key is not working.
If it prompts you to ``Enter the passphrase for RSA key'' then
cvs login will work.
I maintain a directory where I work (call this WORK)
\begin{verbatim}
/home/axiomgnu/new
\end{verbatim}
and a directory for CVS (call this GOLD)
\begin{verbatim}
/axiom
\end{verbatim}
When I want to export a set of changes I do the following steps:
\noindent
0) MAKE SURE THE ~/.ssh/config FILE IS CORRECT:
\begin{verbatim}
(you should only need to do this once.
you need to change the User= field)
Host *.gnu.org
Protocol=1
Compression=yes
CompressionLevel=3
User=axiom
StrictHostKeyChecking=no
PreferredAuthentications=publickey,password
NumberOfPasswordPrompts=2
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
1) MAKE SURE THE SHELL VARIABLES ARE OK:
\begin{verbatim}
(normally set in .bashrc)
export CVS_RSH=ssh
export CVSROOT=:pserver:axiom@subversions.gnu.org:/cvsroot/axiom
^^^^^
change this to your id
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
2) MAKE SURE YOU'RE LOGGED IN:
\begin{verbatim}
(I keep a session open all the time but it doesn't seem to care
if you login again. i'm not sure what login does, actually)
cvs login
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
3) GET A FRESH COPY FOR THE FIRST TIME OR AT ANY TIME:
\begin{verbatim}
(you only need to do this the first time but you can erase
your whole axiom subtree and refresh it again doing this.
note that i work as root so i can update /. Most rational
people are smarter than me and work as a regular user so
you have to change the instructions for cd. But you knew that)
cd /
cvs co axiom
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
4) MAKE SURE THAT GOLD, MY LOCAL CVS COPY, IS UP TO DATE:
\begin{verbatim}
(I maintain an exact copy of the CVS repository and only make
changes to it when i want to export the changes. that way I
won't export my working tree by accident. my working tree is
normally badly broken.
The update command makes sure that you have all of the changes
other people might have made and checked in. you have to merge
your changes so you don't step on other people's work.
So be sure to run update BEFORE you copy files to GOLD)
cd /axiom
cvs update
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
5) COPY CHANGED FILES FROM WORK TO THE GOLD TREE:
\begin{verbatim}
(This is an example for updating the *.daase files.
You basically are changing your GOLD tree to reflect the
way you want CVS to look once you check in all of the files.)
cd /home/axiomgnu/new
cp src/share/algebra/*.daase /axiom/src/share/algebra
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
6) IF A FILE IS NEW (e.g. src/interp/foo.lisp.pamphlet) THEN:
\begin{verbatim}
(If you create a file you need to "put it under CVS control"
CVS only cares about files you explicitly add or delete.
If you make a new file and copy it to GOLD you need to do this.
Don't do the "cvs add" in your WORK directory. The cvs add
command updates the files in the CVS directory and you won't
have them in your WORK directory.
Notice that you do the "cvs add" in the directory where the
file was added (hence, the cd commands).
cd /axiom/src/interp
cvs add -m"some pithy comment" foo.lisp.pamphlet
cd /axiom
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
7) IF A FILE IS DELETED (e.g. src/interp/foo.lisp.pamphlet) THEN:
\begin{verbatim}
(you have to delete the file from the GOLD directory BEFORE you
do a "cvs remove". The "cvs remove" will update the files in
the CVS directory
Notice that you do the "cvs remove" in the directory where the
file was deleted (hence, the cd commands).
cd /axiom/src/interp
rm foo.lisp.pamphlet
cvs remove foo.lisp.pamphlet
cd /axiom
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
8) IF A DIRECTORY IS NEW (e.g. foodir) THEN:
\begin{verbatim}
(this will put "foodir" under CVS control. It will also create
foodir/CVS as a directory with a bunch of control files in the
foodir/CVS directory. Don't mess with the control files.
(there are a bunch of special rules about directories.
empty directories are not downloaded by update.)
(NOTE: THERE IS NO WAY TO DELETE A DIRECTORY)
cd /axiom/src
mkdir foodir
cvs add -m "pithy comment" foodir
cd /axiom
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
9) EDIT CHANGELOG:
\begin{verbatim}
changelog is already under CVS control so it will get uploaded
when you do the checkin.)
cd /axiom
emacs -nw changelog
(add a date, initials, and pithy comment, save it, and exit)
\end{verbatim}
\noindent
10) CHECK IN THE CHANGES
\begin{verbatim}
(This will actually change the savannah CVS repository.
The "cvs ci" command will recurse thru all of the lower
subdirectories and look for changed files. It will change
the host versions of those files to agree with your copy.
If somebody else has changed a file while you were busy
developing code then the checkin MAY complain (if it can't
merge the changes)
cd /axiom
cvs ci -m"pithy comment"
\end{verbatim}
Congrats. You've now done your first change to the production
image. Please be very careful as this is a world readable copy.
We don't want to ship nonsense. Test everything. Even trivial
changes before you upload.
\section{Common Lisps}
\subsection{GCL}
Axiom was ported to run under AKCL which was a common lisp
developed by Bill Schelter. He started with KCL (Kyoto Common
Lisp) and, since he lived and worked in Austin, Texas, named
his version AKCL (Austin-Kyoto Common Lisp). Bill worked under
contract to the Scratchpad group at IBM Research. I was the
primary developer for system internals so Bill and I worked
closely together on a lot of issues. After Axiom was sold to
NAG Bill continued to develop AKCL and it eventually became
GCL (Gnu Common Lisp).
In order to port Axiom to run on GCL we need to do several things.
First, we need to apply a few patches. These patches enlarge the
default stack size, remove the startup banner, link with Axiom's
socket library, and rename collectfn.
The issue with the stack size is probably bogus. At one point the
system was running out of stack space but the problem was due to
a recursive expansion of a macro and no amount of stack space
would be sufficient. This patch remains at the moment but should
probably be removed and tested.
The startup banner is an issue because we plan to run under
various frontend programs like Texmacs and the Magnus ZLC.
We need to just output a single prompt.
Axiom has a socket library because at the time it was developed under
AKCL there was no socket code in Lisp. There is still not a standard
common lisp socket library but I believe all common lisps have a way
to manipulate sockets. This code should be rewritten in lisp
and \verb|#+| for each common lisp.
The collectfn file is a major optimization under GCL. When collectfn
is loaded and the lisp compiler is run then collectfn will output
a .fn file. The second time the compiler is invoked the .fn
file is consulted to determine the actual types of arguments used.
Function calling is highly optimized using this type information
so that fast function calling occurs. Axiom should be built one
time to create the int/*/*.fn files. It should then be rebuilt
using the cached .fn files. I will automate this process into
the Makefiles in the future.
GCL implementation will have a major porting problem to brand new
platforms. The compiler strategy is to output C code, compile it
using GCC, and dynamically link the machine code to the running
image. This requires deep knowledge of the symbol tables used
by the native linker for each system. In general this is a hard
problem that requires a lot of expertise. Bill Schelter and I
spent a lot of time and effort making this work for each port.
The magic knowledge is not written down anywhere and I no longer
remember the details.
\subsection{CCL}
When Axiom was sold to NAG it was ported to CCL (Codemist Common
Lisp) which is not, strictly speaking, a common lisp implementation.
It contains just enough common lisp to support Axiom and, as I'm
a great believer in simple code, it only needed a small subset of
a full common lisp.
CCL can be considered the best way to get Axiom running on a new
architecture as the porting issues are minimal.
CCL is a byte-interpreter implementation and has both the
positive and negative aspects of that design choice. The positive
aspect is that porting the code to run on new architectures is
very simple. Once the CCL byte-code interpreter is running
then Axiom is running. The saved-system image is pure byte-codes
and is completely system independent.
The negative aspects are that it is slow and the garbage collector
appears broken. Compiling the Axiom library files on an file-by-file
basis takes about 1 hour on GCL and about 12 hours on CCL. Compiling
all of the Axiom library files in the same image (as opposed to
starting a new image per file) still takes about 1 hour on GCL.
It never finishes in CCL. Indeed it stops doing useful work after
about the 40th file (out of several hundred).
When Axiom became open source I moved the system back to GCL
because I could not understand how to build a CCL system. I plan
to revisit this in the future and document the process so others
can follow it as well as build Makefiles to automate it.
\subsection{CMU CL}
CMU CL grew out of the Carnegie-Mellon University SPICE project.
That project studied the issues involved in building an optimizing
compiler for common lisp. Axiom, back when it was Scratchpad at IBM,
ran on CMU CL. Indeed, a lot of the lisp-level optimizations are
due to use of the CMU CL compiler and the disassemble function.
\subsection{Franz Lisp}
Axiom, as Scratchpad, ran on Franz Lisp.
\subsection{Lucid Common Lisp}
Axiom, as Scratchpad, ran on Lucid Common Lisp.
\subsection{Symbolics Common Lisp}
Axiom, as Scratchpad, ran on Symbolics Common Lisp.
\subsection{Golden Common Lisp}
Axiom, as Scratchpad, ran on Golden Common Lisp.
This was a PC version of Common Lisp which appears to have died.
\subsection{VM/LISP 370}
Axiom, as Scratchpad, ran on VM/Lisp 370. This was an IBM version
of lisp and was not a common lisp. The .daase random access
file format is an artifact of running on this lisp.
\subsection{Maclisp}
Axiom, as Scratchpad, ran on Maclisp. This was an early MIT version
of lisp and is not common lisp. Many of the funny function names
that have slightly different semantics than their common lisp
counterparts still exist in the system as macros due to this
lisp.
\section{Changing GCL versions}
Axiom lives on GNU Common Lisp. Axiom adds C code to the lisp image.
Axiom caches versions to ensure that nothing breaks. Changing GCL
versions has introduced subtle bugs at various times. The steps
necessary to introduce a new version are
\begin{enumerate}
\item Add the latest GCL sources to Axiom
\item Update the patches to the new version
\item create diff -Naur patches to the gcl sources
\item update lsp/Makefile.pamphlet to apply the patch at build
\item add a new chunk to lsp/Makefile.pamphlet to build gcl-2.6.10
\item Change the GCLVERSION to point at the new sources
\item change the Makefile to match Makefile.pamphlet
\end{enumerate}
We assume in the following that \verb|$AXHOME| is the home directory and that
Axiom lives in the silver subdirectory.
In more detail these steps are:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Add the lateset GCL sources to Axiom
\begin{enumerate}
\item Download the latest GCL from gnu.org\\
For these instructions assume the file is
\begin{verbatim}
gcl-Version_2_6_10.tar.gz
\end{verbatim}
\item move the tar file into /tmp\\
We are going to make changes to the distribution via patches
\item untar the file
\begin{verbatim}
tar -zxf gcl-Version_2_6_10.tar.gz
\end{verbatim}
\item cd to the untarred directory
\begin{verbatim}
cd gcl-Version_2_6_10
\end{verbatim}
\item rename the gcl directory\\
Camm follows a convention that the top level directory in the
tar file is called gcl. Since we maintain several past versions
we need to rename this and re-tar it
\begin{verbatim}
mv gcl gcl-2.6.10
\end{verbatim}
\item rename gcl to use our naming convention
\begin{verbatim}
tar -zcf gcl-2.6.10.tgz gcl-2.6.10
\end{verbatim}
\item We move the original, renamed, retarred file to the zip directory
\begin{verbatim}
mv gcl-2.6.10.tgz $AXHOME/silver/zips
\end{verbatim}
\item We have to make sure to include the new file in the git commit
\begin{verbatim}
cd $AXHOME/silver
\end{verbatim}
\item Tell git we care about the file
\begin{verbatim}
git add zips/gcl-2.6.10.tgz
\end{verbatim}
\end{enumerate}
\item Update the patches to the new version
\begin{enumerate}
\item find the previous patches
\begin{verbatim}
ls $AXHOME/silver/zips/gcl-2.6.8pre7*patch
\end{verbatim}
\item for each patch do ( Step 3 ; Step 4 )
\end{enumerate}
\item create diff -Naur patches to the gcl sources
\begin{enumerate}
\item assume we are looking at gcl-2.6.8pre7.h.linux.defs.patch\\
The name tells us what file to patch. From the above we can see
that when Axiom builds GCL it will
\begin{verbatim}
cd lsp/gcl-2.6.8pre7
\end{verbatim}
because GCL is built by the lsp/Makefile.pamphlet. That Makefile
will do a
\begin{verbatim}
cd h
patch <gcl-2.6.8pre7.h.linux.defs.patch
\end{verbatim}
which will apply the patch .... So we need to make a patch
\item move to the subdirectory containing the file
\begin{verbatim}
cd /tmp/gcl-Version_2_6_10/gcl-2.6.10/h
\end{verbatim}
\item edit the 'linux.defs' file to create the proper patch
\item save the changed file as linux.defs.tpd
\item in a shell, create a diff -Naur patch by
\begin{verbatim}
diff -Naur linux.defs linux.defs.tpd >gcl-2.6.10.h.linux.defs.patch
\end{verbatim}
\item move it to the zips directory
\begin{verbatim}
mv gcl-2.6.10.h.linux.defs.patch $AXHOME/silver/zips
cd $AXHOME/silver
git add zips/gcl-2.6.10.h.linux.defs.patch
\end{verbatim}
\end{enumerate}
\item update lsp/Makefile.pamphlet to apply the patch at build
\begin{enumerate}
\item edit lsp/Makefile.pamphlet
\item search for chunk \verb|gcl-2.6.8pre7.h.linux.defs.patch|
\item copy the chunk and name the new chunk
\verb|gcl-2.6.10.h.linux.defs.patch|
\end{enumerate}
\item add a new chunk to lsp/Makefile.pamphlet to build gcl-2.6.10
\begin{enumerate}
\item find the subsection ``The GCL-2.6.8pre7 stanza''
\item make a copy named ``The GCL-2.6.10 stanza''
\item add the new patches
\item tell git we care
\begin{verbatim}
cd $AXHOME/silver
git add lsp/Makefile.pamphlet
\end{verbatim}
\end{enumerate}
\item Change the GCLVERSION to point at the new sources
\begin{enumerate}
\item emacs \verb|$AXHOME/silver/Makefile.pamphlet|
\item search for \verb|#GCLVERSION|, a Makefile comment line
\item the last line is uncommented. Assume it reads GCLVERSION=gcl-2.6.8pre7\\
gcl-2.6.8pre7 was is the name of the current version we are
replacing. We will use this name in the next step
\item put a \# in front of the GCLVERSION variable to comment it out\\
We maintain the list of old, working patches. We also remember the
names of the prior GCLVERSIONS in case we have to back up
\item Add a new line reading:
\begin{verbatim}
GCLVERSION=gcl-2.6.10
\end{verbatim}
This will cause Axiom to untar this tgz file to get the sources
and apply the corresponding patches
\end{enumerate}
\item change the Makefile to match Makefile.pamphlet
\begin{itemize}
\item compile the tangle program
\begin{verbatim}
( cd books ; gcc -o tangle tangle.c )
\end{verbatim}
\item use books/tangle to extract the new Makefile
\begin{verbatim}
books/tangle Makefile.pamphlet >Makefile
\end{verbatim}
\end{itemize}
\end{enumerate}
\section{Literate Programming}
The Axiom source code was originally developed at IBM Research.
It was sold to The Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) and was on
the market as a commercial competitor to Mathematica and Maple.
Axiom was withdrawn from the market in 2000 and released as free
and open source software in 2001. When the Axiom project was
started on savannah, the GNU Free Software Foundation site the
source code had been rewritten into ``pamphlet'' files. The reasons
for this are twofold.
\subsection{Pamphlet files}
When the Axiom code was released it contained few comments. That made
it very difficult to understand what the code actually did. Unlike
commercial software there would be no group of individuals who would
work on the project for its lifetime. Thus there needed to be a way to
capture the expertise and understanding underlying ongoing
development.
Unlike any other piece of free and open source software Axiom will
still give useful answers 30 years from now. Thus it is important,
and worthwhile, to invest a large amount of effort into documenting
how these answers are arrived at and why the algorithms are written
the way they are.
The pamphlet file format follows Knuth's idea of literate
programming. Knuth made the observation that a program should be a
work designed to be read by humans. Making the program readable by
machine was a secondary consideration. Making documentation primary
and code secondary was a dramatic shift for a programmer.
Knuth created a file format that combined documentation and code. He
created a tool called ``Web'' which had two basic command, tangle and
weave. The tangle command would be run against a literate document and
extract the source code, the weave command would be run against the
literate document and extract the TeX.
\subsection{noweb}
Knuth's Web tool was specifically designed to use Pascal code. The
``tangle'' operation would prettyprint the output according to the
style rules of Pascal.
Axiom was written in a variety of languages, such as C and Lisp,
and used tools such as Makefiles which have their own syntax. Thus
Web could not be used directly.
Axiom defines a new latex environment called chunk.
This chunk environment makes the pamphlet file a pure latex file.
This eliminates the need for the weave operation. The tangle
operation only needs to occur while manipulating code, either during
system build or end user interaction. At both of these times the
tangle operation can be built into the system and hidden.
To support extracting chunks from pamphlet files Axiom now has a
new top level command. At the top level one can write:
\begin{verbatim}
)tangle filename
\end{verbatim}
This will look for ``filename.pamphlet'' and extract the top level
chunk which has the name ``*''.
The latest changeset introduces two related changes, gclweb and
axiom.sty. Together these changes allow optional syntactic changes to
pamphlets. These changes will completely eliminate the need to weave
files since now a pamphlet file can be a valid latex file. Tangle is
the only remaining command and it will eventually be an option on
)compile, etc.
The src/interp/gclweb.lisp file introduces the ability to extract code
from pamphlet files while inside Axiom. The short description is that
gclweb will now automatically distinguish the type of chunk style
(latex or noweb) based on the chunk name. It is a first step to a native
understanding of pamphlet files. Future work involves integrating it
into commands like )compile and adding commands like )tangle.
Tangle can also be called directly from lisp on a file from within Axiom:
\begin{verbatim}
)lisp (tangle "filename.pamphlet" "chunkname")
)lisp (tangle "filename.pamphlet" "chunkname" "filename.spad")
\end{verbatim}
gclweb distinguishes the input syntax by looking at the first character
of the chunkname. If it is a '$<$' then noweb is used, otherwise latex.
The src/doc/axiom.sty.pamphlet introduces the new chunk environment.
This is a completely compatible change and has no impact on existing
pamphlets. The new syntax makes pamphlet files = tex files so there is
no need to use weave. The gclweb change has a compatible tangle
function which can be invoked from inside Axiom.
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{chunk}{chunkname}
your code goes here
\end{chunk}
\end{verbatim}
One feature of the latex chunk style is that latex commands
work within the chunk. To get typeset mathematics use
\verb|\(| and \verb|\)|
\begin{verbatim}
-- This will typeset in a chunk \( x^2+\epsilon \)
-- And you can format things {\bf bold}
\end{verbatim}
\section{Databases}
\subsection{libcheck}
The databases are built from the .kaf files in the .nrlib directories.
(.kaf files are random access files).
interp.exposed is a file that names all of the CDPs (Category, Domain,
and Packages) and classifies them. Only some CDPs are exposed because
most are used to implement algebra and are not intended to be user level
functions. Exposing all of the functions causes much ambiguity.
There is a function called libcheck (see src/interp/util.lisp.pamphlet)
that will check nrlibs vs interp.exposed. This is only partially
functional as I see that changes were made to the system which broke
this function.
The libcheck function requires an absolute pathname to the int directory
so call it thus:
\begin{verbatim}
--> )lisp (libcheck "/axiom/int/algebra")
\end{verbatim}
The main reason this function is broken is that the system now gets
exposure information from src/algebra/exposed.lsp.pamphlet. It appears
that interp.exposed.pamphlet is no longer used (although I made sure
that both files have the same information). I'm going to modify libcheck
to use exposed.lsp in the future and eliminate all references in the
system to interp.exposed.
For the moment, however, the libcheck function is quite useful.
It used to be run during system build because I frequently ran into
database problems and this function would alert me to that fact.
I'll add it back into the Makefile once I elide interp.exposed.
\subsection{asq}
Axiom has several databases which contain information about domains,
categories, and packages. The databases are in a compressed format and
are organized as random-access files using numeric index values so it
is hard to get at the stored information. However, there is a
command-line query function called asq (pronounced ask) that knows the
format of the files and can be used for stand-alone queries. For
instance, if you know the abbreviation for a domain but want to know
what source file generated that domain you can say:
\begin{verbatim}
asq -so FOOBAR
\end{verbatim}
and it will tell you the name of the algebra source file that
defines FOOBAR.
\section{Axiom internal representations}
\begin{verbatim}
PRIMITIVE REPRESENTATIONS OF AXIOM OBJECTS
There are several primitive representations in axiom. These are:
boolean
this is represented as a lisp boolean
integer
this is represented as a lisp integer
small integer
this is represented as a lisp integer
small float
this is represented as a lisp float
list
this is represented as a lisp list
vector
this is represented as a lisp vector
record
there are 3 cases:
records of 1 element are a pair (element . nil)
records of 2 element are a pair (element1 . element2)
records of 3 or more are a vectors #<a b c...>
mapping
mappings are a spadcall objects. they are represented as a pair
(lispfn . env)
where the env is usually a type object. A spadcall rips this
pair open and applies the lispfn to its args with env as the
last arg.
union
there are 2 cases
if the object can be determined by a lisp predicate
(eg integer) then the union is just the object (eg 3)
itself since we can use lisp to decide which branch of
the union the object belongs to. that is, 3 is of the
integer branch in union(list,integer)
if the object cannot be determined then the object is
wrapped into a pair where the car of the pair is the
union branch name and the cdr of the pair is the object.
that is, given union(a:SUP,b:POLY(INT)) x might be (a . x)
note: if no tags are given in the union the system uses
consecutive integers, thus union(SUP,POLY(INT)) will give
a pair of (1 . x) or (2 . x) depending on the type of x
other types are built up of compositions of these primitive
types. a sparse univariate polynomial (SUP) over the integers
x**2+1
is represented as
Term := Record(k:NonNegativeInteger,c:R)
Rep := List Term
that is, the representation is a list of terms where each term
is a record whose first field is a nonnegative integer (the
exponent) and the second field is a member of the coefficient
ring. since this is a record of length 2 it is represented as
a pair. thus, the internal form of this polynomial is:
((2 . 1) (0 . 1))
a more complex object (recursively defined) is POLY(INT). given
x**2+1
as a POLY(INT) we look at its representation and see:
D := SparseUnivariatePolynomial($)
VPoly := Record(v:VarSet,ts:D)
Rep := Union(R,VPoly)
so first we find that we are a member of the second form of the
union and since this is an untagged union the system uses 2 as
the tag. thus the first level of internal representation is:
( 2 . <a VPoly object> )
next we need to define the VPoly object. VPolys are records of
length 2 so we know they are represented by a pair. the car of
the pair is a VarSet. the cdr is a D which is a
SparseUnivariatePolynomial. Thus we consider this to be a poly
in x (at the top level) and we get:
( 2 . ( x . <an SUP>))
the SUP is over the SparseMultivariatePolynomials (SMP) so the
representation is recursive. Since an SUP is represented as a
list of
(non-negative int . coefficient)
one per term and we have 2 terms we know the next level of
structure is:
( 2 . ( x . (( 2 . <an SMP> ) ( 0 . <an SMP> ))))
the SMP is just the integers so it fits into the first branch
of the union and each SMP looks like:
( uniontag . value )
in this case, being the first branch we get
( 2 . ( x . (( 2 . ( 1 . 1 )) ( 0 . ( 1 . 1 )))))
as the internal representation of
x**2 + 1
what could be easier?
\end{verbatim}
\section{Spad to internal function calling}
\subsection{getdatabse output}
\begin{verbatim}
GETDATABASE('Permutation, 'OPERATIONALIST)$Lisp
\end{verbatim}
generates the output
\begin{verbatim}
(($unique)
(~= (((Boolean) $ $) () T ELT))
(sort (((List $) (List $)) 76 T ELT))
(sign (((Integer) $) 59 T ELT))
(sample (($) () T CONST))
(recip (((Union $ "failed") $) () T ELT))
(order (((NonNegativeInteger) $) 57 T ELT))
(orbit (((Set #1) $ #1) 48 T ELT))
(one? (((Boolean) $) () T ELT))
(odd? (((Boolean) $) 62 T ELT))
(numberOfCycles (((NonNegativeInteger) $) 60 T ELT))
(movedPoints (((Set #1) $) 41 T ELT))
(min (($ $ $) () (OR (has #1 (Finite)) (has #1 (OrderedSet))) ELT))
(max (($ $ $) () (OR (has #1 (Finite)) (has #1 (OrderedSet))) ELT))
(listRepresentation
(((Record (: preimage (List #1)) (: image (List #1))) $) 35 T ELT))
(latex (((String) $) () T ELT))
(inv (($ $) 92 T ELT))
(hash (((SingleInteger) $) () T ELT))
(fixedPoints (((Set #1) $) 98 (has #1 (Finite)) ELT))
(even? (((Boolean) $) 58 T ELT))
(eval ((#1 $ #1) 46 T ELT))
(elt ((#1 $ #1) 93 T ELT))
(degree (((NonNegativeInteger) $) 43 T ELT))
(cycles (($ (List (List #1))) 84 T ELT))
(cyclePartition (((Partition) $) 52 T ELT))
(cycle (($ (List #1)) 21 T ELT))
(conjugate (($ $ $) () T ELT))
(commutator (($ $ $) () T ELT))
(coercePreimagesImages (($ (List (List #1))) 38 T ELT))
(coerceListOfPairs (($ (List (List #1))) 87 T ELT))
(coerceImages (($ (List #1)) 95 T ELT))
(coerce (((OutputForm) $) 83 T ELT) (($ (List (List #1))) 65 T ELT)
(($ (List #1)) 66 T ELT))
(^ (($ $ (PositiveInteger)) () T ELT)
(($ $ (NonNegativeInteger)) () T ELT) (($ $ (Integer)) () T ELT))
(One (($) 16 T CONST))
(>= (((Boolean) $ $) () (OR (has #1 (Finite)) (has #1 (OrderedSet))) ELT))
(> (((Boolean) $ $) () (OR (has #1 (Finite)) (has #1 (OrderedSet))) ELT))
(= (((Boolean) $ $) 44 T ELT))
(<= (((Boolean) $ $) () (OR (has #1 (Finite)) (has #1 (OrderedSet))) ELT))
(< (((Boolean) $ $) 64 T ELT))
(/ (($ $ $) () T ELT))
(** (($ $ (PositiveInteger)) () T ELT)
(($ $ (NonNegativeInteger)) () T ELT) (($ $ (Integer)) () T ELT))
(* (($ $ $) 22 T ELT)))
\end{verbatim}
Sometimes in a getdatabase expression you will see:
\begin{verbatim}
(~= (((Boolean) $ $) () T ELT))
---------------------^^
\end{verbatim}
and in other places there is a number
\begin{verbatim}
(sign (((Integer) $) 59 T ELT))
---------------------------^^
\end{verbatim}
In general, when a large number appears it is a byte index into
the compress.daase file.
Axiom would not fit on a laptop. We needed smaller databases.
The solution to the problem was to scan the datatases for
common substrings, write the substring to compress.daase,
and replace the substring by the byte offset.
When reading the database these numbers would be replaced
by the substring from compress.daase using random access
seeks based on the byte offset.
See book volume 5
for an explanation of the database file formats.
HOWEVER, in this case, the number has a different meaning
which I will talk about below.
In summary, this shows what the following incantation means:
\begin{verbatim}
(sign (((Integer) $) () (has #1 (OrderedIntegralDomain))))
\end{verbatim}
\begin{verbatim}
INTEGER inherits sign from OINTDOM (OrderedIntegralDomain)
OINTDOM inherits sign from ORDRING (OrderedRing)
ORDRING implements sign
since ORDRING is a category, the actual code lives in
ORDRING-.nrlib/code.lsp
\end{verbatim}
The code for sign in ORDRING-.nrlib/code.lsp has the signature:
\begin{verbatim}
(DEFUN |ORDRING-;sign;SI;3| (|x| $) ....)
\end{verbatim}
We can "decode" the meaning of the function name as
\begin{itemize}
\item {\bf ORDRING-} the implementing file
\item {\bf sign} the function name
\item {\bf SI} returns SingleInteger (an old domain name)
\item {\bf 3} the third function in the file
(unique, to distinguish multiple functions with the same name)
\end{itemize}
It takes 2 arguments,
\begin{itemize}
\item {\bf \verb?|x|?} which should be a SingleInteger
\item {\bf \verb?$?} which is the current domain (ORDRING-)
\end{itemize}
So it looks like I have the following structure
\begin{verbatim}
(NAME ((TARGETTYPE SOURCETYPE) ?1 CONDITION ?2))
\end{verbatim}
but we are looking up 'sign' in INTEGER so there is
a condition on sign
\begin{verbatim}
Integer has OrderedRing ==> true
\end{verbatim}
so that explains the condition field.
Here we show how Axiom finds the function implementation, looks up the
function ``in the domain'', and calls it.
\begin{verbatim}
(sign (((Integer) $) 59 T ELT))
\end{verbatim}
Now you've asked for 'sign' from domain Permutation
\begin{verbatim}
(sign (((Integer) $) 59 T ELT))
\end{verbatim}
The implementation for 'sign' is in PERM.nrlib/code.lsp. It reads:
\begin{verbatim}
(defun |PERM;sign;$I;17| (|p| $)
(cond
((spadcall |p| (qrefelt $ 58)) 1)
('t -1)))
\end{verbatim}
which you would read as
\begin{verbatim}
if (calling function in position 58 of myself) is true
then return 1
else return -1
\end{verbatim}
How does Axiom find the function? It is in the infovec which
is the ``information vector'' containing information about the
domain.
First we must make sure that PERM has the necessary domain
information loaded (the 'infovec').
\begin{verbatim}
-> [1,2,3]::PERM(INT)
\end{verbatim}
Now, back to the 'sign' function. You saw this:
\begin{verbatim}
(sign (((Integer) $) 59 T ELT)) (sample (($) () T CONST))
\end{verbatim}
which is asking you to look up element 59 from the domain (\verb|$|)
Note that \verb|$| {\sl actually} means the infovec. So we are asking:
\begin{verbatim}
(elt (elt (getf (symbol-plist '|Permutation|) '|infovec|) 0) 59)
\end{verbatim}
which results in:
\begin{verbatim}
|PERM;sign;$I;17|
\end{verbatim}
so we ``looked up'' the function sign in the domain PERM.
Explaining in more detail, from the inside out by walking the
runtime data structures we see
\begin{verbatim}
(symbol-plist '|Permutation|)
\end{verbatim}
returns the property list on the symbol {\bf Permutation} which is where
Axiom caches domain information. Almost everything of interest about a
domain resides on the property list, shown here in all its glory.
\begin{verbatim}
(LOADED "/research/test/mnt/ubuntu/algebra/PERM.o"
SYSTEM:DEBUG (#:G1567 #:G1568)
|infovec| (
#(NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL
(|local| |#1|) (QUOTE |Rep|) (|Boolean|)
(0 . <) (|PositiveInteger|) (6 . |lookup|)
(|Integer|) (|List| 6) (11 . |maxIndex|)
(16 . |elt|)
(CONS IDENTITY (FUNCALL (|dispatchFunction| |PERM;One;$;29|) $))
(|NonNegativeInteger|) (22 . |last|) (28 . |first|)
(34 . |concat|) |PERM;cycle;L$;26| |PERM;*;3$;28|
(40 . =) (46 . =) (52 . |elt|)
(58 . |list|) (63 . |position|) (69 . |delete|)
(|Mapping| 8 13 13) (|List| 13) (75 . |sort|)
(81 . |copy|) (86 . |member?|)
(|Record| (|:| |preimage| 13) (|:| |image| 13))
|PERM;listRepresentation;$R;9| (92 . |elt|)
(98 . ~=) |PERM;coercePreimagesImages;L$;10|
(|Set| 6) (104 . |construct|) |PERM;movedPoints;$S;11|
(109 . |#|) |PERM;degree;$Nni;12| |PERM;=;2$B;13|
(114 . |brace|) |PERM;eval;$2S;31| (119 . |insert!|)
|PERM;orbit;$SS;14| (|List| 12) (|Partition|)
(125 . |partition|) |PERM;cyclePartition;$P;15|
(130 . |convert|) (135 . |removeDuplicates|)
(|List| $) (140 . |lcm|) |PERM;order;$Nni;16|
|PERM;even?;$B;18| |PERM;sign;$I;17| |PERM;numberOfCycles;$Nni;33|
(145 . |even?|) |PERM;odd?;$B;19| (150 . |maxIndex|)
|PERM;<;2$B;20| |PERM;coerce;L$;21| |PERM;coerce;L$;22|
(|Record| (|:| |cycl| 30) (|:| |permut| $$))
(|List| 67) (155 . |cons|) (|Mapping| 8 67 67)
(161 . |sort|) (|List| $$) (167 . |nil|)
(171 . |cons|) (177 . |reverse|) |PERM;sort;2L;23|
(|OutputForm|) (182 . |coerce|) (187 . |blankSeparate|)
(192 . |paren|) (197 . |outputForm|) (202 . |hconcat|)
|PERM;coerce;$Of;24| |PERM;cycles;L$;25| (207 . |second|)
(212 . =) |PERM;coerceListOfPairs;L$;27|
(|Vector| 6) (218 . |construct|) (223 . |elt|)
(229 . |new|) |PERM;inv;2$;30| |PERM;elt;$2S;32|
(235 . |coerce|) (240 . |coerceImages|) (245 . |index|)
(250 . |complement|) (255 . |fixedPoints|) (260 . |conjugate|)
(265 . +) (|Union| $ (QUOTE "failed"))
(|SingleInteger|) (|String|))
#(~= 271 |sort| 277 |sign| 282
|sample| 287 |recip| 291 |order| 296
|orbit| 301 |one?| 307 |odd?| 312
|numberOfCycles| 317 |movedPoints| 322 |min| 327
|max| 333 |listRepresentation| 339 |latex| 344
|inv| 349 |hash| 354 |fixedPoints| 359
|even?| 364 |eval| 369 |elt| 375
|degree| 381 |cycles| 386 |cyclePartition| 391
|cycle| 396 |conjugate| 401 |commutator| 407
|coercePreimagesImages| 413 |coerceListOfPairs| 418 |coerceImages| 423
|coerce| 428 ^ 443 |One| 461
>= 465 > 471 = 477
<= 483 < 489 / 495
** 501 * 519)
((|unitsKnown| . 0))
(#(0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0)
#(NIL
|Group&|
|Monoid&|
|SemiGroup&|
|OrderedSet&|
|SetCategory&|
|BasicType&|
NIL)
#((|PermutationCategory| 6)
(|Group|)
(|Monoid|)
(|SemiGroup|)
(|OrderedSet|)
(|SetCategory|)
(|BasicType|)
(|CoercibleTo| 77))
.
#( 2 6 8 0 0 9 1 6 10 0 11 1 13 12 0 14 2 13 6 0 12
15 2 13 0 0 17 18 2 13 0 0 17 19 2 13 0 0 0 20 2 6
8 0 0 23 2 13 8 0 0 24 2 7 13 0 12 25 1 13 0 6 26
2 13 12 6 0 27 2 13 0 0 12 28 2 30 0 29 0 31 1 13 0
0 32 2 13 8 6 0 33 2 30 13 0 12 36 2 6 8 0 0 37 1
39 0 13 40 1 39 17 0 42 1 39 0 13 45 2 39 0 6 0 47 1
50 0 49 51 1 50 49 0 53 1 49 0 0 54 1 12 0 55 56 1 12
8 0 61 1 30 12 0 63 2 68 0 67 0 69 2 68 0 70 0 71 0
72 0 73 2 72 0 2 0 74 1 72 0 0 75 1 6 77 0 78 1 77
0 55 79 1 77 0 0 80 1 77 0 12 81 1 77 0 55 82 1 13 6
0 85 2 39 8 0 0 86 1 88 0 13 89 2 88 6 0 12 90 2 7
0 17 13 91 1 6 0 12 94 1 0 0 13 95 1 6 0 10 96 1 39
0 0 97 1 0 39 0 98 1 50 0 0 99 2 50 0 0 0 100 2 0
8 0 0 1 1 0 55 55 76 1 0 12 0 59 0 0 0 1 1 0 101
0 1 1 0 17 0 57 2 0 39 0 6 48 1 0 8 0 1 1 0 8
0 62 1 0 17 0 60 1 0 39 0 41 2 3 0 0 0 1 2 3 0
0 0 1 1 0 34 0 35 1 0 103 0 1 1 0 0 0 92 1 0 102
0 1 1 1 39 0 98 1 0 8 0 58 2 0 6 0 6 46 2 0 6
0 6 93 1 0 17 0 43 1 0 0 30 84 1 0 50 0 52 1 0 0
13 21 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 30 38 1 0
0 30 87 1 0 0 13 95 1 0 0 13 66 1 0 0 30 65 1 0 77
0 83 2 0 0 0 12 1 2 0 0 0 17 1 2 0 0 0 10 1 0
0 0 16 2 3 8 0 0 1 2 3 8 0 0 1 2 0 8 0 0 44
2 3 8 0 0 1 2 0 8 0 0 64 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0
0 12 1 2 0 0 0 17 1 2 0 0 0 10 1 2 0 0 0 0 22))
|lookupComplete|)
PNAME "Permutation"
DATABASE
#S(DATABASE
ABBREVIATION PERM
ANCESTORS NIL
CONSTRUCTOR NIL
CONSTRUCTORCATEGORY 2444459
CONSTRUCTORKIND |domain|
CONSTRUCTORMODEMAP
(((|Permutation| |#1|)
(|Join|
(|PermutationCategory| |#1|)
(CATEGORY |domain|
(SIGNATURE |listRepresentation|
((|Record| (|:| |preimage| #) (|:| |image| #)) $))
(SIGNATURE |coercePreimagesImages| ($ (|List| (|List| |#1|))))
(SIGNATURE |coerce| ($ (|List| (|List| |#1|))))
(SIGNATURE |coerce| ($ (|List| |#1|)))
(SIGNATURE |coerceListOfPairs| ($ (|List| (|List| |#1|))))
(SIGNATURE |degree| ((|NonNegativeInteger|) $))
(SIGNATURE |movedPoints| ((|Set| |#1|) $))
(SIGNATURE |cyclePartition| ((|Partition|) $))
(SIGNATURE |order| ((|NonNegativeInteger|) $))
(SIGNATURE |numberOfCycles| ((|NonNegativeInteger|) $))
(SIGNATURE |sign| ((|Integer|) $))
(SIGNATURE |even?| ((|Boolean|) $))
(SIGNATURE |odd?| ((|Boolean|) $))
(SIGNATURE |sort| ((|List| $) (|List| $)))
(IF (|has| |#1| (|Finite|))
(SIGNATURE |fixedPoints| ((|Set| |#1|) $)) |noBranch|)
(IF (|has| |#1| (|IntegerNumberSystem|))
(SIGNATURE |coerceImages| ($ (|List| |#1|)))
(IF (|has| |#1| (|Finite|))
(SIGNATURE |coerceImages| ($ #)) |noBranch|))))
(|SetCategory|))
(T |Permutation|))
COSIG (NIL T)
DEFAULTDOMAIN NIL
MODEMAPS 2443154
NILADIC NIL
OBJECT "PERM"
OPERATIONALIST
((|$unique|)
(~= (((|Boolean|) $ $) NIL . #0=(T . #1=(ELT))))
(|sort| (((|List| $) (|List| $)) 76 . #0#))
(|sign| (((|Integer|) $) 59 . #0#))
(|sample| (($) NIL T CONST))
(|recip| (((|Union| $ "failed") $) NIL . #0#))
(|order| (((|NonNegativeInteger|) $) 57 . #0#))
(|orbit| (((|Set| |#1|) $ |#1|) 48 . #0#))
(|one?| (((|Boolean|) $) NIL . #0#))
(|odd?| (((|Boolean|) $) 62 . #0#))
(|numberOfCycles| (((|NonNegativeInteger|) $) 60 . #0#))
(|movedPoints| (((|Set| |#1|) $) 41 . #0#))
(|min| (($ $ $) NIL
(OR (|has| |#1| (|Finite|)) (|has| |#1| (|OrderedSet|))) . #1#))
(|max| (($ $ $) NIL
(OR (|has| |#1| (|Finite|)) (|has| |#1| (|OrderedSet|))) . #1#))
(|listRepresentation|
(((|Record| (|:| |preimage| (|List| |#1|))
(|:| |image| (|List| |#1|))) $) 35 . #0#))
(|latex| (((|String|) $) NIL . #0#))
(|inv| (($ $) 92 . #0#))
(|hash| (((|SingleInteger|) $) NIL . #0#))
(|fixedPoints| (((|Set| |#1|) $) 98 (|has| |#1| (|Finite|)) . #1#))
(|even?| (((|Boolean|) $) 58 . #0#))
(|eval| ((|#1| $ |#1|) 46 . #0#))
(|elt| ((|#1| $ |#1|) 93 . #0#))
(|degree| (((|NonNegativeInteger|) $) 43 . #0#))
(|cycles| (($ (|List| (|List| |#1|))) 84 . #0#))
(|cyclePartition| (((|Partition|) $) 52 . #0#))
(|cycle| (($ (|List| |#1|)) 21 . #0#))
(|conjugate| (($ $ $) NIL . #0#))
(|commutator| (($ $ $) NIL . #0#))
(|coercePreimagesImages| (($ (|List| (|List| |#1|))) 38 . #0#))
(|coerceListOfPairs| (($ (|List| (|List| |#1|))) 87 . #0#))
(|coerceImages| (($ (|List| |#1|)) 95 . #0#))
(|coerce|
(((|OutputForm|) $) 83 . #0#)
(($ (|List| (|List| |#1|))) 65 . #0#)
(($ (|List| |#1|)) 66 . #0#))
(^ (($ $ (|PositiveInteger|)) NIL . #0#)
(($ $ (|NonNegativeInteger|)) NIL . #0#)
(($ $ (|Integer|)) NIL . #0#))
(|One| (($) 16 T CONST))
(>= (((|Boolean|) $ $) NIL
(OR (|has| |#1| (|Finite|)) (|has| |#1| (|OrderedSet|))) . #1#))
(> (((|Boolean|) $ $) NIL
(OR (|has| |#1| (|Finite|)) (|has| |#1| (|OrderedSet|))) . #1#))
(= (((|Boolean|) $ $) 44 . #0#))
(<= (((|Boolean|) $ $) NIL
(OR (|has| |#1| (|Finite|)) (|has| |#1| (|OrderedSet|))) . #1#))
(< (((|Boolean|) $ $) 64 . #0#))
(/ (($ $ $) NIL . #0#))
(** (($ $ (|PositiveInteger|)) NIL . #0#)
(($ $ (|NonNegativeInteger|)) NIL . #0#)
(($ $ (|Integer|)) NIL . #0#))
(* (($ $ $) 22 . #0#)))
DOCUMENTATION 1609893
CONSTRUCTORFORM 1609883
ATTRIBUTES 1614391
PREDICATES 1614406
SOURCEFILE "bookvol10.3.pamphlet"
PARENTS NIL
USERS NIL
DEPENDENTS NIL
SPARE NIL))
\end{verbatim}
There are many things on the property list which looks like
\begin{verbatim}
(symbol1 thing1 symbol2 thing2 ... symboln thingn)
\end{verbatim}
In the PERM case we see
\begin{verbatim}
(LOADED "/research/silver/mnt/algebra/PERM.o"
|infovec| (#<vector> #<vector>...)
....)
\end{verbatim}
We can get the \verb?|infovec|? off the property list with the call
(getf (symbol-plist '|Permutation|) '|infovec|)
is a request to search the property list for the symbol |infovec|
and return the value, which is the domain "information vector".
You can see this vector if you look in PERM.nrlib/code.lsp.
At the bottom of that file you'll see:
\begin{verbatim}
(SETF (GET (QUOTE |Permutation|) (QUOTE |infovec|) ....)
\end{verbatim}
which uses SETF to put the infovec on the property list of PERM.
This information vector contains information for function lookup.
This vector gets created when we "instantiate" PERM.
The {\bf infovec} is a list with the structure
\begin{verbatim}
(#<vector 08ea516c>
#<vector 08ea5150>
((|unitsKnown| . 0))
(#<vector 08ea50fc>
#<vector 08ea5134>
#<vector 08ea5118> . #<vector 08ea50e0>)
|lookupComplete|)
\end{verbatim}
So, now that we have the infovec, back to the game...
\begin{verbatim}
(elt (getf (symbol-plist '|Permutation|) '|infovec|) 0)
\end{verbatim}
This gets the 0th element out of the infovec list which is a
vector of the name of every function Permutation implements.
We look up function names in this list, in particular, 59:
\begin{verbatim}
(elt (elt (getf (symbol-plist '|Permutation|) '|infovec|) 0) 59)
\end{verbatim}
looks into this vector of names at the 59th element which returns
\begin{verbatim}
|PERM;sign;$I;17|
\end{verbatim}
The SPAD form of this function reads:
\begin{verbatim}
sign(p) ==
even? p => 1
-1
\end{verbatim}
The lisp form (see PERM.nrlib/code.lsp) reads:
\begin{verbatim}
(defun |PERM;sign;$I;17| (|p| $)
(cond
((spadcall |p| (qrefelt $ 58)) 1)
('t -1)))
\end{verbatim}
We call the \verb?|PERM;sign;$I;17|? which takes 2 arguments
The first of which is the permutation and the second is the infovec
for the PERM domain.
The \verb|(qrefelt $ 58)| uses the above dance to look up a function
in the infovec at the 58th position... which returns
\begin{verbatim}
|PERM;even?;$B;18|
\end{verbatim}
The spadcall calls \verb'|PERM;even?;$B;18|' with the value of \verb?|p|?.
If we look in the domain Permutation for the implementation of even?
\begin{verbatim}
even?(p) == even?(#(p.1) - numberOfCycles p)
\end{verbatim}
which in PERM.nrlib/code.lsp we see
\begin{verbatim}
(defun |PERM;even?;$b;18|
(spadcall
(- (length (spadcall |p| 1 (qrefelt $ 25)))
(spadcall |p| (qrefelt $ 60)))
(qrefelt % 61)))
\end{verbatim}
where
\begin{verbatim}
(qrefelt $ 25) ==> (52 . |elt|)
(qrefelt $ 60) ==> |PERM;numberOfCycles;$Nni;33|
(qrefelt $ 61) ==> (145. |even?|)
\end{verbatim}
So, to summarize, the small magic numbers you see in the results
are indexes into the infovec, which is where Axiom stores things
it needs to look up at runtime, usually function references.
If there is () rather than a number than there is no need to do
a function lookup.
Axiom execution is an alternating series of function lookups in
the infovec followed by a call of that function which results in
a function lookup in the infovec followed by a call of that
function which results in .....
spadcall is a wrapper macro which takes the arguments and a
function to call. qrefelt does the infovec lookup.
\section{axiom command}
The axiom command will eventually be a shell script. At the moment
it is just a copy of the interpsys image. However the whole Axiom
system consists of several processes and the axiom command starts
these processes. The shell script will transparently replace the
axiom executable image which will be renamed to spadsys.
\section{help command documentation}
Axiom supports a )help command that takes a single argument.
This argument is interpreted as the name of a flat ascii file
which should live in \$AXIOM/doc/src/spadhelp.
\subsection{help documentation for algebra}
The help documentation for algebra files lives within the algebra
pamphlet. The help chunk contains the name of the domain, thus:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{chunk}{thisdomain.help}
====================================================================
thisdomain examples
====================================================================
(documentation for this domain)
examplefunction foo
output
Type: thetype
See Also:
o )show thisdomain
o $AXIOM/bin/src/doc/algebra/thisfile.spad.dvi
\end{chunk}
\end{verbatim}
The documentation starts off with the domain enclosed in two lines
of equal signs. The documentation is free format. Generally the
functions are indented two spaces, the output is indented 3 spaces,
and the Type field has been moved toward the center of the line.
The ``See Also:'' section lists the domain with the ``show'' command
and the path to the source file in dvi format.
\subsection{Adding help documentation in Makefile}
There is a section in the src/algebra/Makefile.pamphlet that reads:
\begin{verbatim}
SPADHELP=\
${HELP}/AssociationList.help ${HELP}/BalancedBinaryTree.help \
\end{verbatim}
which is essentially a list of all of the algebra help files. Each item
in this list refers to a stanza that looks like:
\begin{verbatim}
${HELP}/AssociationList.help: ${BOOKS}/bookvol10.3.pamphlet
@echo 7000 create AssociationList.help from \
${BOOKS}/bookvol10.3.pamphlet
@${TANGLE} -R"AssociationList.help" ${BOOKS}/bookvol10.3.pamphlet \
>${HELP}/AssociationList.help
@cp ${HELP}/AssociationList.help ${HELP}/ALIST.help
@${TANGLE} -R"AssociationList.input" ${BOOKS}/bookvol10.3.pamphlet \
>${INPUT}/AssociationList.input
@echo "AssociationList (ALIST)" >>${HELPFILE}
\end{verbatim}
Notice that the first line has an connection between the help file and
the spad file that contains it.
The second line gives debugging output containing a unique number for
console debugging purposes of failed builds.
The third line extracts the help file. Help files are part of
the algebra books (bookvol10.2, bookvol10.3, and bookvol10.4). The
chunkname is the same as the Category, Domain, or Package.
The fourth line copies the file with the long name of the domain to a file
with the abbreviation of the domain so the user can query the domain
with either form using help.
The fifth line creates a regression test file for the help file. In the
algebra each help file has an associated regression test file to test
all of the function calls shown in the help page. These files are
copied to the intermediate directory for regression testing.
The sixth line adds a line to the HELPFILE (see the variable in
the src/algebra/Makefile). This HELPFILE is concatenated onto the
final help.help file in the MNT/doc/spadhelp directory. Thus, when
a user types )help with no argument they see a list of domains which
contain help information.
\subsection{Using help documentation for regression testing}
The fifth line extracts an input test file for the algebra. In general
each help file is used to create an input test file for regression testing.
There is a Makefile variable called REGRESS in the algebra Makefile:
\begin{verbatim}
REGRESS=\
AssociationList.regress BalancedBinaryTree.regress \
\end{verbatim}
This is part of a Makefile that structure within the algebra Makefile.
This Makefile gets extracted by the Makefile in the input subdirectory.
Thus there is a connection between the two Makefiles (algebra and input).
This algebra regression Makefile goes by the chunk name
{\bf algebra.regress}. It contains a list of regression files and a
single stanza:
\begin{verbatim}
%.regress: %.input
@ echo algebra regression testing $*
@ rm -f $*.output
@ echo ')read $*.input' | ${TESTSYS}
@ echo ')lisp (regress "$*.output")' | ${TESTSYS} \
| egrep -v '(Timestamp|Version)' | tee $*.regress
\end{verbatim}
The input Makefile extracts {\bf algebra.regress} and then calls
make to process this file.
This keeps the regression test list in the algebra Makefile.
\subsection{help documentation as algebra test files}
\section{debugsys}
The ``debugsys'' executable is the ``interpsys'' image but it is
built using the interpreted lisp code rather than using compiled
lisp code. This will make it slower but may, in certain cases,
give much better feedback in case of errors. If you find you need
to use debugsys you're really doing deep debugging. It isn't useful
for much else. It can be started by typing:
\begin{verbatim}
export AXIOM=/home/axiomgnu/new/mnt/linux
/home/axiomgnu/new/obj/linux/bin/debugpsys
\end{verbatim}
Notice that this image lives in the ``obj'' subtree. It is not
shipped with the ``final'' system image as only developers could
find it useful.
\subsection{debugging hyperdoc}
Hyperdoc will sometimes exit and also kill the AXIOMsys image with
no error message. One way to get around this is to replace the
AXIOMsys image with the debugsys image:
\begin{enumerate}
\item mv \$AXIOM/bin/AXIOMsys \$AXIOM/bin/AXIOMsys.backup\\
This keeps the failing axiomsys image around for later restoration.
\item cp obj/sys/bin/debugsys \$AXIOM/bin/AXIOMsys\\
This puts an interpreted version of axiom in place of the compiled form
\item axiom\\
Now we are running a fully interpreted form and the error messages are
much more informative.
\end{enumerate}
\section{Understanding a compiled function}
Suppose we stop a program at a function call to some low level lisp function,
say ONEP. We can do that by entering
\begin{verbatim}
)trace ONEP )break
\end{verbatim}
at the Axiom command prompt. Or at the lisp prompt:
\begin{verbatim}
(trace (ONEP :entry (break)))
\end{verbatim}
Next we execute some function that will
eventually call ONEP thus:
\begin{verbatim}
p := numeric %pi
Break: onep
Broken at ONEP. Type :H for Help.
BOOT>>
\end{verbatim}
We have stopped and entered a lisp command prompt. We can enter any
lisp expression here and there are commands that begin with a ``:''
character. ``:b'' requests a backtrace of the call stack, thus:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>:b
Backtrace: funcall > system:top-level > restart > /read >
|upLET| > eval > |Pi| > |newGoGet| > |newGoGet| > ONEP
\end{verbatim}
Here we see that the function ONEP was called by the function newGoGet.
Notice that the name is surrounded by vertical bars. Vertical bars are
a common lisp escape sequence used to allow non-standard characters to
occur in symbol names. Common lisp is not case sensitive. Boot code is
case sensitive. Thus symbol names that were written in Boot tend to have
escape sequence characters around the name.
Now that we see the simple backtrace we can ask for a more complex one.
The command is ``:bt''. It shows more detail about each level of call
on the invocation history stack (ihs) including the function name, its
arguments and the depth of the invocation history stack ([ihs=13]):
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>:bt
#0 ONEP {1=nil,} [ihs=13]
#1 newGoGet {g3629=("0" (#<vector 08b34bb4> 45 . |char|)),
loc1=#<compiled-function |CHAR;cha...} [ihs=12]
#2 newGoGet {g3629=("%pi" (#<vector 08b34bec> 0 . |coerce|)),
loc1=(#<vector 08b34bec> 0 . |c...} [ihs=11]
#3 Pi {g109299=nil,loc1=nil,loc2=#<hash-table 082992f4>,
loc3=|Pi|,loc4=15,loc5=#<vecto...} [ihs=10]
#4 EVAL {loc0=nil,loc1=nil,loc2=nil,
loc3=#<compiled-function |Pi|>} [ihs=9]
#5 upLET {t=(#<vector 08b34d04> #<vector 08b34ce8>
(#<vector 08b34ccc> (#<vector 08b34c08...} [ihs=8]
#6 /READ {loc0=#p"/home/axiomgnu/new/src/input/algbrbf.input",
loc1=nil,loc2=nil,loc3=nil,...} [ihs=7]
#7 RESTART {loc0=((|read|
|/home/axiomgnu/new/src/input/algbrbf.input|)),
loc1=|/home/axiomg...} [ihs=6]
#8 TOP-LEVEL {loc0=nil,loc1=0,loc2=0,loc3=nil,loc4=nil,
loc5=nil,loc6=nil,loc7=nil,loc8=nil,lo...} [ihs=5]
#9 FUNCALL {loc0=#<compiled-function system:top-level>} [ihs=4]
BOOT>>:bl
>> (LAMBDA-BLOCK ONEP (&REST X) ...)():
X : (1)
NIL
\end{verbatim}
We can ask to see the local variables that are used at the current
level of the invocation history stack. The command is ``:bl'' thus:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>:bl
>> (LAMBDA-BLOCK ONEP (&REST X) ...)():
X : (1)
NIL
\end{verbatim}
We can move up the stack one level at a time looking at the function
that called the current function (the previous function) using ``:p'' thus:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>:p
Broken at |NEWGOGET|.
\end{verbatim}
And again, we can look at the variables that can be accessed locally:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>:bl
>> newGoGet():
Local0(G3629): (0 (#<vector 08b34bb4> 45 . char))
Local(1): #<compiled-function CHAR;char;S$;20>
Local(2): 0
Local(3): #<vector 08b233f0>
Local(4): 1
NIL
\end{verbatim}
Here we see that the function newGoGet is calling
CHAR;char;S\$;20 which is a mangled form of
the name of the original spad function. To decode this name
we can see that the CHAR portion is used to identify the
domain where the function lives. This domain, CHAR, comes
from the source file ``string.spad'' which lives in
``src/algebra/string.spad.pamphlet''. To discover this we use
the Axiom ``asq'' command with the ``-so'' (sourcefile) option
at a standard shell prompt (NOT in the lisp prompt) thus:
\begin{verbatim}
asq -so CHAR
string.spad
\end{verbatim}
If we look at the code in the string.spad.pamphlet file we find
the following code signature:
\begin{verbatim}
char: String -> %
++ char(s) provides a character from a string s of length one.
\end{verbatim}
and it's implementation code:
\begin{verbatim}
char(s:String) ==
(#s) = 1 => s(minIndex s) pretend %
error "String is not a single character"
\end{verbatim}
The string.spad file can be compiled at the command prompt.
In particular, we can compile only the CHAR domain out of this
file thus:
\begin{verbatim}
)co string.spad )con CHAR
\end{verbatim}
This will produce a directory called CHAR.NRLIB containing 3 files:
\begin{verbatim}
ls CHAR.NRLIB
code.lsp index.kaf info
\end{verbatim}
The info file contains information used by the spad compiler. We can
ignore it for now.
The index.kaf file contains information that will go into the various
Axiom database (.daase) files. The kaf file format is a random access
file. The first entry is an integer that will be an index into the
file that can be used in an operating system call to seek. In this
case it will be an index which is the last used byte in the file.
Go to the last expression in the file and we find:
\begin{verbatim}
(
("slot1Info" 0 11302)
("documentation" 0 9179)
("ancestors" 0 9036)
("parents" 0 9010)
("abbreviation" 0 9005)
("predicates" 0 NIL)
("attributes" 0 NIL)
("signaturesAndLocals" 0 8156)
("superDomain" 0 NIL)
("operationAlist" 0 7207)
("modemaps" 0 6037)
("sourceFile" 0 5994)
("constructorCategory" 0 5434)
("constructorModemap" 0 4840)
("constructorKind" 0 4831)
("constructorForm" 0 4817)
("NILADIC" 0 4768)
("compilerInfo" 0 2093)
("loadTimeStuff" 0 20))
\end{verbatim}
This is a list of triples. Each triple has two interesting parts, the
name of the data and the seek index of the data in the index.kaf file.
So, for instance, if you want to know what source file contains this
domain you can start at the top of the index.kaf file, move ahead 5994
bytes and you will be at the start of the string:
\begin{verbatim}
"/usr/local/axiom/src/algebra/string.spad"
\end{verbatim}
The information in the index.kaf files are collected into the
special databases (the .daase files). The stand-alone ``asq'' function
can query these databases and answer questions. The kind of questions
you can ask are the names in the list above.
The third file in the CHAR.NRLIB directory is the code.lsp file. This
is the actual common lisp code that will be executed as a result of
calling the various spad functions. The spad code from the char command
was:
\begin{verbatim}
char(s:String) ==
(#s) = 1 => s(minIndex s) pretend %
error "String is not a single character"
\end{verbatim}
which got compiled into the common lisp code:
\begin{verbatim}
(DEFUN |CHAR;char;S$;20| (|s| |$|)
(COND
((EQL (QCSIZE |s|) 1)
(SPADCALL |s|
(SPADCALL |s| (QREFELT |$| 47))
(QREFELT |$| 48)))
((QUOTE T)
(|error| "String is not a single character"))))
\end{verbatim}
To understand what is going on here we need to understand the low level
details of Axiom's interface to Common Lisp. The ``Q'' functions are
strongly typed (Quick) versions of standard common lisp functions.
QCSIZE is defined in src/interp/vmlisp.lisp.pamphlet thus:
\begin{verbatim}
(defmacro qcsize (x)
`(the fixnum (length (the simple-string ,x))))
\end{verbatim}
This macro will compute the length of a string.
QREFELT is defined in the same file as:
\begin{verbatim}
(defmacro qrefelt (vec ind)
`(svref ,vec ,ind))
\end{verbatim}
This macro will return the element of a vector.
SPADCALL is defined in src/interp/macros.lisp.pamphlet as:
\begin{verbatim}
(defmacro SPADCALL (&rest L)
(let ((args (butlast l)) (fn (car (last l))) (gi (gensym)))
`(let ((,gi ,fn))
(the (values t) (funcall (car ,gi) ,@args (cdr ,gi))))
))
\end{verbatim}
This macro will call the last value of the argument list as a function
and give it everything but the last argument as arguments to the function.
There are confusing historical reasons for this I won't go into here.
So you can see that these are simply macros that will expand into
highly optimizable (the optimizations depend on the abilities of the
common lisp compiler) common lisp code.
The common lisp code computes the length of the string s. If the length
is 1 then we call the minIndex function from string on s. The minIndex
function is found by looking ``in the domain''. The compiler changes the
minIndex function call into a reference into a vector. The 47th element
of the vector contains the function minIndex.
\begin{verbatim}
(SPADCALL |s| (QREFELT |$| 47))
\end{verbatim}
This code is equivalent (ignoring the gensyms) to the call
\begin{verbatim}
(minIndex s)
\end{verbatim}
The \$ symbol refers to the domain. At runtime this amounts to a lookup
of the ``infovec''. The compile-time infovec shown here:
\begin{verbatim}
(setf (get
(QUOTE |Character|)
(QUOTE |infovec|))
(LIST
(QUOTE
#(NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
(QUOTE |Rep|)
(|List| 28)
(|PrimitiveArray| 28)
(0 . |construct|)
(QUOTE |OutChars|)
(QUOTE |minChar|)
(|Boolean|)
|CHAR;=;2$B;1|
|CHAR;<;2$B;2|
(|NonNegativeInteger|)
|CHAR;size;Nni;3|
(|Integer|)
|CHAR;char;I$;6|
(|PositiveInteger|)
|CHAR;index;Pi$;4|
|CHAR;ord;$I;7|
|CHAR;lookup;$Pi;5|
(5 . |coerce|)
|CHAR;random;$;8|
|CHAR;space;$;9|
|CHAR;quote;$;10|
|CHAR;escape;$;11|
(|OutputForm|)
|CHAR;coerce;$Of;12|
(|CharacterClass|)
(10 . |digit|)
(|Character|)
(14 . |member?|)
|CHAR;digit?;$B;13|
(20 . |hexDigit|)
|CHAR;hexDigit?;$B;14|
(24 . |upperCase|)
|CHAR;upperCase?;$B;15|
(28 . |lowerCase|)
|CHAR;lowerCase?;$B;16|
(32 . |alphabetic|)
|CHAR;alphabetic?;$B;17|
(36 . |alphanumeric|)
|CHAR;alphanumeric?;$B;18|
(|String|)
|CHAR;latex;$S;19|
(40 . |minIndex|)
(45 . |elt|)
|CHAR;char;S$;20|
|CHAR;upperCase;2$;21|
|CHAR;lowerCase;2$;22|
(|SingleInteger|)))
(QUOTE
#(|~=| 51 |upperCase?| 57 |upperCase| 62 |space| 67
|size| 71 |random| 75 |quote| 79 |ord| 83 |min| 88
|max| 94 |lowerCase?| 100 |lowerCase| 105 |lookup| 110
|latex| 115 |index| 120 |hexDigit?| 125 |hash| 130
|escape| 135 |digit?| 139 |coerce| 144 |char| 149
|alphanumeric?| 159 |alphabetic?| 164 |>=| 169 |>| 175
|=| 181 |<=| 187 |<| 193))
(QUOTE NIL)
(CONS
(|makeByteWordVec2| 1 (QUOTE (0 0 0 0 0 0)))
(CONS
(QUOTE #(NIL |OrderedSet&| NIL |SetCategory&|
|BasicType&| NIL))
(CONS
(QUOTE
#((|OrderedFinite|)
(|OrderedSet|)
(|Finite|)
(|SetCategory|)
(|BasicType|)
(|CoercibleTo| 28)))
(|makeByteWordVec2| 52
(QUOTE
(1 8 0 7 9 1 6 0 17 23 0 30 0 31 2 30 12 32 0 33
0 30 0 35 0 30 0 37 0 30 0 39 0 30 0 41 0 30 0
43 1 45 17 0 47 2 45 32 0 17 48 2 0 12 0 0 1 1
0 12 0 38 1 0 0 0 50 0 0 0 25 0 0 15 16 0 0 0 24
0 0 0 26 1 0 17 0 21 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
12 0 40 1 0 0 0 51 1 0 19 0 22 1 0 45 0 46 1 0 0
19 20 1 0 12 0 36 1 0 52 0 1 0 0 0 27 1 0 12 0 34
1 0 28 0 29 1 0 0 45 49 1 0 0 17 18 1 0 12 0 44 1
0 12 0 42 2 0 12 0 0 1 2 0 12 0 0 1 2 0 12 0 0 13
2 0 12 0 0 1 2 0 12 0 0 14))))))
(QUOTE |lookupComplete|)))
\end{verbatim}
Which is a 5 element list. This contains all kinds of information used at
runtime by the compiled routines. In particular, functions are looked up
at runtime in the first element of the infovec list. This first element
contains 53 items (in this domain). Item 47 is
\begin{verbatim}
(40 . |minIndex|)
\end{verbatim}
which is the minIndex function we seek.
At runtime this infovec lives on the property list of the domain name.
The domain name of CHAR is Character. So we look on the property list
(a lisp a-list) thus:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>(symbol-plist '|Character|)
(SYSTEM:DEBUG (#:G85875)
|infovec| (#<vector 08b34380>
#<vector 08b34364>
NIL
(#<bit-vector 08b34310>
#<vector 08b34348>
#<vector 08b3432c> . #<vector 08b342f4>)
|lookupComplete|)
LOADED "/home/axiomgnu/new/mnt/linux/algebra/CHAR.o"
NILADIC T
PNAME "Character"
DATABASE #S(DATABASE
ABBREVIATION CHAR
ANCESTORS NIL
CONSTRUCTOR NIL
CONSTRUCTORCATEGORY 228064
CONSTRUCTORKIND |domain|
CONSTRUCTORMODEMAP 227069
COSIG (NIL)
DEFAULTDOMAIN NIL
MODEMAPS 227404
NILADIC T
OBJECT "CHAR"
OPERATIONALIST 226402
DOCUMENTATION 152634
CONSTRUCTORFORM 152626
ATTRIBUTES 154726
PREDICATES 154731
SOURCEFILE "string.spad"
PARENTS NIL
USERS NIL
DEPENDENTS NIL
SPARE NIL))
\end{verbatim}
This list is organized contains many runtime lookup items (notice the
PNAME entry is ``Character'', the LOADED entry says where the file came
from, the DATABASE structure entry has database indicies
(see daase.lisp.pamphlet for the structure definition), etc).
Lets get the property list
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>(setq a (symbol-plist '|Character|))
(SYSTEM:DEBUG (#:G85875)
|infovec| (#<vector 08b34380>
#<vector 08b34364>
NIL
(#<bit-vector 08b34310>
#<vector 08b34348>
#<vector 08b3432c> . #<vector 08b342f4>)
|lookupComplete|)
LOADED "/home/axiomgnu/new/mnt/linux/algebra/CHAR.o"
NILADIC T
PNAME "Character"
DATABASE #S(DATABASE
ABBREVIATION CHAR
ANCESTORS NIL
CONSTRUCTOR NIL
CONSTRUCTORCATEGORY 228064
CONSTRUCTORKIND |domain|
CONSTRUCTORMODEMAP 227069
COSIG (NIL)
DEFAULTDOMAIN NIL
MODEMAPS 227404
NILADIC T
OBJECT "CHAR"
OPERATIONALIST 226402
DOCUMENTATION 152634
CONSTRUCTORFORM 152626
ATTRIBUTES 154726
PREDICATES 154731
SOURCEFILE "string.spad"
PARENTS NIL
USERS NIL
DEPENDENTS NIL
SPARE NIL))
\end{verbatim}
Next we get the infovec value
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>(setq b (fourth a))
(#<vector 08b34380>
#<vector 08b34364>
NIL
(#<bit-vector 08b34310>
#<vector 08b34348>
#<vector 08b3432c> . #<vector 08b342f4>)
|lookupComplete|)
\end{verbatim}
Then we get the function table
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>(setq c (car b))
#<vector 08b34380>
\end{verbatim}
In this common lisp (GCL) the array is identified by it's memory address.
Notice that it has the right number of entries:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>(length c)
53
\end{verbatim}
And we can ask for the 47th entry thus:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>(elt c 47)
(40 . |minIndex|)
\end{verbatim}
Later we end up calling the 48th function (which is elt and
returns the actual character in the string). We ask for it:
\begin{verbatim}
BOOT>>(elt c 48)
(45 . |elt|)
\end{verbatim}
At this point we've reached the metal. Common lisp will evaluate
the macro-expanded functions and execute the proper code. Essentially
the compiler has changed all of our spad code into runtime table lookups.
\section{The axiom.input startup file}
If you add a file in your home directory called ``.axiom.input'' it will
be read and executed when Axiom starts. This is useful for various
reasons including setting various switches. Mine reads:
\begin{verbatim}
)lisp (pprint ``running /root/.axiom.input'')
)set quit unprotected
)set message autoload off
)set message startup off
\end{verbatim}
You can execute any command in .axiom.input. Be aware that this will
ALSO be run while you are doing a ``make'' so be careful what you ask to do.
\section{Where are Axiom symbols stored?}
You'd think that your question about where the symbol is interned
would be easy to answer but it is not. The top level loop uses Bill
Burge's dreaded zipper parser. You can see it in action by executing
the following sequence:
\begin{verbatim}
)lisp (setq $DALYMODE t)
; this is a special mode of the top level interpreter. If
; $DALYMODE is true then any top-level form that begins
; with an open-paren is considered a lisp expression.
; For almost everything I ever do I end up peeking at the
; lisp so this bit of magic helps.
(trace |intloopProcessString|)
; from int-top.boot.pamphlet
(trace |intloopProcess|)
; the third argument is the "zippered" input
(trace |intloopSpadProcess|)
; now it is all clear, no? sigh.
(trace |phInterpret|)
; from int-top.boot.pamphlet
(trace |intInterpretPform|)
; from intint.lisp.pamphlet
(trace |processInteractive|)
; from i-toplev.boot.pamphlet
(setq |$reportInstantiations| t)
; shows what domains were created
(setq |$monitorNewWorld| t)
; watch the interpreter resolve operations
(trace |processInteractive1|)
; from i-toplev.boot.pamphlet
\end{verbatim}
ah HA! I remember now. There is the notion of a ``frame'' which is
basically a namespace in Axiom or an alist in Common Lisp. It is
possible to maintain different ``frames'' and move among them. There
is the notion of the current frame and it contains all the defined
variables. At any given time the current frame is available as
\$InteractiveFrame. This variable is used in processInteractive1.
If you do:
\begin{verbatim}
a:=7
(pprint |$InteractiveFrame|)
\end{verbatim}
you'll see |a| show up on the alist. When you do the
\begin{verbatim}
pgr:=MonoidRing(Polynomial PrimeField 5, Permutation Integer)
p:pgr:=1
\end{verbatim}
you'll see |p| show up with 2 other things: (|p| mode value)
where mode is the ``type'' of the variable. The value is the
internal value. In this case MonoidRing has an internal
representation. You can find out what the internal representation
of a MonoidRing is by first asking where the source file is:
\begin{verbatim}
(do this at a shell prompt, not in axiom)
asq -so MonoidRing ==> mring.spad
-- or -- in Axiom type:
)show MonoidRing
\end{verbatim}
and you'll see a line that reads:
\begin{verbatim}
Issue )edit (yourpath)/../../src/algebra/mring.spad
\end{verbatim}
If you look in mring.spad.pamphlet you'll see line 91 that reads:
\begin{verbatim}
Rep := List Term
\end{verbatim}
which says that we will store elements of type MonoidRing as a list
of Term objects. Term is defined in the same file (as a macro, which
is what '$==>$' means in spad files) on line 43:
\begin{verbatim}
Term ==> Record(coef: R, monom: M)
\end{verbatim}
which means that elements of a MonoidRing are Lists of Records.
The 'R' is defined on line 42 as the first argument to MonoidRing
which in this case is ``Polynomial PrimeField 5''. The ``M'' is also
defined on line 42 as the second argument to MonoidRing and in this
case is ``Permutation Integer''. So the real representation is
\begin{verbatim}
List Record(coef: Polynomial PrimeField 5,
monom: Permutation Integer)
\end{verbatim}
In the \$InteractiveFrame we printed out you can see in the value
field that the value is:
\begin{verbatim}
(|value|
(|MonoidRing| (|Polynomial| (|PrimeField| 5))
(|Permutation| (|Integer|)))
WRAPPED ((0 . 1) . #<vector 08af33d4>))
\end{verbatim}
which basically means that we know how the MonoidRing was constructed and
what it's current value is. The (0 . 1) likely means that this is the
zeroth (constant) term with a leading coefficient of 1. This is just a
guess as I haven't decoded the representation of either Polynomial PrimeField
or Permutation Integer. You can do the same deconstruction of these two
domains by setting
\begin{verbatim}
pi:=Permutation Integer
z:pi:=1
pp5:=Polynomial PrimeField 5
w:pp5:=1
and following the same steps as above:
(pprint |$InteractiveFrame|)
)show pi
(find the source file)
(find the representation and decode it)
(pprint |$InteractiveFrame|)
)show pp5
(find the source file)
(find the representation and decode it)
\end{verbatim}
Be sure to set \$DALYMODE to nil if you plan to use Axiom for any
real computation. Otherwise every expression that begins with an
open-paren will go directly to lisp.
\section{Translating individual boot files to common lisp}
If you are making changes to boot code it is sometimes helpful to
check the generated lisp code to ensure it does what you want.
You can convert an individual boot file to common lisp using the
boottran::boottocl function:
\begin{verbatim}
)fin -- drop into common lisp
(boottran::boottocl "foo.boot")
\end{verbatim}
when you do this it creates a foo.clisp file in ../../int/interp
Alternatively if you work from the pamphlet file the process is
more painful as you have to do
\begin{verbatim}
)cd (yourpath)/int/interp
)sys tangle ../../src/interp/foo.boot.pamphlet >foo.boot
)fin
(boottran::boottocl "foo.boot")
(restart)
\end{verbatim}
The )cd step tells axiom to cd to the int/interp subdirectory.
The )sys tangle... extracts the boot file from the pamphlet file
The )fin step drops into common lisp
The (bootran... converts the foo.boot file to foo.clisp
The (restart) re-enters the top level loop
\section{Directories}
For this discussion I assume that you have your system rooted
at /spad and was build to run on linux. These directories
may not yet be in the CVS tree but are documented here so they
make sense when the show up.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
The AXIOM variable
The usual setting of the AXIOM variable is /spad/mnt/linux. The
name is composed of three parts, the rooted path, in this case
/spad, ``mnt'', and the system you are running, in this case
linux. Builds for other systems will have other system names.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
/spad
This is the usual root directory of the Axiom system. The name is
historical, a contraction of Scratchpad. This name can be anything
provided the shell variable AXIOM contains the new prefix.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
/spad/mnt
This is a directory which contains files which are specific to a
given platform. At a site that contains multiple platforms this
directory will contain a subdirectory for each type of platform
(e.g. linux, rios, ps2, rt, sun, etc).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
/spad/mnt/linux
This directory contains the complete copy of the Axiom system for
the linux system. This is the 'mount point' of the system.
Executable systems (for RedHat) are shipped relative to this
point. In what follows, the ./ refers to /spad/mnt/linux.
\begin{verbatim}
********************************************************
There are several directories explained below. They are:
./bin -- user executables
./doc -- system documentation
./algebra -- algebra libraries
./lib -- system executables
./etc -- I haven't a clue....
********************************************************
\end{verbatim}
\subsection{The mnt/linux/bin directory}
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin
This is a directory of user executable commands, either at the top
level or thru certain Axiom system calls. Support executables live
in ./lib
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/htadd
This adds pages to the Hyperdoc database (ht.db, which lives
in ./doc/hypertex/pages; hypertex, since we have a penchant for these
things, is an historical name for Hyperdoc. The single word 'lawyers'
will probably explain away a lot of name changes.)
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/spadsys
This is the Axiom interpreter. It is one of the functions started when
the user invokes the system using the spadsys command. Normally this
command is run under the control of sman (./lib/sman) and the console
is under the control of clef (./bin/clef), the wonderous command-line
editor. It is possible to start spadsys standalone but it will not
talk to Hyperdoc or graphics. Users who rlogin or use an ascii-only
terminal (for historical reasons, no doubt) can profit by invoking
spadsys directly rather than using ./bin/axiom
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/axiom
This is a shell script that spins the world. It kicks off a whole tree
of processes necessary to perform the X-related magic we do. It expects
the shell variable AXIOM to be set to the 'mount point' (usually to
/spad/mnt/linux).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/clef
This is the wonderous command-line editor used by Axiom. It can be used
in a stand-alone fashion if you wish.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/SPADEDFN
This script is invoked by the spad )fe command. It can be changed to
invoke your favorite editor. While you may invoke your editor, it may
not run (as in, yes, I can invoke the devil but will he come when I
call?)
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/viewalone
This is a function to run the graphics in a stand-alone fashion. The
Graphics package (an amazing contribution by several very talented
people, most notably Jim Wen and Jon Steinbach) is a C program that
communicates with Axiom thru sockets. It will, however, perform its
miracles unaided if invoked by the sufficiently chaste...
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/hypertex
This is a function to run Hyperdoc (remember the penchant!) stand-alone.
The Hyperdoc package owes its existence to the efforts of J.M. Wiley and
Scott Morrison. This function works off 'pages' that live in
hypertex pages directory and are referenced in the ``hyperdoc database''
called ht.db (for historical reasons, but you
knew that). It is possible for creative plagerists to figure out how
to write their own pages and add them to the database (see htadd above),
thus gaining fame far and wide...
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/sys-init.lsp
This is a file of lisp code that gets loaded
before Axiom starts. Thus, we distribute patches by adding lisp
(load ...) commands to this file. The sufficiently clever should
have a field day with this one. (All others should worship the
sufficiently clever and send them money, eh?)
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./bin/init.lsp
This is a file of lisp code loaded if and only if
you start spadsys in this directory. The user can put a file of this
name in her home directory and it will get loaded at startup with
the probable effect of injecting luser errors into the running system.
sigh.
\subsection{The mnt/linux/doc directory}
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc
The doc subdirectory contains system documentation.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/command.list
This is a file of command completions used by clef when you hit the
tab key. This is a little known feature that will surprise someone
someday (hopefully pleasantly).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/book
This is an attempt at a book describing Axiom. It represents a
combination of fantasy, describing what never will be and history
(remember the penchant?) describing what was. Any description matching
what is may be regarded as failure of the imagination and ignored.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/compguide
This is an attempt to describe a compiler that doesn't exist, never
did exist, and never will exist. It makes for entertaining reading
so we included it.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex
This is the fabled Hyperdoc subdirectory where all of the pages and
the database live, along with several other obscure files needed to
make the wizards look good.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/pages
This is where the 'pages' live. Each file ending in .ht contains
several pages related, if only by chance, to the same topic. You
may find it instructive to try to read some of these files. Hyperdoc
was learned by the 'campfire' method (sitting around the fire
passing along historical facts by word of mouth) and will probably
continue to propagate by the same method. Ye may become th' local
scribe and soothsayer if ye study the writings here below....
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/pages/rootpage.ht
This file is the magic 'first page' that gets displayed when
Hyperdoc starts. There is a macro (see ./doc/hypertex/pages/util.ht)
called /localinfo which is intended to allow the luser to add
her own pages without modifying the system copies. How this is
done was lost when the campfire got rained out.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/pages/util.ht
This file contains the macros used to extend the system commands.
The syntax is hard to learn (it was hard to write, it ought to
be hard to learn, eh?).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/pages/ht.db
This is the Hyperdoc database. It is updated using ./bin/htadd
which must be run whenever a page in this directory gets changed.
The necessary arguments to htadd are obvious to those in the know.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/bitmaps
There are several pretty bitmaps used as cursors, buttons and
general decorations that hide in this directory.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/ht.files
This is a list of some Hyperdoc files. It seems to have no
purpose in life but it is useful as a koan, as in, What is
the length of half a list?
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/ht.db
Another copy of the Hyperdoc database. It isn't clear which
one is the real one so I guess we keep both. Maybe we'll
figure it out at the friday night campfire provided we don't
get too lit.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/hypertex/gloss.text
The text used in the glossary. Many magic words lie herein.
Some are spoken only by campfire gurus.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/library
This is a directory of Hyperdoc pages that can be freely smashed,
trashed and generally played with. It uses the /localinfo connection
to set up a 'library' containing Hyperdoc pages keyed to your
favorite textbook. It is interesting to set the shell variable\\
HTPATH=/spad/mnt/linux/doc/library:\\
/spad/mnt/linux/doc/hypertex/pages\\
and then start Hyperdoc. See the file ./doc/library/macros.ht
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/msgs
This directory contains several 'message databases'; the only one
of which we seem to care about being s2-us.msgs but I can't swear
to it.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/spadhelp
This is a directory containing help information for a copy of the
system that once ran long ago and far away. It is kept for
historical reasons (programmers NEVER throw anything away).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/viewports
There are several dozen truly fine pictures in Axiom. We have
created them and hidden them here. Hyperdoc will insert them
at various places (where the text gets too boring, hopefully)
and you can click on them there. They get snarfed from here.
It is possible to view them with stand-alone graphics but don't
ask me how. I missed that campfire due to poisoned marshmellows.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/complang
This directory contains fantasy from the past as opposed to facts
from the future. Ignore it.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/ug
This directory left intentionally blank :-) (an old IBM joke).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/tex
These are the files necessary to create the famous goertler document.
If you figure out how to use these please send us the instructions
and we will add a log to the campfire with your name on it (a rare
honor indeed as luser's names rarely reach the inner circle).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/htex
This directory contains the original tex-like source for the luser's
guide. There are many functions that munch on these between here and
paper but this is approximately where they start. If you do your own
algebra perchance you might document it like this. Figuring out the
syntax will also get your name into the inner circle (probably
connnected with a smirk :-) )
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/newug
Please don't ask me. I couldn't begin to guess. You wouldn't believe
how many 'new' things there are that really aren't. We have more NEW
things than Madison Avenue has NEW laundry soap.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/gloss.text
This one is here because it is here. Existentially speaking, of course.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./doc/submitted
This was what the htex files said before history was rewritten...
(and renamed?)
\subsection{The mnt/linux/algebra directory}
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./algebra
This is where all of the interesting action lives.
Each .NRLIB directory contains 2 files, a code.o and an index.kaf*
file. The code.o contains the executable algebra that gets loaded
into the system. The index.kaf* file contains all kinds of things
like signatures, source paths, properties and dried bat droppings.
The documentation for each of these can be reached by using the
BROWSE feature of Hyperdoc.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./algebra/MODEMAP.daase
This is an inverted database that contains information gleaned from
the index.kaf* files. Without this there is no way to figure out
which .NRLIB file to load. This database is opened on startup
and kept open.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./algebra/interp.exposed
This is a control file for the interpeter that limits the number
of places to search for function names.
*********************************************
\subsection{The mnt/linux/etc directory}
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib
This directory contains functions that get loaded by the system.
Nothing in here is executable by the user but the system needs
these functions to run.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/htrefs\\
./lib/htsearch\\
./lib/hthits
These three functions are used to search the Hyperdoc pages.
There is no way in the current system to request a search of
those pages so these files are fascinating examples of history
in the making...
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/hypertex
This is Hyperdoc. What is in a name?
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/sman
This is sman, which comes before all. Methinks the name originated
as a contraction of superman, the name of a stack frame in a system
long ago and far away (VMLisp) chosen because a certain programmer had a
penchant for comic books when he was young.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/session\\
./lib/spadclient
These two files are processes started by sman for some reason or other.
I can never remember what they do or why. However, the campfire fails
to smoke if they don't work.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/viewman
This is the controlling function for the graphics.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/view2d
This is invoked when a 2 dimensional window is requested.
This is provided mostly for those math majors who never got over
the insights from flatland.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/view3d
This is invoked when a 3 dimensional window is requested.
Option IBM3634-A is required to convert your 2 dimensional
screen to 3 dimensions for realistic viewing. A mathematically
accurate, if somewhat more achievable, rendering can be had
on a color or monochrome crt without this upgrade.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/gloss.text\\
./lib/glosskey.text\\
./lib/glossdef.text
These are three files related to the glossary. The first (gloss.text)
is the original glossary text. The second (glosskey.text) is a list
of terms and pointers into glossdef.text. The third (glossdef.text for
those math majors who can't count) is a list of definitions and pointers
back into the second (guess). These files are used by Hyperdoc.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/browsedb.lisp
This is the original file that creates an in-memory hash table used by
browse. It is used during system build time. We keep it here to ensure
that the bytes on this section of the disk have a well-defined orientation,
allowing us to compute the spin vectors of the individual magnetic domains.
This allows us to give Heisenburg a sense of direction (at least over the
long run).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/comdb.text\\
./lib/libdb.text
The first file (comdb.text) contains the so-called $++$ (plus
plus) comments from the algebra files. It contains pointers into
the second file. The second file (libdb.text) contains flags
(constructor, operation, attribute) and pointers into the first file.
These files are used by browse in Hyperdoc.
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/loadmprotect\\
./lib/mprotect
This set of two files has been mercifully de-installed from the system.
They will, if used and despite the meaning behind the name, cause
random system reboots (yeah, HARDWARE reboots. don't ask me how, I'm
just the historian).
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./lib/SPADEDIT\\
./lib/fc\\
./lib/spadbuf\\
./lib/SPADEDFN\\
./lib/obey\\
./lib/ex2ht
I've drawn a blank; intentionally.
\subsection{The mnt/linux/lib directory}
\vskip .25in
\noindent
./etc
This directory intentionally left blank.
We just can't figure out WHY we intended to leave it blank.
Historical reasons, no doubt.
\section{The )set command}
The {\bf )set} command contains many possible options such as:
\begin{verbatim}
Current Values of )set Variables
Variable Description Current Value
----------------------------------------------------------------
breakmode execute break processing on error break
compiler Library compiler options ...
expose control interpreter constructor exposure ...
functions some interpreter function options ...
fortran view and set options for FORTRAN output ...
kernel library functions built into the kernel for
efficiency ...
hyperdoc options in using HyperDoc ...
help view and set some help options ...
history save workspace values in a history file on
messages show messages for various system features ...
naglink options for NAGLink ...
output view and set some output options ...
quit protected or unprotected quit unprotected
streams set some options for working with streams ...
system set some system development variables ...
userlevel operation access level of system user development
Variables with current values of ... have further
sub-options. For example,
issue )set system to see what the options are for system .
For more information, issue )help set .
\end{verbatim}
The table that contains these options lives in setvart.boot.pamphlet.
The actual code that implements these options is sprinkled around
but most of the first-level calls resolve to functions in
setvars.boot.pamphlet. Thus if you plan to add a new output
style to the system, or figure out where a current style is
broken, these two files are the place to start.
A new )set breakmode command has been implemented to handle the
case that you might want an error message or an error return code
from AXIOMsys. You can set this option with
\begin{verbatim}
)set breakmode quit
\end{verbatim}
This will cause AXIOMsys to exit with the return code of 1.
Note that if you invoke the ``axiom'' shell script to start
AXIOMsys you will not see this return code (sman swallows it).
\section{Special Output Formats}
The first level of special output formatting is handled by
functions in setvart.boot.pamphlet. This handles the options
given to the )set command.
\section{Low Level Debugging Techniques}
It should be observed that Axiom is basically Common Lisp and
some very low level techniques can be used to find where problems
occur in algebra code. This section walks thru a small problem and
illustrates some techniques that can be used to find bugs. The
point of this exercise is to show a few techniques, not to show a
general method.
\subsection{Finding Anonymous Function Signatures}
This is a technique, adapted from Waldek Hebisch,
for asking the interpreter to reveal the actual
function that will be called in a given circumstance. Here we have a
function tanint from the domain ElementaryIntegration.
\begin{verbatim}
tanint(f, x, k) ==
eta' := differentiate(eta := first argument k, x)
r1 := tanintegrate(univariate(f, k), differentiate(#1,
differentiate(#1, x), monomial(eta', 2) + eta'::UP),
rischDEsys(#1, 2 * eta, #2, #3, x, lflimitedint(#1, x, #2),
lfextendedint(#1, x, #2)))
map(multivariate(#1, k), r1.answer) + lfintegrate(r1.a0, x)
\end{verbatim}
We would like to know the type signature of the first argument to the
inner call to the differentiate function:
\begin{verbatim}
differentiate(#1, x), monomial(eta', 2) + eta'::UP),
\end{verbatim}
We see that differentiate is called with \verb|#1|, which is Axiom's
notation for an anonymous function. How can we determine the signature?
Axiom has a second notation for anonymous functions using the
\verb|+->| notation. This notation allows you to explicitly specify
type information. In the above code, we would like to replace the
\verb|#1| variable with the \verb|+->| and explicit type information.
The first step is to look at the output of the Spad compiler.
The abbreviation for ElementaryIntegration can be found from the
interpreter by:
\begin{verbatim}
)show ElementaryIntegration
Abbreviation for ElementaryIntegration is INTEF
\end{verbatim}
So the compiler output is in the int/algebra/INTEF.nrlib/code.lsp file.
There we see the definition of the lisp tanint function. Notice that the
\verb|$| is a hidden, internal fourth argument to an Axiom three argument
function. This is the vector of the current domain containing slots where
we can look up information, called the domain vector.
\begin{verbatim}
(DEFUN |INTEF;tanint| (|f| |x| |k| $)
(PROG (|eta| |eta'| |r1|)
(RETURN
(SEQ
(LETT |eta'|
(SPADCALL
(LETT |eta|
(|SPADfirst|
(SPADCALL |k| (QREFELT $ 18)))
|INTEF;tanint|)
|x|
(QREFELT $ 19))
|INTEF;tanint|)
(LETT |r1|
(SPADCALL
(SPADCALL |f| |k| (QREFELT $ 22))
(CONS (FUNCTION |INTEF;tanint!1|) (VECTOR |eta'| |x| $))
(CONS (FUNCTION |INTEF;tanint!4|) (VECTOR |x| $ |eta|))
(QREFELT $ 50))
|INTEF;tanint|)
(EXIT
(SPADCALL
(SPADCALL
(CONS
(FUNCTION |INTEF;tanint!5|)
(VECTOR $ |k|))
(QCAR |r1|)
(QREFELT $ 57))
(SPADCALL (QCDR |r1|) |x| (QREFELT $ 58))
(QREFELT $ 59)))))))
\end{verbatim}
The assignment line for \verb|eta'| is:
\begin{verbatim}
eta' := differentiate(eta := first argument k, x)
\end{verbatim}
which is implemented by the code:
\begin{verbatim}
(LETT |eta'|
(SPADCALL
(LETT |eta|
(|SPADfirst|
(SPADCALL |k| (QREFELT $ 18)))
|INTEF;tanint|)
|x|
(QREFELT $ 19))
|INTEF;tanint|)
\end{verbatim}
from which we see that the inner differentiate is slot 19 in
the domain vector. Every domain has an associated domain vector
which contains references to other functions from other domains,
among other things. The QREFELT function takes the domain vector
\verb|$| and slot number and does a ``quick array reference''. The
return value is a pair, the car of which is a function to call.
The SPADCALL macro uses the last argument, in this case the result
of \verb|(QREFELT $ 19)| to find the function to call.
The function from slot 19 can be found with:
\begin{verbatim}
)lisp (setq $dalymode t)
(setf *print-circle* t)
(setf *print-array* nil)
(setf dv (|ElementaryIntegration| (|Integer|) (|Expression| (|Integer|))))
(|replaceGoGetSlot| (cdr (aref dv 19)))
Value = (#<compiled-function |FS-;differentiate;SSS;99|> . #<vector 090cbccc>)
\end{verbatim}
The call of \verb|(setq $dalymode t)| changes the Axiom top level
loop to interpret any input that begins with an open parenthesis to
be interpreted as a lisp s-expression rather than Axiom input. This
saves typing \verb|)lisp| in front of every lisp expression. Be sure
to do a \verb|(setq $dalymode nil)| when you are finished.
The *print-circle* needs to be true because the domain vector contains
circular references to itself and we need to make sure that we check for
this during printing so the print is not infinite.
The *print-array* needs to be nil so that the arrays just print some